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Full text of "The New York coach-maker's magazine"


THE 



NEW YORK 



COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



DEVOTED TO THE 



LITERARY, SOCIAL & MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 




EDITED BY E. M. STRATTON 



JUNE 



• • * 1* • 
. *. • . • • 

.'''„' * *•* 

, ;1S58. TO MAY, 1859. .«.*" **/••* 






NEW YORK: 
E. M. &TRATTON, Publisher, 



106 ELIZABETH ST. 
LONDON: TRUBXER & CO. 





TS 

loo I 

Whs 

i 






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•• • 






PREFACE. 



It is with profound satisfaction that we are now enabled to present the Coach-making 
fraternity with the first volume of The New York Coach-maker's Magazine, completed. 
Undertaken, as it was, under discouraging circumstances, maliciously assailed by one who 
owed us a debt of gratitude for services rendered, instead of the storm of abuse with 
which he repaid us, and with the "hard times" bearing against our new enterprise, yet we 
have gone steadily on, encouraged by the commendations of a generous Craft, and assisted 
by a galaxy of contributors, whose varied talent has given that variety and interest to 
our columns, which, we trust, has not only been creditable to the profession, but to the 
writers individually. The high encomiums this work has received from the Press, here and 
in Europe (this is not empty boast), and from our fellow-mechanics in the Craft, we are 
proud to confess, have cheered us on, and enabled us to triumph over difficulties, where a 
simple frown might have sunk us in despair. 

Probably, there cannot be found a more difficult labor to perform, than that required 
from one engaged in conducting a journal, in which mechanics and literature are combined. 
Without going into details, we may state that, in arranging the different forms as they have 
monthly passed through the press, our constant oversight has been invoked to guard against 
inaccuracies, and although we would not presume to claim perfection in the typography, yet 
we will say that we believe there are not many works to be found, of the same number of 
pages, in which so few occur. In this we feel to exult. 

There has been one guiding principle that we have striven to keep in view, from the 
commencement of this volume : that, though dependent, in a great measure, for success on 
rendering our Magazine useful, still we had to make it attractive, and give only such matter 
as would be worthy of the refined and enlightened Craft for whom we had undertaken to 
cater. How far we have been successful, let our subscription book witness. At the 
close of its first year, with a patronage equal to that of any similar publication in its palm- 
iest days, we have reached a stand-point, from which we may entertain hopes full of 
promise, and expect to reap a future harvest of reward for our labor. If, up to this point, 
our friends are satisfied that we have done well, would it be asking too much when we 
invite them to try us another year, and give us a fair chance to do better? The experience 
we have gained in the first volume warrants the inference, at least, that we shall be able to 
satisfy the reasonable expectations of the Craft in the second. Asking the hearty co-opera- 
tion of the numerous friends of this Magazine, to assist us in its circulation, we are 

Yours truly, ^> ^ yfy ^/ 

New York, April 15th, 1859. 









INDE 

DntECTioHS to the Biitbee.— The portrait of Jai 


X TO PLATES IN VOLUME 


ONE. 

pp, Esq., page 62; William D. Rogers, Esq. 


page 




lies Brewster, Esq., to face the title-page; Jason CU 




182. The Draft, Ornament 
Plate. 


and Stitching-Plates to be placed at the end of the 


volume, in the order named. 
Plate. 






Plate. 




1. Open-front Buggy. 


15. Lyons' Barouche. 


30. Americanized English Coupe. 






2. Landaulet. 


16. Dalzell's Crane-neck Phaeton, 


31. Light Rockaway. 






3. Char-a-Banc. 


17. Light Rockaway. 


32. Dog-Cart. 






4. Caleche-Coach. 


18. Family Phaeton. 


33. Three Original Ornamental Designs. 




6. Jagger- Wagon and Dog-Cart. 


19. Scroll-quartered Coach. 


34. The Floral Phaeton. 






6. French Buggy. 


20. A Child's Carriage. 


35. The Hunting Buggy. 






7. Cook's Jump-seat Buggy (2 illustra- 


21. Albany Sleighs (3 illustrations). 


36. Summer Phaeton. 






tions). 


22. Three Original Ornamental Designs. 


37. Clarence Coach. 






8. Crane-neck Phaeton. 


23. Albany Hearse. 


38. Queen City Phaeton. 






9. Cut-under and Trotting Buggies. 


24. Trotting and Dalzell Buggies. 


39. The Tallmadge Buggy. 






10. French Caleche. 


25. Piccolomini Caleche. 


40. Folding-seat Buggy. 






11. Four Original Ornamental Designs. 


26. Sectional Carriage-part (Moore's). 


41. Phaeton. 






12. Woosteree. 


27. Six-seated Rockaway. 


42. New York Buggy. 






13. Hearse (Irving's). 


28. Goold & Co.'s Brett. 


43. Coach. 






14. Calash Coach. 


29. Business and Trotting Sulkies. 


Stitching Plates, A, B, C, D. 






] 
Page. 


NDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 


• 


Page. 




Page. 




Portrait of Jas. Brewster, Frontispiece. 


An Egyptian Sledge-hearse, 87 


Hub laid out for Mortising, 


167 




Queen Mab's State Carriage, 3 


Perch Connections (3 illustrations), 90, 91 


Round and Square Tangs, Compared, 


168 




Wheel-making in Noah's Day, 7 


Stitching Horse, 92 


Ceylon Blacksmiths, 


170 




Char-a-banc (Back View), 10 


Scale for Drafting, 97 


New Roll to Buggy Seat, 


172 




Portable Forge (2 illustrations), 11 


Drafting a Square Buggy, (2 illus- 


Oval (Hinman's), 


173 




Runners attending a Chariot, 23 


trations), 97, 118 


Drafting a Summer Phaeton, 


179 




Egyptian War Chariot, 24 


Drafting Scrolls, &c. (Ifigs.) 92 


Portrait of Wm. D. Rogers, 


181 




A Yankee among the Celestials, 25 


Coach-carving (6 illustrations), 99 


Ancient British War Chariot, 


185 




New Folding Step, 29 


Assyrian War Chariot, 103 


Swan's-neck Hanging-off Irons, 


190 




Buggy Dash, 29 


Donati's Comet, 105 


Pole-socket and King-bolt united, 


190 




Design for Trimming, 31 


Skeleton Rockaway and Kant-board 


Bench Vise (2 illustrations), 


190 




Braid for Cushion, 31 


(2 illustrations), 107, 125 


Oval by a String (Irving's), 


192 




Ancient Chariot Wheel, 42 ; Spoke and 


Plain Dash, 111 


Geometrical and Oval Figures (4 illus- 






Wooden Tire, 43 ; End and Side 


Design for a Jenny Lind Dash-rail, 111 


trations), 193 


194 




Raves, and Portion of Pole, 44 


Handle for a Phaeton, 111 


Horse Litter, temp. Ed. II. 


203 




(6 illustrations), 


Bar and Stay for Clip King-bolt, 112 


Piling Plank, 


204 




Three-Perch Carriage-part, 50 


Guard Wheel Machine, 120 


Diagonal Scale, 


204 




N. Y. Buggy Dash, 51 


Later Assyrian Chariot, 123 


Skeleton Coup6 and Kant-board, 


205 




Changeable Extension Top, 53 


Albany Hearse Back-door, 130 


Spiral Scroll (3 illustrations), 


207 




" " taken apart, 64 


Touching-up Carving (2 illustrations), 132 


Double-perch, 


210 




Coach-carving (4 illustrations), 58 


Mock Buggy Top, 133 


Buggy-dash (Gunther's), 


210 




English Coach-makers' Arms, 69 


Drafting a Phaeton (3 illus.), 139, 159, 170 


Tuyere-iron (2 illustrations), 


211 




Portrait of Jason Clapp, 62 


Life Sketches (3 illus.), 140, 160, 200 


Design for trimming a Phaston Body, 


213 




Egyptian Chariot-making (4 illustra- 


Ancient Scythe Chariot, 143 


Advantages of high over small Wheels, 






tions), 66, 66 


Skeleton Caleche and Kant-board (2 


&c, 


216 




Log laid out for Spokes, 67 


illustrations), 146 


Drafting a Coach, 


219 




Clip King-bolt, 71 


Front View of Six-seat Rockaway, 149 


Starey's Carriage-factory (Eng.), 


223 




Diagrams for Setting Tops (6 illustra- 


Perch, Fifth Wheel Coupled on Top, 151 


Charvolant, 


228 




tions), 74, 75 


India Rubber Whip-socket, 153 


Spoke Striping in N. Y. 


229 




Taming Horses (4 illustrations), 83 


Perfect Oval (Irving's), 153 


Sectional Carriage-part (Irving's), 


229 




Egyptian Hunting Chariot. 86 


Site of the Ancient Chariot Races, 163 


Trammel Untrammeled, 


230 




The Plaustrum, 87 


Skeleton Caleche and Kant-board, 165 








Entered according to Act of Congress, In tl 


le year 1S69, by E. M. Stratton, in the Clerk's Offlc 
In and for the Southern District of New York. 


a of the District Court of the United State* 











INDEX TO VOLUME ONE. 



To thi Rsadik. — Under the head of " Sparks from, the Anvil,''' will be found, in alphabetical order, the contents of that separate department. The 

Paint and Trimming Booms are arranged in the same order. 



Page 
A Boy's Trials, 148 

A Dreadful Malady, 17 

A Good Move, 57 

A Hint to whom it may Concern, 96 

A Horse Anecdote, 213 

A Lady Connoisseur of the Noble Art, 56 
A New Edition of the June Number, 73 
A New Patent Wheel in the Field, 197 
A New Year's Greeting, 154 

A Simple Lesson from Nature (poetry), 47 
A Visit among our Eastern Friends, 134, 
" Continuation of, 154 

A Word to our Friends, 13; about our 

Drafts, 57 

Abgarus (poetry), 108 

About our Drafts, 57 

Agents Wanted, 116 

American Union of Inventors, 231 

Amy Glenn's Vision, 187 

And thou, too, Brutus (poetry), 209 

An Airy (visionary) Invention, 55 

An Impostor, 233 

An Editor cannot soil his Sheet, &c, 15 
An Editorial suggested by a Letter, ' 174 
An Old Maid, the fear of being, 129 

Another Portrait, &c, 57 

Announcements for the Second Year, 233 
Anything for a Patent, 54 

Arms, Coat of, the United Kingdom 

Society's, 69 

Arrangements for the Future, 157 

Aunt Debbie's Centre-table, an Hour 

Around 108 

Barouche, Lyons', 89 

Blacksmith, the Village, 95 

Bill Jingle's Coach and Ladies' Hoops, 56 

Binding of the Coach-maker's Mag., 216 

Biography of James Brewster, Esq., 1 

" Jason Clapp, Esq., 61 

" Wm. D. Rogers, Esq., 181, 201 

Boy, the, Spoiled by his Mamma, 208 

Brett, Messrs. Goold & Co.'s, 150 

Buggy, N. Y. open fronts, 9, 228 

Cut-under, 50; Dalzell, 131 

Folding-seat, 228 ; French, 29 

the Hunting, 189; Tallmadge, 

210; Trotting, 50, 130 

Business Prospects, 197 

Cable, the Atlantic Telegraph, 94 

" Chafings of, 155 

Cabs vs. Coaches for N. Y. City, 214 

California Life Illustrated, 35; the 

Market, Carriages in, 197 

Canvasser's Journal, the, 166 

Carriage Architecture, Geometry of, 
107, 125, 137, 145, 165, 205 ; 
Absence of, in China, 25; Child's 
Carriage, 111 ; Visit to an En- 
glish Manufactory, 222 ; Car- 
riage Interests, 215; New Steam, 197 
Carriage-maker, a chance for, 2 

Carriage-trade, Commercial Review of, 

in France, 233 



Page 
Carriages in the California Market, 197 ; 
Introduction of, into France, 
26 ; the Centralization and Man- 
ufacture of, 4 ; the King of 
Prussia's new, 209 ; Good and 
bad work in the manufacture of, 
82 ; Public, in Paris, 85 ; Three- 
wheel pleasure, 41 
Calash Coach, 70 ; Scroll-quartered, 

110; Clarence, 210 

Caleche Coach, 28 ; French, 50 ; Pic- 

colomini, 131 

Char-a-banc, 10 

Charvolant, 225 

Club Agents, 17 

Coach, Scroll-quartered, 110 

Coach-carving, 37, 58, 99 

Coach-makers, the United Society of, 

in England, 59 

Coach-making Public, to the, 96 ; in 
San Francisco, 6; Historically 
Considered, &c, 7, 22, 42, 64, 
86, 103, 123, 143, 163, 184, 203, 
224 ; with the Poets, 3 

Colts, the Training and Management of, 1 27 
Column, the Humorists', 80, 119, 140, 

160, 180, 216 

Comet, the, 105 

Correspondence, Home-made, 15 

Correspondents, Instructions to, 176 ; 

at Columbia, S. C, 176 

Coup6, Americanized English, 169 

Courtship, Ned Lowrie's, 142 

Craft, the Voice of the, 199 

Diary of a Tramping Jour., Extracts, 161 
Diagonal Scale, 204 

Dispatch Oil Socket and Axle-cleaner, 6 
Dog-cart, 28, 169 

Drafts, Pen Illustrations of, 9, 28, 50, 70, 
89, 110, 130, 149, 169, 184, 210, 228 
Draftsmen, Invitation to Volunteer, 210 
Dream, the Young Wife's (poetry), 88 
Dr. Franklin, 140 

Drosky, the Russian, 106 

Editorial Items, 16, 34, 57, 98, 117, 

158, 160, 176, 178, 197 

Editorial Shavings : 

A Carriage-road in Turkey, 117 
A Lawyer's Carriage, 37 

" A Stump-er," 36 

Cab-drivers, the Grievances of, 117 
Cab Owners in France, Respon- 
sibilities of, 36 
Carriage, a Monster, 36; Wheels, 119 
Carriages in the " Exposition 

of Swiss Industry," 35 

Carriage, the, presented to the 

Princess Royal, 16 

Coach, the first, in England, &c, 35 
Conveyances, Tax on, in London, 16 
Egyptian Turn-outs, 16 

Erudite Mayor, an, 57 



Page 
Editorial Shavings — Continued. 

Johnny Bull pricking up his Ears, 16 
Journey from Rome to Naples, 36 
Maltese, the, in Luck, 16 

Old Whip, an, vs. Railways, 36 

Omnibuses, N. York, Number, &c. 58 
Omnibus Conveyance in Lon- 
don, 8 ; a Monstrous, 118 ; 
Traffic in London, 6 

Preserve, a New, the Lady Jam, 36 
Public Omnibuses, 118 

" Squibs," 58 

Taskmaster, the Gentlest, 87 

Teleki, the, a Turkish Convey- 
ance, H7 
This Fast Age, 58 
Thunder-bolts and Broken Ax- 
le-trees, 85 
Vehicle, a Queer, 117 
Vehicles, the Number of, 58 
Wheel, the, of Fortune, 57 
End of Volume First, 232 
Evening (poetry), 189 
Eyes Right! 138 
Failings, his Little, 67 
Fair of the American Institute at the 

Crystal Palace, 98, 115 

Fairs, Mechanical, the Policy of, 194 

Fashion and Design, 55 

French, the, what they think of us, 14 

Harness, a New, 139 

Harness-horses, Tricks and Bad Hab- 
its in, 186 
Hearse, Goold & Co.'s, 130 
" Irving's, 70 
Henderson, Charles Archibald, 27, 48, 68 
Hoop Skirts, Congo, Idea of, 225 
Horse-tamer's Secret, the, unfolded, 82, 104 
How shall I find Happiness ? 37 
How the Times affect the Manners, 51 
How to read the Magazine, 32 
Humorists', the, Column, 80, 119, 140, 

160, 180, 218 ; Notes, 30 

Illustrated Newspaper, Leslie's, 117 

Inventions at Home and Abroad, Ap- 
pertaining to Coach-making, 19, 
38, 60, 79, 100, 118, 139, 159, 
179, 200, 219, 235 

Joker, the, Outwitted, 121 

Journeyman, the Fast — A Sketch, 44 

Jump-seat Buggy, G. & D. Cook's, 39 

Just the Right Age, 68 

Ladies' Book, 158 

Landaulet, 9 

Letters, Extracts from, 199 

Letters, Familiar, from the Craft, 

157, 176, et seq., 198, 217 

Life Sketches, 140, 160, 200 

Literary Items, 38 

Look Back (poetry), 68 

Look-out, 138 

Lubricating Machinery, 204 

Lubricator for Axles, 230 



IV. 



INDEX. 



Page 
Machine for Planing Irregular Shapes, 6 
Magazine, How to read the, 32 ; Bind- 
ing of, 34; Sent to Non-sub- 
scribers, 34; the Historical, 158; 
Leslie's Family, 158 ; to Month- 
ly Purchasers of the, 217 
Man, the Threefold Nature of, 5, 21, 

62, 141, 168, 183, 206, 221 

Manuscripts, Egyptian, 146 

Manuscript, a Liebnitz, Discovery of, 35 
Mind, Presence of, 226 

Miniature Factory Village, 202 

Miscellany, 199; Business Notices, 235 
Monopoly, the Fate of, 111 

Mustache, the Red, 101 

My Bound Boy and I (poetry), 17 

Omnibus, the, and its Competitor, 175 

" Traffic in London, 6, 178 

" Conveyance in, 8, 17 

Omnibuses in Cincinnati, 230 

Only one Brick upon Another, 38 

Our Advertisers, 34, More of, 116 

" Bridgeport Correspondence, 100 

" Plates with this Number, 15 

" Magazine, what the Press says of, 
38, More of, &c, 79 ; Import- 
ance of Encouraging, 34 ; An- 
nouncement, &c, 34 
Ourself and Enterprise, 114 

Paint Room : 

A Hint to those who need it, 152 
An Enthusiastic Painter, Let- 
ter from, 152 
Brushes, Painters', 12 ; How "to 

Keep," 192 ; Bear Hair, 152 
Carving, Touching up, 132 

Coach Painters, Encourage- 
ment for, 171 
Coloring, Lakes, 52 
Colors, Harmonizing of, 11 
Drawing, as Connected with 

Painting, 92 

Dutchman, the, and his " Cub," 172 
English Varnish, 152 

Filling Carriage-parts, 152 

How to Paint a Carriage-body, 

171, 191 ; a Carriage-part, 212 
Japan, a Recipe for Making, 211 
Laying Gold Leaf, 92 

Lead-color, 112 

Neatness and Order, 73 

On Varnishing, 72 

Ornamenting, 73 ; Dry Color, 

151, 230 

Ornaments, Original Designs 
for — pi. xi., 53 ; pi. xxii., 
113; pl.xxxiii., 172 

Painters' Brushes, 12; Bear-hair, 152 
Painting a Buggy — the Car- 
riage-part, 30; the Body, 
51 ; Priming, 91 

Putty, 73 

Quick-drving Oil for Painting, 

30; Red Lead, 152 

Striping, &c, 72 ; in New York, 229 
The Wrong Can, 152 

Varnish Brushes, 78 

Varnish, 112; English, 152; Its 

History and Manufacture, 212 
Wanderings of a Painter's Pen, 

No. 1, 211 

Worth Knowing, 73 



Page 
Patent Papers, 148 

Patents, the Sale of, 76 

Penfold, Catharine, 88 

Prospectus to the First Volume, 20 

" " Second Vol., 220, 236 

Phaeton, 228 ; Dalzell, 89 ; Crane Neck, 
50; Family, 90; Floral, 189; 
Queen City, 210 ; Summer, 189 

Portraits for your Office, 216 

Pretty Good, 140 

Prospective Announcements, 33, 16 

Rockaway, Light, 90, 169 ; Six-Seat, 149 
Sawdust Timber, 209 

Saw and Saucer, the, 67 

Scale Drafting, as applicable to Car- 
riages, 78, 97, 118, 138, 159, 
179, 199, 219, 228 

Scientific Knowledge — Its Advantages, 94 
Self-Reliance, 222 

Sleighs, Albany, 111 

Society, the, Agitation, 136 

Sparks from the Anvil : 

A New Folding Step, 29 

A Plain Dash, 111 

A Pole Socket and King-bolt 

united, 190 

A Portable Forge, 10 

Bench Vise, newly invented, 190 
Blacksmith, an Oriental, 170 ; 
Blacksmithing among the Na- 
tive Africans, 30 ; in Mada- 
gascar, 228 
Borax, 229; a Lake of, 51 
Buggy Dash, 29, 51 ; plain, 111 ; 

Design for, 210 

Carriage-part, a Three-perch, 

50; sectional ellipsis, 131 

" for coupes, &c. 229 

Clip King-bolt, the, 71 ; in a 
New Aspect, 112; Design 
for a Bar and Stay for the, 112 
Dash Rail, a design for a Jenny 

Lind, 111 

Double-perch, experiment with 
and its result, 90 ; Design 
for, 210 

Handle for a Phseton, 111 

Iron, 229 ; Primitive Modes of 

Working, 228 

Iron Manufacture in Scotland, 

91, 211; in Philadelphia, 30 
Iron-Stone, the Sussex, 71 

Iron and Steel, Welding, 29 ; 
Connecticut, 191 ; Polish- 
ing and Blueing, 190 
Iron Trade, the, in Europe, 131 
Perch, with fifth wheel coupled 

on the top, 150 

Smith, the, of Ragenbach, 150 

Swan's Neck hanging-oflf-irons, 190 
Tempering Steel, 170 

To Case-harden Iron, 150 

To Enamel Iron, 150 

Tough Steel, 51 

Welding Steel with Iron and 

Steel with Steel, 29 

Spiral, or Jack Scroll, 207 

Spirit of the Times, Porter's, 90 

Steam Carriage, New, 197 

Sulkies, Trotting and Business, 150 

Taste, 16 

The Castle I Built (poetry), 128 



Page 

The Deacon's one-horse Shay (poetry) 147 
The Effects of— What, 96 

The Printer, 158 

The Quaker and the Livery Stable 

Keeper, 54 

Timber, the Best Time to Cut, 81; 
Springing of, 124; Straighten- 
ing Crooked, 144; Preservation 
of, 204 ; Preserving from De- 
cay, 218; Sawdust, 209 
To Draftsmen, 77 
To Our Friends in the Country, 138 
To Our Subscribers, 138 
To the Craft Everywhere, 196 
To those Desiring this Work, 175 
To Whom it May Concern, 33 
Trade, Table of, 16 ; Summary, 35 
Travel, Lapland Reindeer, 205 ; Notes 

of, 24, 45, 63, 126 

Traveling in the 16th Century, 6 ; 
in the Danubian Principalities, 
159; Agents, 196 

Trimming Room : 

An Apology, 134 

Apology and Fashions, 12 

Buggy Seats, New Roll to, 172 

Buggy-top, The Mock, 133 

Carriage-bows, 173 

Carriage-trimming, the Present 

Style of, 133 

Carriage-tops, Geometry of, 74, 113 
Carpet, the Tournay — A New 

Article, 213 

Changeable Tops for Shifting 

Seat-wagons, 63 

Design for Trimming, 31 ; do. 

a Phaeton Body, 213 

Figures, Geometrical and Oval, 193 
Geometrical and Oval Figures, 193 
Harness Blacking, 114, 280 

Hair, a Great Cry, &c, 93 

Leather Black, Recipe for Mak- 
ing, 93 ; Leather Varnish, 93 
Neatness among Trimmers, 113 
Oval, A Simple Way of Strik- 
ing a Perfect, 173 
" How to Obtain a Perfect 

One, 153 

" Irving's Reply to Hinman, 192 
Paste, Recipe for Making, 134 

Stitched Cloth Facings, White 

and Black, 54 

Stitching Plates, to Contribu- 
tors of, 173 
Stitching Plates, Explanation 

of, A, 31 ; B, 93 ; C.153; D.213 

" Horse, a New 92 

Tacks, 192 

Trammel, the Untrammeled, 230 

Whip Sockets, A Chapter on, 153 

Walking in the Rain (poetry), 226 

Wagon, Jagger, 28 

Wagons in the Utah Expedition, 213 ; 

a Large Train of, 114 

Wheel, the Guard, Machine, 120 

Wheels, an Experienced Man on the 
Subject of, 59, 98 ; The Advan- 
tages of Large over Small, 
illustrated, 216; Something 
About, 66, 84, 167 

Who wants Business ? 116 

Woosteree, the, 70 



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Engraved expressly for the New York Coach-Maker' '« Magazine. 
June, 1858. 




DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, JUNE, 1858. 



No. 1. 



C|e C(ra:cJ|-l|aker , 8 fortrait (Sallerj, 



BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES BREWSTER, ESQ., 
(with portrait.) 



No species of writing is more deeply interesting than 
that of history, and no composition is of greater inter- 
est than that which records the history of a fellow-man. 
Should the subject of that history be a member of our own 
craft, that circumstance adds additional interest, and we 
are led instinctively to inquire : When and where was he 
born ? What were his earlier tastes and predilections ? 
What were his earlier advantages of education ? What 
his peculiar trait of character as manhood developed itself? 
etc., etc. All these questions, we affirm, are perfectly na- 
tural, and often, when they are satisfactorily answered, we 
discover that, in this country, at least, our most distinguish- 
ed men are those who, by untiring industry and an honor- 
able course of life, have been the makers of their own 
fortunes. It is very true there may be exceptions to this 
rule — some "may have had fortunes thrust upon them" — 
but then they belong rather to the exception than the rule. 
It has come to be the boasted peculiarity of our free institu- 
tions, that all alike — the rich and the poor — may find an 
open door to the Temple of Fame and the magazines of 
wealth. This is unquestionably so in a qualified sense. 

Among the members of our own profession we know of 
none more deserving of a niche in our Portrait Gallery than 
Mr. James Brewster, of New Haven, Conn., not merely be- 
cause he is one of the oldest living members of our frater- 
nity, and has been one of its most successful business men, 
but because he has always shown a peculiar interest for 
the welfare of all with whom business has brought him in 
connection ; but more of this hereafter. 

James Brewster, whose portrait we present to our readers 
in the present number, is the second of eight children, five of 
whom are still living, and is a lineal descendant from Elder 
William Brewster, a portion of whose family, history in- 
forms us, came over from Europe in the Mayflower, with 
the first installment of the Pilgrims, and who landed in 
Plymouth Harbor on that cold and eventful morning of 
November 22nd, 1620. In reference to these Pilgrims 



and their immediate ancestors, it has been quaintly said by 
one of their distinguished descendants — the Rev. Henry 
Ward Beecher — that "under Divine Providence, there 
had been (in England and Holland) a trunk growing, a 
leaf growing, a bud growing, and, by-and-by, when God 
said, 'Blossom !' the Puritans came (to our shores), and they 
were the blossom of ages !" Of their distinguished Chief, 
Elder Brewster, it is said, that once, when on a mission 
as secretary to Davidson, an English ambassador to Hol- 
land from Queen Elizabeth, " he slept one night with the 
keys of Flushing under his pillow." Among the descend- 
ants of this old Puritanic stock, then, is included our vener- 
able and worthy fellow-craftsman. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Preston, Connecti- 
cut, Aug. 6th, 1788, and is consequently now nearly seventy 
years of age, and some years retired from the more active 
pursuits of his former business — although as a silent part- 
ner, we understand, he is still connected with a large coach- 
making establishment in New Haven ; and, amid the 
abundant fruits of a life of honorable enterprise, and in the 
enjoyment of all his faculties unimpaired by age, he spends 
his time in devising modes of usefulness to his fellow-men, 
especially young men. Educated at the common school of 
his native place, and early taught the rigid principles of 
morality characteristic of the earlier settlers of New Eng- 
land, and, although, to use his own language, "feeble in 
early life, encountering in his minority as many trials as any 
who heard him — fatherless and with but little outward as- 
sistance — and laboring constantly for half a century, yet 
his natural force is not materially lessened," and he attri- 
butes it as " all owing to temperance, and practicing upon 
that trite saying : ' Habits, good or bad, are powerful 
things: " * 

In the year 1804, being then in the sixteenth year of his 
age, Mr. Brewster was apprenticed to Col. Charles Chap- 
man, of Northampton, Mass., to learn the " art, mystery, and 
trade" of carriage-making. In this same shop, we believe, 
Messrs. James Goold, now of Albany, and Jason Clapp, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., both served their apprenticeships, whose 
portraits we hope to be able to present in our Gallery at a 
future day. At the expiration of Mr. Brewster's apprentice- 
ship — to his honor be it said — he received a diploma from 

* Addres3 to the Young Men of New Haven, delivered in Brewster's Hall, 
Jan. 28, 1857, p. 14. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



June. 



the Hampshire Mechanics' Association, of which Hon. 
Josiah Dickinson was then the president. 

To decision of character, in the first few days of his ap- 
prenticeship, Mr. B. attributes his success in after-life. He 
says, " When I saw the effects of intemperance in the shop, 
I was deeply affected, and, but for fear of being laughed at, 
I would have returned home. As the youngest apprentice, 
it was my lot to bring the liquor from the dram-shop, and 
I was entitled to a share gratis ; but I resolved that I would 
not use it. On one occasion, refusing to drink, the oldest 
apprentice ordered me to stand upon a bench — tantalizing- 
ly called upon his shop-mates to look at me — and termed 
me a ' no-souled fellow.' As quick as thought an expedi- 
ent occurred to me. I had witnessed indications of kind- 
ness in the oldest apprentice, and I resolved to appeal to 
his feelings. I told him I thought it was hard to be forced 
to act contrary to my inclinations ; but, to show that it was 
not selfishness that actuated me, I was willing to give up all 
the money I possessed ; and I thereupon did so. I was not 
mistaken in my appeal. It touched the sensibility of the 
oldest apprentice — I was permitted to get down from the 
bench — the victory was gained — and I was never after- 
wards importuned to drink. I gained the respect not only 
of my fellow-apprentices, but of my master also, and his 
kind-hearted lady ; yet, sad to relate, most of my associates, 
as well as my master, became the victims of intemperance." * 
We hope that the example of our sage brother will not be 
lost on us, his successors. 

Having honestly served out his apprenticeship at North- 
ampton, and become a journeyman, he found circumstances 
rendered it necessary for him to limit his whole personal 
expenses to forty dollars per year, so as to be able to save 
something to set up in business with for himself. The 
economy and liberality of the man are illustrated in the 
fact that once, when an apprentice, having put up at a 
public-house, while on a journey to the home of his child- 
hood, his limited means subjected him to the choice of 
paying the hostler for the care of his horse, or to use the 
money for the purchase of a meal. A sense of justice to 
the poor hostler predominated. He paid him, but went 
without his breakfast, feeling more happy, under the depri- 
vation, than he would have done with the idea of not dis- 
charging a just obligation. 

Mr. Brewster is an example of what economy of time 
will do when applied to study. He tells us he made it a 
rule to read one hour each day, after working his twelve 
hours; for, during his apprenticeship and while conducting 
business for himself, it was his custom, from the 20th of 
September to the 20th of March, to work four evenings 
every week, and always to average seventy-two hours in 
the week. In Mr. B.'s case we have another proof that 
often a very trifling circumstance in a man's history may 
change the programme he has marked out for himself, and 
prove to him the flowing of a tide in his affairs, which, if 
followed, will lead him on to a fortune. In September, 
1809, while on his way to New York, the detention of a 
stage caused Mr. Brewster to stop a short time in New 
Haven ; and, while walking around the city, he accidentally 
passed a carriage shop in Orange street. Learning that 
the proprietor was in want of a journeyman, he changed 
his proposed journey to New York, and commenced work 
in New Haven, where he has continued to reside for more 
than forty-six years. He commenced with a debt against 

* Address, p. 15. 



him of thirty dollars. In 1810, the second year after his 
location there, he "started" business for himself, in a little 
shop on the corner of Elm and High streets. Subsequently, 
his business increasing, he moved into Orange street, where 
he conducted business for many years. In connection 
with this New Haven establishment, he had branches of it 
in other cities of this Union. One was in the city of New 
York, where he bought out the repository of an old carriage- 
manufacturer, Mr. Abram Quick, in Broad street, and 
shortly afterwards united with him in partnership Mr. John 
R. Lawrence, now the old-established and extensive car- 
riage-mannfacturer in Broadway, the friendship and per- 
sonal acquaintance of whom the writer is proud to acknow- 
ledge. 

At one period Mr. B. had considerable trade with the 
island of Cuba, where he is reported to have furnished a 
number of that popular vehicle, the Volante, the especial 
favorite of the fair senoritas of that dependency of Spain. 
In connection with this period of his life, Mr. B. very fre- 
quently discourses of the trials he encountered and the 
difficulties he overcame, and the economical practices he 
used in manufacturing and transporting his work to a 
distant market, which we, from motives of delicacy, know- 
ing his modesty of feeling, omit here, although it gives us 
great pleasure to say, that, unlike many others, he has 
never felt himself above his business. 

Finally Mr. B. removed from Orange street into what was 
then called "The New Township," then a suburb of the 
city, and which he mainly has been instrumental in build- 
ing up, thereby making a large addition to the city of his 
successes. In 1855 he erected an Orphan Asylum, which, 
with his characteristic benevolence, he afterwards present- 
ed to the city of New Haven. He has very recently 
erected a very fine edifice, which is known as Brewster 
Hall, in which place he recently delivered an address to 
the apprentices and employes of his, in his former business. 
This address has been given to the public in pamphlet 
form, from which we intend hereafter to give our patrons 
some extracts, the advice of which, if followed, must con- 
duce to produce a higher aim of life. On the occasion of 
this reunion, a number of gentlemen from different States, 
and now of different professions, assembled and enjoyed — 
they say — one of the pleasantest times of their lives. The 
ties of attachment manifested in the address of Mr. Andrews, 
and exhibited in the countenances of those there assembled, 
are evidence that Mr. B. has been singularly fortunate in 
advancing the best interests of his former employes, and 
in securing that degree of good feeling desirable between 
the employer and the employed. 

Such has been the luck of Mr. B. (we would call it in- 
dustry, prudence and economy), that now in his advanced 
years his personal happiness is promoted in having it in 
his power to assist others. We may sum up all in the 
words of a letter to us, from one intimately acquainted 
with him for more than forty years: " In my judgment, Mr. 
Brewster stands unrivaled by any man living, or that has 
ever lived in this city (New Haven), for public enterprise 
and philanthropy — he is a practical Christian of a noble 
stamp." May he long live to enjoy the fruits of his labor 
and the esteem of his fellow- citizens. 

S. 

A Chance for a Carriage maker. — A recent travel- 
er in says that at Islamabad, in Cashmere, there 

is not a single wheeled carriage to be found. 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



flisrcllaneons ptotra. 




THE STATE CARRIAGE OF MAB, QUEEN OF THE FAIRIES. 



COACH-MAKING WITH THE POETS. 

" That power allied to poets' fame, 
"Which language ne'er has dared to name — 
The soul's creative might." 

"Washington Allston. 

Since the advent of the Messiah, whose mission — as 
sung by the angels to the watchful shepherds on the plains 
of Judea — was announced as being one of peace and 
good-will to man, the chariot, as an instrument of warfare, 
seems to have gradually gone out of use. As a vehicle of 
pleasure, it has been succeeded by other formations, and, 
as the Bible emphatically declares, " old things are done 
away, and all things have become new," and brought 
about, with these changes, new carriages as well. 

Yet, notwithstanding this general disuse of the chariot, 
&c, as above stated, still the mind of man had, at the pe- 
riod of which we write, become so chariotically imbued 
with the glowing descriptions of such old poets as Hesiod, 
and Homer, and Virgil, et id omne genus, who had sung of 
phaetons, and chariots, and other fanciful creations in former 
days, that, judging from the productions of Chaucer and his 
successors, they were very unwilling to relinquish so trite a 
theme for the exercise of their ingenuity ; and, since the 
thing no longer existed, their inventive minds, with more 
poetry than truth, have discovered that they were still in 
use in the fairy-land. This discovery was made about 
400 years ago, at a time when carriages were about as 
scarce as white blackbirds. 

From the days of old Chaucer unto the present time, we 
find that, occasionally, some Muses, favored with visionary 
visits from the fairy climes, where more sober prose writers 
are never suffered to intrude, have been initiated into the 
"charmed circles," and, regardless of every injunction to 
the contrary, have amused an unbelieving world with their 
" thrice-told tales." Being but of a prosaic turn of mind 
— a matter-of-fact man ourself — and, consequently, some- 
what slighted by those in the " undiscovered land," we have 
taken this subject in hand with some reluctance, but with 
a firm determination to do justice to the veracity of our in- 
formants, the Poets, in their revelations. 

Chaucer, in a dark age of the world, has told us, in his 
story of The Flower and Leaf, that 

" Whan that Phoebus his chaire of gold so hie 
Had whirled up the sterry sky aloft, 
And in the Boole was entred certainely," 

and thus given us reason to think that his optics were unu- 



sually penetrating, or else he was especially invited 
to be " one of the party" where mortals are seldom 
seen. We would not judge incredulously, but yet 
we are forcibly impressed with the idea, that the 
old Monk has plagiarized his story from Ovid, with- 
out, in this case, proving that " ars inveniendi ado- 
lescit cum invenlis" — that the art of invention in- 
creases with the exercise of the process. The Latin 
Poet has seated a fast youth — with a god for a 
parent — in his golden chariot ; Chaucer, " a world 
of ladies" in his chaire, too numerous to mention, 
and, though he is non-committal as regards the 
horses, tells us that their "harness was all white," 

" And every bosse of bridle and partelle 
That they had, was worth, as I would wene, 
A thousand pounds." 

Chaucer flourished in an age which, perhaps, may not 
be inappropriately denominated a transition era, when the 
chariot of his predecessor brother Poets, who had sung of 
celestial antagonisms, were about to sing of milder themes, 
and so he has consistently introduced the " chaire," the 
coach, &c. Chaucer, inspired, or rather influenced by the 
spirit of his times, was afterwards improved upon, and imi- 
tated by Shakspeare and Drayton, both contemporaries of 
Spenser, and other less ingenious poets, to our day. Thus 
a train of poets have manufactured for the literary feast the 
fairy coach, with spokes of spider legs, and " wheels com- 
posed of crickets' bones," and other light materials, there- 
by showing that our light carriages — those we call such — 
are far behind those manufactured four centuries ago. 

After Chaucer, the next successful poetical coach-maker 
is Shakspeare, who has painted the fairy — the mild benign- 
ant being, 

" Who i' the colours of the rainbow 
And plays i' th' plighted clouds," 

and who lunched on " the brains of nightingales," the unc- 
tuous dew of snails, stewed between two nut-shells, a gnat's 
thigh or a pickled maggot, and other easily digested dain- 
ties of the same nature — as riding in a coach, the body of 
which was made from the shell " of an empty hazel-nut," 
for everyday use ; but, on state occasions, when Queen 
Mab wished to show out, the body of her coach was a 
snail-shell, whose former tenant had been unceremoniously 
ousted — the hammer-cloth being composed of the wing of 
a pied butterfly, and the wheels covered (tired?) with 
thistle-down to prevent their rattling over the pavement. 
An English writer, who assumes to be posted, says, this 
"snail-sheil carriage of Queen Mab bore the same com- 
parative appearance to her everyday one which the Lon- 
don Lord Mayor's state coach does to his private one." 

Michael Drayton, who wrote some twenty five years 
after Shakspeare, says, Nymphidia, the gentle fay, who met 
him one night, told him what he has told us — that the 
chariot of King Oberon, which his unfaithful queen, with 
her maids of honor, rode away in one evening on a stolen visit 
to that fast chap, Pigwiggen — the king, by-the-by, seems to 
have been of a weak mind, in other words, jealous of 
Queen Mab's conduct, and, pursuing, found himself in a 
misunderstanding with " Pig," the end of which found him 
" second best," and nearly " kilt," as Paddy would say- 
was drawn by four nimble gnats with "harness of gossa- 
mer," and driven by fly Cranion, as charioteer, "upon the 
coach-box getting." But we must let the poet speak for 
himself. He says : 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



June. 



" Her chariot of a snail's fine shell, 
Which for the colors did excell, 
The fair Queen Mab becoming well, 

So lively was the limning : 
The seat the soft wool of the bee, 
The cover (gallantly to see) 
The wing of a py'd butterflee, 
I trow 'twas simple trimming. 

The wheels compos'd of crickets' bones, 
And daintily made for the nonce, 
For fear of rattling on the stones, 

With thistle down they shod it : 
For all her maidens much did fear, 
If Oberon had chanced to hear 
That Mab, his queen, should have been there, 

He would not have abode it." 

The fairies since Drayton's time seem to have undergone 
a great change in character, until most people have come 
to think that they can only be found in hoops and crino- 
line, and, although probably more tangible than the poetic- 
al prototype, still none the less bewitching. 

Before dismissing Drayton's Nymphidia and his fairy 
coach, we would remark, that, living in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, at the period he wrote — coaches having been 
just introduced into England — he has, no doubt, been influ- 
enced by the popular mind, and so given vent to his fancy 
in a poetical fiction. 

Passing by other poetical coach-manufacturers, we come 
down to the days of the Pilgrim Fathers, when, as Josselyn 
says, in his Rarities of New England, " There be no beg- 
gars in this country, but witches too many ;" yet too poor 
to ride in coaches in a country where none were built. It 
has been charged that some Irish Presbyterians, who set- 
tled in New Hampshire, about 1720, brought from the 
" ould counthry" both witches and potatoes ; but, while the 
latter took root and grew, the belief in the former was soon 
"played out," or else the "fairies," finding no peace from 
seeing so many horse-shoes nailed to the door-lintels of the 
Yankees, suddenly decamped. These " sprites," in latter 
daj r s, instead of playing in the meadows among the tall 
grass in the summer evening, seem to have betaken them- 
selves to more airy regions, where, as Drake says, the cul- 
prit Onphe, after having broken his vestal vow by " loving 
an earthly maid," was summoned to judgment, and sen- 
tenced for his crime to follow a shooting star — 
"To follow it fast, and to follow it far;" 
a very hard sentence, we opine, and so probably thought 
the fay, who immediately 

-Called the sylphs who hovered there, 



And bade them fly and bring him straight 
Of clouds condensed a sable car." 

A lady, for once, doing as she was bid, tied the harnessed 
steed "behind a cloud," where, mounting the car for a ride, 

" Northward away, he sped him fast, 
And his courser follows the cloudy wain, 
'Till his hoof-strokes fall like pattering rain. 
The clouds roil backward as he flies, 
Each flickering star behind him lies, 
And he has reached the northern plain, 
And backed his fire-fly steed again, 
Ready to follow in its flight 
The streaming of the rocket light," 
Until he 

" Wheeled around to the fairy ground, 

And sped through the midnight dark." 

"Where wc shall leave him and our fanciful subject at the 
same time. S. 



[Translated from the Mercure Universal, for the New York Coach-maker's Mag.] 

ON THE CENTRALIZATION AND MANUFACTURE 

OF CARRIAGES. 



ENGLAND, AMERICA, FRANCE. 

In view of what this Journal has frequently had to en- 
counter, Ave are compelled to pen the following article. 
AVe intend to speak of an enterprise based on extensive 
operations, and on a large scale, to induce the belief that, 
in the face of such large establishments, small manufactur- 
ers would have nothing to do but to fold their arms, or to 
come, in all humility, asking for situations in them. 

When the like attempt was made in Paris, the persons 
in possession of the establishments in this line of business 
could not find much employment, but the fear of a ruinous 
opposition has never lasted long here, and even those who 
were not as yet frightened, soon found out, by the failures 
of these inconsiderate enterprises, that this mode of in- 
vasion is not so much to be feared as one might suspect, 
where the matter is not thoroughly investigated. In Eng- 
land these fears might have been, or appeared, more serious 
under some circumstances, on account of the elementary 
means not being the same in many things. However, in 
spite of many circumstances, the enterprises of this line 
on the other side of the channel have never been able to 
annihilate the small manufacturers of private carriages. 

A period of time is within our remembrance, when these 
small manufactories were more seriously threatened in 
their existence. It was in 1834. The English car- 
riage-makers were alarmed. They thought themselves 
on the verge of ruin, in consequence of the central- 
ization which was organizing in certain parts of the 
kingdom, for the manufacture of private carriages. They 
loudly exclaimed, "Was it not sufficient that we should 
have submitted to the influence of new fashions in circula- 
tion by railroads, withoutthese organizations being-formed to 
give us opposition?" They said, "See those manufactories 
which are established at Sheffield, Wolverhampton, and in 
many other places ; their object being to construct pony 
chaises for parks, and cabs with low wheels for cities, it 
being known that in England vehicles with low wheels 
do not pay any duty — they intended to have them manu- 
factured by the hundreds and thousands, and then sell 
them at low prices, because they will find, in the manufac- 
tories and elsewhere, springs, axletrees, &c, and then we 
shall have nothing more to do." It was soon seen who was 
to be most pitied. M. Guillon, who was among those gen- 
tlemen at that time, even saw some fall into a state of de- 
spondency. Some thought of letting part of their factory ; 
others were waiting to see if the moment of their entire 
ruin had not commenced. But, as it generally happens 
in such oppositions, these persons had been frightened 
without a cause. 

The following has proved that it is not the same with 
carriages as with railroads, and that the railroad cannot 
create itself a neAV existence to the detriment of the more 
ancient mode of travel in usage before it. A large carriage 
manufactory is different from one resting on smaller de- 
veloped proportions. 

These reasons are attributable to causes which do not 
enter into the plan of our publication. Let us confine 
ourselves to say, that, to exercise the art of carriage manu- 
facturing in perfection, one must, at least, be an artist in 
that line ; and that the greatest merchant in the world, 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



if he takes a fancy to found a factory of this kind, will find 
himself mistaken, which has been the case with many 
extensive carriage-makers. 

After having had misfortunes, these large establishments 
have gradually been seen going behind-hand ; the second 
year they built omnibuses ; the third agricultural wagons, 
so as to work up their materials and tools; and the fifth 
they emigrated to Louisiana, for the purpose of dissimu- 
lating or lessening their misfortunes; so as to leave the 
English practitioner, who was more fitted to discharge the 
difficult trade. For these reasons these strengthened 
themselves in their position. 

The general exhibitions of 1851 and 1857 have shown 
the progress which has been made in the years since the 
departure of the great contractors who emigrated. These 
carry on their operations on a smaller scale. 

Let us here continue the subject of these large manufac- 
tories on the American Continent, and try to show to what 
point this mode of proceeding will quickly tend, and show 
that it will prove as unfortunate as well in the countries 
they emigrated to, as certain admirers of all that is charm- 
ing, who carry their money like fascination, led away 
by the seductive music of the prospect, generally losing it 
in inevitable troubles of various kinds. At New Orleans, 
— the principal city of Louisiana, built on the oriental 
banks of the Mississippi (this city is very unhealthy, but 
commercial) — has already commenced, in imitation of New 
York, the manufacture of carriages suited to its locality. 

Possessing iron, steel, and a good quality of wood that 
can be easily used, without doubt the carriage-makers of 
New Orleans would have made beautiful work, if those ad- 
venturous negotiants had not gone and carried mercantilism 
among them, to take the place of the comfortable, strong 
and solid, so that the carriage manufactories of that city 
resemble the shops of tinsmiths. In them you see shelves, 
with hooks, on which carriages are hung, and others are 
suspended upon the ceilings, if it is allowable to give 
the name of carriages to such imperfect vehicles, which 
persons only buy when they are on the eve of a voyage, 
without stopping to ask if they are strong enough to sup- 
port a few persons. For example, should you wish to have 
yourself transported to Nashville, or into the interior, 
you enter a bazaar, you choose a carriage, they lower it 
down, and if it does not suit they hoist it up again; and 
this is repeated until you have chosen one to suit you. 

The price of the whole concern is never very high ; you 
can easily obtain a carriage, harness and horse, all new (ex- 
cepting the horse) for 250 francs, which is equal to fifty 
dollars. As the roads are bad, precautions are taken ; 
there are placed in a little box a few ropes, which will en- 
able you to refasten the parts that may break on the road. 
Experience has demonstrated that steel springs are very 
susceptible of being broken; they will tell you for that 
reason they have made them of ordinary iron, and the axles 
of cast, and other different parts of the same material ; the 
whole put together by a stroke of the hammer. The parts 
which are made of wood are considered the best in the 
world. It is from thence that New York draws that good 
beech which is used in cabinet making. The quality is 
superior to the fagus procerce of Naples, and to the beech- 
tree of England andFrance. The rims of the wheels in New 
Orleans are made of lance wood (bois de lance) or live oak. 
"We must not compare it with the lance wood of England, 
which is nothing but ash, nor with that of the Bouches- 
du-Rh6ne. The difference is worthy of note. The hubs 



of the Louisiana wheels are made from the yoh elm tree, 
similar to the elm of France, and the carpinus of the Two 
Sicilies. The spokes are of chestnut, resembling the chest- 
nut of France. These wheels are very light and high, tired 
with bolts, which renders them elastic, and prevents one 
from being jolted while traversing the inequalities of the 
road. Such is, according to our judgment, the state of 
carriage-making in America. When a rich man of that 
country wishes to get a superior vehicle, it is generally at 
Paris that he addresses himself to find what he wants. 

We make these reflections on a rumor, well founded 
or not, which is circulating on the subject, that there 
are going to be grand establishments on a new plan, which 
will start with a large capital, just like a fearful rival 
for the establishments already in operation. We have our 
eyes open to these levia.thanic projects, and we shall con- 
tinue to notice in our paper the events which may follow 
on this subject. 

We shall have occasion to pass in review the different en- 
ter]) rises in this category, which only appear and disappear ; 
the subject being well digested and properly conducted. 

In concluding this article, let us say, in giving assistance 
to its publicity, that by a competition between carriage- 
makers we are laying the foundation for a permanent con- 
struction, on a rational basis. The Editor of the Mercure 
Universel does not intend to give up his liberty to criticise. 
He ought to retain it. He will know how to preserve it 
for the interests of the art. We shall continue, then, to 
second the artist and the conscientious practitioners, always 
resolutely defending them against speculative susceptibili- 
ties, •and the lessening of the good taste which distinguishes 
our nationality in all things. 



For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

THE THREE-FOLD NATURE OF MAN. 

BY CHARLES C. KEYS. 



NO. I. 

The greatest variety and complexity exist in the works 
of creation. This is apparent in every department of na- 
ture. The earth, the sea, and the air teem with the count- 
less productions of Infinite skill, and, under ten thousand 
forms, exhibit the perfections of Him " by whom all things 
subsist." The mineral strata, forming the crust of our globe, 
is constituted of many essential parts, materially differing 
from each other, and serving the different purposes which 
accord with the design of the Great Contriver. The same 
diversity is to be found in the vegetable kingdom. Trees, 
plants and shrubs, of every size and every hue, and serving 
a multitude of purposes, are to be found in every direction 
upon the face of the earth. Every land and every climate 
help to make up the beautiful variety which this depart- 
ment of God's works presents to our view. And the ani- 
mal kingdom equally, if not to a greater extent, abounds 
with the multitudinous productions of Almighty power and 
Divine wisdom. Organized life, in the greatest multiplicity 
of forms, everywhere appears, from the meanest insect or 
reptile, up to the more noble creature which was " made in 
the image of God." And when we come to consider our 
own nature, we do not find it to be a unit, strictly speaking, 
a simple whole, but a most curious piece of mechanism, 
made up of many parts, extremely intricate in their ar- 
rangement and construction, exhibiting at every turn the 
contrivance and design of their Author, and fulfilling ends 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



June. 



the most various and important. And this is true of the 
whole machinery of man, of his complex nature. Upon 
inspection we find him to be, not merely an organized 
body, but a living soul, a moral and intellectual being. 
This truth is not, however, ordinarily perceived, or, if per- 
ceived, it is not considerately weighed and nicely appre- 
hended, in a manner corresponding with its deep interest 
and high importance, or with the influence which such a 
view, when properly entertained, must of necessity exert 
upon our general character, including our moral and intel- 
lectual tastes, with all our habits of thought, feeling and 
action. 

Man's sensual nature generally attracts most of his at- 
tention, and although much inferior to his intellectual and 
moral nature, yet it engages the principal part of his time 
and commands his affections as a chief and supreme con- 
cern. "What shall I eat? and what shall I drink? and 
wherewithal shall I be clothed ?" are the inquiries that en- 
gross his mind and engage his heart. Thus one part of 
our nature has more than its due share of attention. We 
are prepossessed in favor of the interests of the body, 
at the expense of the mind and heart. Now, we are opposed 
to an error so general, and advocate the claims of our 
nature as one great whole, and in all the parts of which it 
is composed. 

A primary and most obvious duty which every man 
owes to himself, and in the performance of which his high- 
est interest and happiness are involved, is self-knowledge. 
A man must know himself, the prominent traits of his 
character, and the distinctive peculiarities of his nature, or 
he will not know the treatment which his being demands, 
nor the culture and development of which it is suscepti- 
ble, nor the duties which grow out of the varied and mul- 
tiplied relations of life. He should know something of his 
physical structure: how curiously it has been wrought, how 
fearfully and wonderfully, as a piece of animated mechan- 
ism, it has been made. He should become familiar with 
his mental constitution ; with its wonderful endowments, 
and ail-but divine attributes. This department of his 
being should engage attention, as embracing the faculties 
of perception, judgment, imagination, memory and what- 
ever other powers belong thereto. And his moral nature, 
as intimately connected with the intellectual and as having 
distinguishing characteristics of its own, of pecidiar value, 
should not be passed by as unworthy of regard. To man, 
as a moral being, belongs the faculty of distinguishing 
right from wrong, the power to choose between the one 
and the other, and the exercise of the various affections, 
cither malevolent or benevolent, together with the respons- 
ibility arising from the possession and use of these facul- 
ties. And surely this is too important a department of our 
nature to be overlooked, and we are inexcusable for any 
indifference or neglect which on this score may be enter- 
tained. The ancient maxim, " know thyself," having for 
its author, Solon, one of the seven wise men of Greece, 
and worthy of his name, should be received and acted upon 
by every individual who wishes to answer the great pur- 
poses of his existence. And this maxim we should re- 
ceive in its most enlarged acceptation, as enjoining a fa- 
miliar acquaintance with every department of human 
existence. We have a world to explore within ourselves, 
and here is sufficient to excite our curiosity and to engage 
the exercise of our highest powers, without extending our 
view beyond the limits of the circle thus described. It has 



been well said by one of the English poets, — 

"The proper study of mankind is man." 

And this should be one of the first studies to engage 
our attention. We therefore recommend investigation 
and study, to as great an extent as circumstances will per- 
mit, in those departments which embrace the anatomy and 
physiology of the human system, together with mental and 
moral philosophy : these three departments of study making 
us acquainted with the three great departments of our 
compound nature. And whatever our sphere of life, by 
husbanding our opportunities, and improving our leisure 
time, we may make no small attainments in these interest- 
ing branches of knowledge, and be amply rewarded by our 
self-culture, and the increase of rational enjoyment, for the 
labor and time expended in these pursuits. 

In a future number, if the present article is acceptable, I 
may pursue this subject, by additional observations on the 
studies herein suggested, and the duties which man owes 
to himself, as a compound being, made up of " soul, body 
and spirit." 

A New Machine for planing small work of irregu- 
lar shapes has been invented by an ingenious mechanic 
of New York city. It is principally intended for planing 
neat small jobs, which are inconvenient or impossible to 
hold on the ordinary iron planer, but can be griped in a 
vice, such as stub-ends, straps, gibs, keys, cams, &c. Such 
work as requires to be planed in different directions, with a 
perfectly level surface, may be finished in this machine 
with great accuracy, and without letting go of the work 
until all parts of the plane surface are perfected, the work 
being firmly held in a vice made to swivel around in any 
position without loosening its hold. Some of these ma- 
chines have for several months past been in use in Brook- 
lyn, and are said to be much admired for the perfection 
with which they execute work which had been previously 
considered almost or quite impossible. 

Omnibus Traffic in London. — The number of passen- 
gers conveyed by the London General Omnibus Company 
within the year from September 19th, 1856, to September 
19th, 1857, averaged thirty-seven millions and a half, or at 
the rate of nearly three-quarters of a million weekly. The 
number of passengers "corresponding" at one office alone 
(the Cheapside,) averages 1,600 daily. 

Coach-making in San Francisco. — Very little new 
work is manufactured there, and the jobbing is chiefly con- 
fined to two establishments. Wood-workmen get from $3 to 
$4 per day ; wheelwrights, from $4 to $5 ; blacksmiths' fire- 
men $4 to $5; helpers, $2 50 to $3. The markets at last 
dates were over-stocked with manufactured work from the 
Atlantic States, rendering the exportation non-paying to 
shippers. 

Traveling in the 16th Century. — One of the earliest 
advertisements for the conveyance of passengers by post- 
coach in England is in the "Mercurius Politicus" of 
April 1st, 1658. "Passengers by stage to Bantry, in three 
days, for thirty shillings. Before this there was a pre- 
established and comparatively efficient system among mer- 
chants and others for private purposes." — Lon. P. 0., 1842. 

A "Dispatch Oil Socket and Axle Cleaner." — This 
is a recent English invention. The " cleaner and oiler" is 
intended for application to all carriages, omnibuses, &c, 
&c. The invention consists of a small socket recess, so let 
into the hub of the wheel near its spokes as to be very easy 
of access and convenient for oiling;. 




WHEEL-MAKING IN NOAHS DAT. 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED * 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Although several attempts have heretofore been made 
to supply the historical digest we now design to furnish to 
our readers, viz. : a general and standard history of coach- 
making from an early period of its conception down to the 
present time, still, we believe it yet remains an impossibili- 
ty to find in the whole range of literature — vast and diver- 
sified as that range is — a complete and satisfactory history 
such as we intend to give in the pages of this Magazine 
during the year, under the heading of Coach-making His- 
torically Considered and Incidentally Illustrated. 

We have long made it a particular study of our leisure 
hours, to try and find out, from the remains of ancient sculp- 
ture and painting, as to how our predecessors put their 
vehicles together, and especially as to how they constructed 
their wheels. Fortunately for our purpose, within a few 
days we have accidentally stumbled upon a " suitable spe- 
cimen" of the genus chariot, among Dr. H. Abbott's collec- 
tion of Egyptian Antiquities at 659 Broadway, New York. 
It is true this specimen remains only in fragments, still the 
wheel is found in a remarkable state of preservation and 
perfection, as it was taken out of a mummy pit at Dashour, 
in Lower Egypt, and sent to this country by our industrious 
and indefatigable countryman, many years a resident of 
that ancient city. As this is a very early production, very 
probably a cotemporary, if not built before the time of Abra- 
ham, we are taking especial pains to have a correct draw- 
ing taken of it, and in such profusion as shall, with our de- 
scription, give our fellow- craftsmen an intelligible account 
of it, possibly in the third chapter of this series. These, 
with engravings of later representations of improved vehi- 
cles of ancient manufacture and of more modern times, will 
constitute a feature in our history which cannot fail to in- 
terest our subscribers. 

It is scarcely necessary to inform the intelligent mind, 
that our knowledge of coach-making does not date further 
back than the days of the Pharaohs of Egypt — as supplied 

* The original illustration which stands at the head of this article will be 
better appreciated when the reader comes to see the continuation of this sub- 
ject in the July number of the Magazine. 



to us in Sacred Writ — where the chariot, the undisputed 
predecessor of our modern coaches, was driven out, in all 
the perfection and splendor of that pristine people, from an 
hundred gateways in the walled city of Thebes, to do fierce 
battle with surrounding nations, and where, after her splen- 
did victories, her triumphant conquerors led the subdued 
and subjugated enemy prisoners, bound to the tail of the 
chariot of her kingly ruler. 

We are warranted in our belief that Egypt, at the remote 
period in her history to which our remarks refer, had, in her 
advanced state of civilization and refinement, brought her 
vehicles of transportation for her warlike utensils, as well as 
those of more domestic life, to a very high state of perfec- 
tion. In this perfection Egypt continued to advance until 
her final declension. 

From Egypt the chariot passed into Assyria, where it con- 
tinued to be a prominent feature in every warlike expedi- 
tion, and afterwards having been adopted into the Persian 
dominions, under Cyrus, its distinguished ruler, it under- 
went in its formation a complete revolution. Afterwards 
the chariot was adopted by nearly all the more civilized 
nations of Europe, until, as we learn from the refined and 
classical descriptions of Julius Cassar, it was employed as a 
powerful and valuable auxiliary in every warlike nation of 
his times. Since the advent of the Saviour of mankind, in 
accordance with his mission of "peace and good-will to all 
mankind," this dreaded precursor of the coach appears to 
have gradually disappeared from among the civilized na- 
tions of the world, so that, during the period of time we are 
accustomed to designate as the dark ages, history seems to 
have scarcely presented to our minds a trace of its exist- 
ence. Afterwards, as the teachers and advocates for free- 
dom of thought had successfully spread abroad their prin- 
ciples, which permitted man, as his Creator intended he 
should, to think and act for himself, we find, emerging from 
the debris of ignorance and superstition, this emblem of 
civilization, the chariot, having reappeared in a transforma- 
tion at once wonderful and characteristic. We have taken 
upon ourself the task of presenting in regular succession its 
history as presented in Italy, Germany, France, and in Eng- 
land, and finally in America, wdiere, for the last twenty 
years, -our improvements have gone on with such rapid 
strides, that we hazard nothing in asserting that the nations 
of the old world are left far in the distance ; and although 
this may be denied by those Europeans who have never set 
foot on our shores, those of our countrvmen who have vi- 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



June. 



sited the manufactories of the Continental cities in Europe, 
and are by their qualifications supposed to be good judges, 
testify that such is the fact. We do not wish to be under- 
stood as teaching that we have nothing yet to learn, as 
coach-makers, in America. Far from it, and when, as we 
certainly will, we find an idea emanating in the old world, 
and worthy of imitation, we shall not be backward in pre- 
senting it in our columns. With these introductory thoughts, 
we leave the subject here, intending to resume it in our 
next number. S. 



OMNIBUS CONVEYANCE IN LONDON. 

The internal conveyance communication of London is 
conducted by means of 800 omnibuses, 595 of this number 
being worked by the recently formed " London General 
Omnibus Company." When this great company began 
business, the promoters purchased 600 omnibuses then 
running, with horses, harness, and goodwill, for £400,000, 
averaging nearly £700 for each. A quarter of a century 
has sufficed to increase the traffic requirements from 100 
to more than 800 omnibuses ; and a company employs 
profitably a capital of one million in working three-fourths 
of the vehicles of the metropolis. The 595 omnibuses of 
the company ran in London, in the week ending October 
31, not less than 222,779 miles, or nearly ten times the 
circumference of the globe, and they carried not less than 
920,000 passengers, which was equal to two-and-a-half 
times the population of Liverpool, three times that of 
Manchester, four times that of Birmingham, five times 
that of Leeds, seven times that of Bristol, and eleven times 
the whole population of Hull. Assuming that the re- 
maining one-fourth of the London omnibuses, not belong- 
ing to the company, carried an equal proportion, we shall 
have, as the traveling portion of the population of London, 
1,115,000 persons. The population of London at the last 
census was 2,362,000, so that a number equal to very near- 
ly one-half of the people of London ride one journey in an 
omnibus in each week. In a fortnight the whole popula- 
tion of London would be moved in the omnibuses now 
running in the metropolis. The omnibuses are worked 
by 6,225 horses, the average cost of each being £30, mak- 
ing a total of nearly £200,000. The harness averages £12 
per horse, and the omnibuses themselves, £120. A week's 
allowance of provender for this staff of horses consists of 
430,266 lbs. of chopped hay, clover, and straw, equal to 
242 loads, and 623,253 lbs. of oats, barley and beans, or 
2,376 quarters, and 175 loads of straw are required for the 
bedding of the horses. Each horse runs on an average 12 
miles per day. The daily cost of the rations of each horse 
is rather more than 2s. Id., or for the horses of each omni- 
bus, 10 in number, £1 Is.; the other expenses, such as 
horse-keepers, veterinary service, shoeing, and others, 
bring up the total expenses for the horses of each omnibus 
to £ 1 6s. per day. The number of men constantly em- 
ployed as drivers, conductors, and horse-keepers, is not 
less than 2,300, of whom the drivers receive from 5s. to 
6s., the conductors 4s., and the horse-keepers, 3s. per day. 
The " wear and tear" of each omnibus amounts to 17s. 6d. 
per week, and of the harness, 6s. per week. The 
595 omnibuses run over 66 different routes ; and, 
for facilitating the traffic, "correspondence offices" 
are established at Whitechapel, Cheapsidc, Bishops- 
gate, Regent Circus, Nottinghill Gate, Edgeware Road, 



Brompton, Highbury, and Holloway. By means of this 
arrangement a person may travel from Kilburn to Chelsea 
for 6d., from Putney to Blackwall, or Hammersmith to 
Holloway, the distance in each case being 11 miles, for 6d., 
and 35,000 persons avail themselves each week of these 
"correspondence offices." The average weekly receipt 
from the whole of the omnibuses is £11,500; but the 
state of the weather materially affects the receipts — thus a 
very wet day reduces the amount received by from £300 
to £400 per day. On the 22d of October, owing to the 
continuous rain, the receipts fell short of the usual amount 
by £380. The government duty and licences for the last year 
were £33,000, while the sum of £18,000 was paid for, tolls on 
the different roads run over by the omnibuses. Contrast 
all this with the fact, that a little more than 200 years 
ago, 20 hackney coaches were first permitted to run in 
London streets, being the earliest means of public convey- 
ance. The company has been so successful that it is now 
about to expend surplus capital to the extent of £50,000 
in laying down tramways for omnibuses in certain of the 
leading thoroughfares of the metropolis, where the width 
of the road is sufficient to admit of the experiment without 
risk of interference with the ordinary traffic. We are, 
therefore, at length, about to join in the advantages which 
street rails have already conferred on New York, Boston, 
Paris, and Lyons, where such tramways have been at work 
for several years with the highest degree of success. The 
part of the metropolis on which the experiment is about to 
be tried commences with the road from Nottinghill Gate, 
via the Grand Junction Road, New Road, City Road, and 
Moorgate Street to the Bank, with branches to the Great 
Western, and London and North Western Railways, and 
to Fleet Street, via Bagniggewells Road. The length of 
this line with sidings will be about eight miles and a half, 
and the road, with the exception of the inclines at Penton- 
ville, is broad and eminently qualified for the trial. In the 
event of its success, the company next contemplate the ex- 
tension of the plan to the road from Edmonston to the city, 
by way of Kingsland and other parts of the metropolis. 
The tramways when laid will be perfectly flush with the 
general surface of the roadway, and will not in any way 
interfere with the passage along and across it of any or- 
dinary road wagon or carriage ; and as the new omni 
buses in passing along will be confined to the tramway, 
which will consist of a double line in the centre of the 
roadway, the sides of the road, and indeed the entire 
width, except during the instant of passage, will be free 
to the general traffic, which will thus be carried on with- 
out interruption. The great economy which will be 
effected by the adoption of the new tramway system will 
enable the company to carry the public at reduced fares, 
and at a greater rate of speed. The omnibuses will be 
large and commodious, with flanged wheels and axles ra- 
diating to the curves, and, if found desirable, might be 
constructed with first and second class apartments. The 
net annual profit to be derived from the tramway traffic 
has been estimated at £11,073 — that is, on the route on 
which it is proposed to make the experiment — which will 
be equal to 22 per cent, on the capital of £50,000. The 
project is to be carried out by a company, with limited 
liability, entirely distinct from the London General Omnibus 
Company — the latter subscribing in shares to the new com- 
pany, to the extent of £50,000 in aid of the undertaking. 
The facility for starting and stopping the tramway omni- 
bus with improved brake will be quite as great as the 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



ordinary road omnibus, so that there will be no loss of 
time, on this account. It is this power in horses, of 
starting or stopping almost instantaneously, which makes 
the tramway for short distances and frequent stop- 
pages equal, if not superior, to the railway with steam 
power. If the system of fixed stations or stopping-places 
along the route were adopted iu lieu of stopping at the 
wish of every passenger, much time might be saved ; but 
in New York the tramway omnibuses stop wherever they 
are required to take up or set down passengers, and no in- 
convenience is found to arise from this system of working 
them. The probable cost of laying down the tramways 
as double lines, including the expense of taking up and re- 
laying the pavement, is estimated at something less than 
£3,000 per mile. 

fen Illustrations of tfje grafts 

NEW YORK OPEN-FRONT BUGGY, 

From the establishment of Messrs. Dusenbury and Vanduzer, N. Y. 
Illustrated on Plate I. 

The celebrated manufacturers have in the kindest man- 
ner permitted our artist to take this draft of a very light, 
and, as we think, a very elegant Buggy in their establish- 
ment, which we hope will be acceptable to every friend of 
our new enterprise. Probably, in the strictest sense of the 
word, it cannot be called entirely new — something of the 
kind having appeared, occasionally, heretofore ; and yet it 
is new in some of its details, and, withal, quite popular just 
now in this city and vicinity. The square-bodied, or box 
buggy, now some time in fashion, appears to have about 
had its day, since the ladies — you know we must study 
their tastes and conveniences sometimes — are decidedly 
hostile to all vehicles which give them much trouble to 
get into or out of, with high sides — especially such as have 
hooped themselves in in crinoline. Our New York buggy 
is, then, a sort of deferential compromise to their wants, 
and is likely this season to be very popular, and is now 
being much sought after. 

Many are made without tops, with paneled boots at the 
back of the seat. The sides are made in one piece of 
whitewood or black walnut deals, and moulded off with 
prepared rattan, &c, according to the fancy of the manu- 
facturer or of his customers. The fashion here is to put in 
the smallest hub possible — say, 3 and 3^ inches ; spokes 
$- and 1 inch ; rims, 1 and 1^ inch ; with tire for no tops, 
\ x 7-16ths. For these tires Mr. Saunders has shown us 
a beautiful description of steel, invented recently in England, 
and it is just as easily bent and put on the wheel as the soft- 
est iron. The details of the trimmings are about the same 
as heretofore, but, if anything, with a greater profusion of 
white stitching, especially on the tops. As a matter of 
interest to some, we subjoin a table of the approximate 
first costs in getting up first- class work of the above de- 
scription : — 



The body — material for, including seat, 

$3 50 ; making, $8 $11 50 

Carriage part (including shafts) 7 50 

Wheels — materials for, $6 91 ; making, 

$4 io 91 

1 in. axles, $7 50 ; springs, 34 lbs., at 16c. 

15 44 12 94 

Iron for balance, including bolts, shaft 

couplings, &c, 10 00 

Smith work, including piecing out joints 17 00 
130 ft. leather, patent and enameled, at 

18c 23 40 

4£ yards broad cloth, for head linings, at 

$2 25 10 13 

4 yards fringe, 50c. ; If yards silk, for 

curtains, 90c 1 40 

2£ yards broad lace, in top, at 55c 117 

Hair, moss, harness leather, thread, gal- 
loon, muslin, buckram, buttons, &c. . . 4 25 

1 yard oilcloth 50 

Carpet and fringe 1 50 

Apron, 1\ yards enameled cloth 1 38 

Bows and slat-irons, say 1 00 

Prop-irons and plated nuts, 66c; shaft 

tips, 37c 1 03 

Knobs, buckles, apron hooks, &c • 40 

Several small articles, not enumerated 

above 1 75 

Trimmer's wages 18 00 

Painting— paints, $2 50; labor, $14 16 50 

Hub-bands, $1 75 ; plating dash, $1 25 ; 

do. axle nuts, 50c 3 50 

Other contingencies— files, boxing wheels, 

&c, &c 15 00 



$170 76 



These buggies sell for $225 to $250, according to the 
finish. 



landaulet. 



Illustrated on Plate II. 



The Landaulet illustrated in this No. is but little known 
in this country. The one from which our sketch is made 
was built by a Nqw York firm for a gentleman in a neigh- 
boring city. In England, however, and on the continent, 
it is used in the public parks as a dress carriage, and when 
thrown entirely open presents a very stylish and elegant 
appearance. We annex an estimate of the cost of a car- 
riage of this description — not so much in detail as we could 
wish, owing to our limited space, but the total, we believe, 
will be found to be correct. 



10 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MA KEE'S MAGAZINE 



June. 



Labor — making body, "with framed bows .$95 00 

Material in body, including wood, locks, 
hinges, rocker plates, glue, schrim, 
screws, <fec 45 00 

Ironing 52 00 

Carriage part and pole, material & labor .16 00 

Opera board, $2 50; wheels, $16 ; carv- 
ing block, brakes, bar and brackets, $10 ; 28 50 

Boxing wheels, fitting bars, and other 
jobbing 5 00 

Springs, $23 ; axles, $16 ; iron tires, bolts, 

and collars, $18 57 00 

Coal, oil and files, $6 ; painting and ma- 
terial, $65 71 00 

10-^- yards coteline,$47 75 ; 31 yds b. lace, 
$15 75 ; 100 do. narrow lace, $9 72 50 

3 yds. curtain silk, $4 50 ; curtain fringe, 

$1; 5 inside bullion holder tassels, $6 25 11 75 

Rug fringe and binding, $1 ; 24 lbs. curl- 
ed hair for inside, $8 88 9 88 

8 lbs. moss, for dicky cushions, 72c ; cot- 
ton cloth and seat lining, 75c 1 47 

Curtain and trigger tassels 1 12 

Carpet and oilcloth, $5 ; buckram, paste, 

tacks, thread, &c, $5 50 10 50 

Black cloth for glass frames, $2 ; silk tufts, 

$3 ; 3 spg. barrels, $3 8 00 

Speaking tube, $5 ; skirting, harness and 

cushion leather, $11 16 00 

Cushion bottoms of cloth, $1 ; 67 ft. top 

leather, $12 16 13 16 

2 frogs 50 

Back light, 50c. ; hub-bands, $4 ; in- 
side and outside handles, $5 50 10 00 

Lamps, $30 00 ; moulding and finishing, 

$2 50 ; hook and crab, $6 38 50 

Plating seat rail and toe-board handles . . 5 00 

Capping nuts, 75c; stump joints, $1 : 

3 lights, plate glass, $12 13 75 

Trimming entire 40 00 

Finishing 8 00 • 

$629 63 
Add 10 per cent 62 96 



$692 59 



CHAR-A-BANC. 

Illustrated by Plate IIL 
The name of this vehicle, which is French, is doubtless 
derived from the French words, char, a car, and banc, a 
bench, and is expressive of tbe idea of its being a carriage 
constructed with seats extended along the sides. The 
original draft, from which ours is taken, was drawn by 



Mr. Fred. Wood, of Bridgeport, Conn., a gentleman of 
talent and taste, to whom the public is largely indebted 
for many of the improvements made in the carriages of 
this country, of late years. 

This very fine draft, of a very fine Char-a-banc, and 
which was a prominent article in the carriage department 
of the late fair at the Crystal Palace, New York, has been 
kindly furnished to us, for our magazine, by the manufac- 
turers, Messrs. Wood Brothers, 446 Broadway. These 
gentlemen, we learn, have disposed of several, lately, of 
this pattern, which is found to be a very convenient car- 
riage for summer watering-places, or country boarding- 
schools. They sell this carriage for $600 to $650, accord- 




t ^S^iE5ESs^ & 



JfRMRlIli 





ing to the expenditure laid out in the production. The 
details are sufficiently explained by the side and back 
views which we give, and we need only add, that in the 
example above spoken of, the linings were black enamel- 
ed leather, body painted blue, carriage yellow and striped 
with black. The top is so arranged that, as seen above, 
it may be taken off at pleasure, and thus constitute it an 
open carriage — sociable, roomy and airy. 



prb from % SMtbiL 



A NEW AND PORTABLE FORGE. 
The forge here illustrated may not be generally applica- 
ble to coach-making purposes in America, yet there are 
some instances — such as a loft in some crowded city — 
where it may be found very convenient, especially if located 
near a building where steam power may be had. At all 
events, it will doubtless be suggestive and prove of interest 
to many of our readers, and we therefore place it among 
our Sparks from the Anvil, for their inspection. 

These figures represent, respectively, a side elevation and 
plan of a portable forge by Messrs. Benjamin Hick & Son, 
of Bolton, Lancashire, England. The hearth of this appa- 
ratus is a shallow rectangular chamber, with the front end 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



11 



rounded off, supported ou a pair of expanded legs, and two 
front runnino- ground wheels, the axles of which are carried 
by cast-iron brackets bolted to the bottom of the hearth. 
The forging blast is derived from a small fan set in a case 
attached to the hearth framing near the wheels — the air 
dact from the blowing case being led into the back end of 
the hearth at the centre. 

The fan is driven by a winch handle, connected by a 
triple bevil pinion arrangement, with an upper horizontal 
primary driving shaft, running in bearings on one side in a 
bracket attached to the hearth back, and at the other in the 
top of a standard bracket springing from the top of the fan 
case. This first motion shaft carries a fly wheel pulley, 
from which an endless band passes over a small pulley on 
the fan spindle. This arrangement of gearing affords the 
necessary high blowing speed in a very simple and straight- 
forward manner, for the triple bevil pinion combination acts 
as a "sun and planet" wheel train, the winch lever being 
attached directly to the intermediate bevil pinion, so that 
in its revolution round the axis of the first motion shaft, 



faint %QQm. 




whilst it gears with both of the other pinions — one of them 
being a fixture — it gives a double speed to the shaft ; and 
the fan speed is subsequently multiplied by all the differ- 
ence between the diameters of the large fly wheel pulley 




and the actual fan pulley. The hearth, is fitted at its front 
end with a pair of wooden transporting handles, and the 
fire is covered by an uptake shield, terminating in a neat 
chimney, for insuring the necessary draught. 



HARMONIZING OF COLORS. 

If there is any one subject in which the painter is more 
deficient than another, it is in the harmonizing of his 
colors. How frequently do we see a finely painted job 
entirely spoiled, in its effects upon the eye, by an inju- 
dicious application of the stripe, or the touching up of 
the carved work, often imparting to the whole carriage a 
coarse and cheap appearance. In hope that by a proper 
attention to the subject our readers may be benefited, 
we shall present them with an extract from a lecture re- 
cently delivered before the Royal Institution of England, by 
Mr. F. Crace Calvert, which he very modestly described 
simply as " On M. Chevreul's Laws of Color." 

The subject was evidently quite new to most of the au- 
dience, who, in the usual way, expressed their pleasure at 
the constant surprises which his observations afforded. 
He first gave a clear and concise explanation of the re- 
ceived dogmas on the composition of light, which he ren- 
dered sufficiently novel by his original method, and a 
succinct history of the subject, with particulars of the suc- 
cessive laborers in the field. He alluded more especially 
to Father Schoeffer, a monk who early wrote on the laws 
of color; to Goethe, the poet, who had studied it to a 
great extent; and to Count Rumford, who, about the end 
of the eighteenth century, published several memoirs on 
these laws. Count Rumford had explained very satis- 
factorily the " successive " contrast, and arrived at some 
insight into the " simultaneous " one, although he did not 
lay down its real laws. Prieur, Leblanc, Harris, and Field 
were also writers of most interesting works on the sub- 
ject ; but none of them had divided the laws into suc- 
cessive, simultaneous, and mixed contrasts, which really 
formed the basis of the practical laws of color. The 
honor of their discovery is due to M. Chevreul. The 
" successive " conti'ast has long been known. It consists 
in the fact that, on looking steadily for a few minutes on 
a red surface fixed on a white sheet of paper, and then 
carrying the eye to another white sheet, there will be per- 
ceived on it, not a red but a green one ; if green, red ; if 
purple, yellow ; if blue, orange. The " simultaneous " 
contrast is the most interesting and useful to be acquainted 
with. When two differently colored surfaces are in juxta- 
position, they mutually influence each other — favorably, 
if harmonizing colors, or in a contrary manner, if dis- 
cordant ; and in such proportion, in either case, as to be in 
exact ratio with the quantity of complementary color which 
is generated in the eye. For example, if two half sheets of 
plain tinted paper, one dark green, the other of a brilliant red, 
are placed side by side on a gray piece of cloth, the colors 
will be mutually improved, in consequence of the green 
generated by the red surface adding itself to the green 
of the juxtaposed surface, thus increasing its intensity. 
The green in its turn augments the beauty of the red. 
This effect can easily be appreciated, if two other pieces of 
paper of the same colors are placed at a short distance 
from the corresponding influenced ones, as below : — 

Red. Red Green. Green. 

The lecturer observed that it is not sufficient merely to 



12 



THE NEW YOEK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



June. 



place complementary colors side by side to produce har- 
mony of color, since the respective intensities have a most 
decided influence : thus pink and light green agree, red and 
dark green also ; but light green and dark red, and pink 
and dark green, do not. Thus, to obtain the maximum of 
effect and perfect harmony, the following colors must be 
placed side by side, taking into account their exact in- 
tensity of shade and tint : — 



Red Green 



Primitive Colors. Complementary Colors. 

Light blue ) 

Yellow, \ White light. 

Red, ) 

Red, ) 

Blue Orange . . . i Yellow, v White light. 

Blue, ) 

Blue, \ 

Yellow-orange . . Indigo . . . \ Red, V White light. 



Yellow, j 
(Red, 

Greenish-vellow . Violet . . . \ Blue, \ White light. 

( Yellow, 



Black 



White 



Yellow, ) 

Blue, \ White light. 

Red, ) 



If attention is not paid to this arrangement, colors, instead of 
mutually improving each other, will lose in beauty. Thus, 
if blue and purple are placed side by side, the blue throw- 
ing its complimentary color, orange, upon the purple, will 
give it a faded appearance ; and the blue, receiving the 
orange-yellow of the purple, will assume a greenish tinge. 
The same may be said of yellow and red, if placed, in jux- 
taposition. The red, by throwing its complementary color, 
green, on the yellow, communicates to it a greenish tinge ; 
the yellow, by throwing its purple hue, imparts to the red 
a disagreeable purple appearance. From the " mixed con- 
trast" arises the rule that a brilliant color should never be 
looked at for any length of time, if its true tint or bril- 
liancy is to be appreciated ; for if a piece of red cloth is 
looked at for a few minutes, green, its complementary 
color, is generated in the eye, and, adding itself to a por- 
tion of the red, produces black, which tarnishes the beauty 
of the red. This contrast explains, too, why the tone of a 
color is modified, either favorably or otherwise, according 
to the color which the eye has previously looked at : fa- 
vorably, when, for instance, the eye first looks on a yellow 
surface and then on a purple one ; and unfavorably, when 
it looks at a blue, and then at a purple. Mr. Crace Cal- 
vert also showed that black and white surfaces assume dif- 
ferent hues according to the colors placed in juxtaposition 
with them ; for example, black acquires an orange or pur- 
ple tint, if the colors placed beside it are blue or orange. 
But these effects can be overcome, in the case of these or 
any colors, by giving to the influenced color a tint similar 
to that influencing it. Thus, to prevent black becoming 
orange by its contact with blue, it is merely necessary that 
the black should be blued, and in such proportion that the 
amount of blue will neutralize the orange thrown on it by 
influence, thus producing black. As an instance, to pre- 
vent a gray design acquiring a pinkish shade through 
working it with green, give the gray a greenish hue, 
which, by neutralizing the pink, will generate white light, 
and thus preserve the gray. It is obviously of the highest 
importance to all persons occupied with colored designs 
or fabrics to be acquainted with these laws, in order to 
know at once the exact color, shade, and tint which would 



produce the greatest effect when placed beside another 
color. Helping to this, Mr. Crace Calvert explained the 
chromatic table of M. Chevreul, which enabled any person 
at a glance to ascertain what was the complementary color 
of any of the 13,480 shades which the French savant had 
distinctly classed in his table. 

Painters' Brushes. — An improvement in Painters' 
Brushes has been patented recently in England. An im- 
portant feature in the improvement is the saw cuts, or 
opening conjoined with the plates, whereby the handle 
may be firmly w T edged and secured to the brush part. 



Ctimnuttg 



Boom. 



We are very sorry to be compelled to give but a meagre 
amount of instruction in this department of our magazine, 
for this month, but the prolonged engagement of our asso- 
ciate, Mr. Tousley, in the South, has rendered it unavoida- 
ble. We hope, in our next, to have his supervision of this 
department, for which he is more fitted than ourself, since 
he is a trimmer, and fully competent, both by experience 
and education, to do our patrons justice. In about two 
weeks he will be at his post, with sleeves rolled up, and 
awl and needles in hand, ready to do up business in his line 
in a proper manner. 

A few general observations are added. . In consequence 
of the continued " hard times " in this locality, but little 
change has taken place in the style of trimming carriages 
since the year has come in. We may, however, say to 
those who are desirous to know the New York styles, that 
since the stitching machine has come into common use, the 
most costly got-up work is profusely stitched on the boot, 
dash, falls, cushions and tops, with white. Occasionally we 
observe a job stitched with black figures exclusively, but 
this is generally done to please some particular customer's 
taste, and may be rather termed an exception to, than the 
fashion. There is also a disposition in some manufacturers 
to get up a style of work suited to the times, in which the 
trimmer's occupation is almost nullified ; but more of this 
subject hereafter. S. 



The next No. will contain a fine draft of a new and tasteful 
style of trimming — at least new to most of our readers. 
Our stitching-plate will also come in the next number. 
The present is but a pioneer sheet, to feel the way and regu- 
late the number of future issues ; so we prefer to send it 
forth with as few extras as possible. 

We have at our command a new process by which both 
likenesses of individuals, and carriage designs, correct to 
any scale, can be photographed from the original direct 
upon the engraver's block. This achievement in modern 
science places in our hands a power, which will be made 
manifest in the profuse number of correct engravings which 
will embellish the Metropolitan Magazine. 



lUNE. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



13 



Clje Setv gork Coaclj-ntalur * Jpppe 



JUNE 1, 1858. 



E. M. STE.ATTON & M. G. TOUSLEY, Editors. 



TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

" Inquirer," who wants to know if there is any late work 
published and devoted to coach-making, is informed that we 
know of none later than that on English Pleasure Carriages, 
by Wm, B. Adams, published by Charles Knight, London, 
1837. We will send it to you by express on the receipt of $2 50. 
Although of no value as a guide to the American coach-maker, 
yet it may afford you some instruction as a historical treatise, 
and as such claim a place in your library. 

" G. T." — We have inquired at the book-stores in this city, 
and have not yet succeeded in finding " a treatise exclusively 
devoted to coach-painting in all its branches," etc. We are in- 
clined to the opinion, that you will find in our " Paint Room," 
during the year, as much instruction as can be obtained from 
any other source. 

" G. R., of Me." — We have seen a notice of a striping ma- 
chine somewhere, and believe it has been patented ; by whom 
we cannot now say. 

" A. R. R., of 0.," who hopes that we " will publish just such 
a Mag. as every coach-maker should have, and an honor to the 
craft," is assured that no pains will be spared on our part to 
effect so desirable an object. In evidence of our intentions, we 
recommend to you this first number, and hope you will — if sat- 
isfactory — recommend it to your shopmates, and labor to induce 
them to patronize us. — See our Prospectus at the end of this 
number. 

" C. N. M., of 0., Wisconsin," who " offers his congratula- 
tions at the prospect of a 'New York Coach-maker's Magazine,' " 
is thanked for his kind suggestions, and assured that we intend 
to profit by them. His voluntary offer to contribute to our 
painting department is accepted ; and we hope his favors will 
be as acceptable to our readers as his letter has been gratifying 
to us. 

" A. A. McK., of N. C," who inquires if we "are ready to 
furnish charts for our trade," will please give us the size he 
wants ; we will try and get him up a finer one than he can get 
out of New York, and at better rates to him, and of better pat- 
terns. 

" J. C. M., of Va." — We will furnish you, and others in- 
quiring, with envelopes with your card and a small cut of a 
carriage printed thereon for from $4 50 to $5 50 per 1,000, 
according to the quality, at two days' notice. 

Note. — Many friends have written us in relation to agencies 
— to contributing — wishing us success in our new enterprise, 
etc. — some of which we have answered through the mails, and 
others remain unanswered for want of time. All will pardon us 
for any seeming neglect. We intend to pay respect to all as 
far as is in our power. We hope our friends will send us the 
promised clubs — and thus send us on our way encouraged — on 
receipt of this number. 

A WORD TO OUR FRIENDS. 

The peculiar modesty of Editors leads them to regard 
everybody as their friends, at least, so long as they take 
their publication and pay for it. We make no pretensions 
to any particular degree of disinterested philanthropy in 
placing our efforts before the coach-making public, but 
frankly confess, and wish it to be understood, that we en- 
gage in these duties with the hope of making it pay. 

We intend to make The New York Coach-maker's 
Magazine as useful and interesting as our limited capaci- 



ties will permit, though we claim no higher degree of per- 
fection than ordinary mortals possess. We may err in 
judgment, and lay ourselves open to the criticism of our 
fellow-craftsmen in the selection of styles, and may give out 
ideas believing them to be original, which others may have 
thought of and even mentioned before us. The minds of 
men are constantly in exercise, and, knowing the danger of 
involuntary plagiarism, a modern author naively advises his 
brothers of the quill to hurry and write down their thoughts, 
lest some one else should do so before them. 

We are led to make these remarks, from the fact that we 
fully appreciate the position which we occupy before the 
craft. There is no point wherein dictation becomes so de- 
licate a matter, as when it touches the trades by which men 
earn their subsistence. 

They will read books upon law, medicine, or politics — 
they will bear criticism and reproof ; but when you talk to 
a man about his trade, all the egotism of his nature rises 
up and resolves itself into one mighty I, and he will then 
turn aside contemptuously, lest the countenance of a sugges- 
tion should be taken as evidence that he was deficient. 
But while we believe that it is natural for men to guard 
their weakest points the most jealously, we will relieve the 
minds of such as may scruple against reading a useful and 
interesting magazine on account of appearances, by stating 
at the outset that we do not conceive it to be necessary for 
a coach-maker to take this work because of any lack which 
he may have in the practical duties of his calling ; neither 
do we propose to teach the apprentice how to shave up his 
" stuff," to weld his iron, or to seam his lace, for those be- 
long to the " arts and mysteries" which the " boss" binds 
himself to indoctrinate him into at the beginning. But 
should we be so fortunate, with all the aids that we can 
secure from your ranks, as to give a tolerably accurate ac- 
count of the progress of invention, and the generally sane 
tioned styles of the day, together with an occasional taste- 
ful pattern, or style of finish, we shall consider that we have 
rendered our efforts useful, rather than obnoxious to the 
craft, and shall solicit their co-operation as a matter of in- 
terest to themselves. 

But when this comes into your hands, please (for your 
own sakes) to reflect upon the amount of interest Avhich you 
begin to feel in the success of the project, and the amount 
of pleasure as well as benefit which you will be able to ex- 
perience from its monthly visits ; and then consider that 
our eircrdation must be altogether confined within the circle 
of the craft, and at best but a limited one, and you will 
perceive at a glance that nothing short of an individual 
- — not a company — patronage will place it upon a respect- 
able and paying basis, and you will readily discover that 
upon yourself, in a great measure, rests the responsibility of 
its support ; for, should you consider yourself too poor to take 
it, others will have the same plea (or at least use it), and the 



14 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



June. 



consequence will be that it will fail to pay its publisher, 
and then you will have no magazine to borrow. If this 
consideration does not move you to support it, we have no 
further claims upon your sympathy ; for, should we fail to 
interest you, you can have no motive to act from, and your 
comrades would have no fears of your soiling their books. 
We would briefly hint that Editors seldom get rich. 

The conducting of a purely Literary Magazine is, of 
itself, a very difficult task, and yet it is nothing in compari- 
son with the labor required in editing a Magazine in which 
both a literary and a mechanical character are to be in com- 
bination. We therefore hope to have the kind forbearance 
and sympathy of our patrons, to brighten the clouds that 
must occasionally overshadow our pathway ; and then, how 
can an editor expect to be able to please everybody, when 
he can so very seldom succeed in pleasing hinself ? Let us 
bear and forbear. 

If our friends will only heed the above suggestions, we 
will do our best to make the Magazine all that the reader 
could desire it to be (consistent with its aims), both as a use- 
ful and an attractive work. 

Again, let us endeavor to be prompt with each other. 
When the first of the month rolls around, you want your 
magazine, and, when a series of articles are commenced, you 
expect them to be completed ; you also want your letters 
answered promptly when you address us on business ; con- 
sider this, then, as a business letter, as well as an editorial 
address, for we intend it as such, and answer immediately. 

If you chance to be out of money, don't wait to get it, 
but sit right down, and, using your pencil if your pen is 
poor, trace on a leaf of your memoranda, on waste paper, or 
anything which will show your autograph, the following 
simple sentence : " I am expecting to patronize your Maga- 
zine," and sign your name and address, then enclose it to 
the proprietor. This will not only prove a guide as to the 
number which must be struck at the second issue, but it 
also insures the writer a complete volume. To sum up the 
whole, if you like the Magazine, we trust you will take it 
and pay for it. If you intend to take it, we hope you will 
say so. If you have anything to say against the way in 
which it is conducted, let us hear it first. 

Times are hard, we freely admit, but we presume you 
still continue to use tea and coffee, tobacco, and perhaps 
your " lager." You will say that those are the common 
comforts of life, or at least the spices that savor them. We 
admit it ; but is not reading also a source of enjoyment — 
a goblet, of thought, flashing at its foaming brim with the 
more than equally necessary cordial of the mind ? Will it 
not awaken a new source of pleasure, for which kings have 
sought in vain, and thus light your sullen pathway on to a 
brighter and a better day ? The way to drive away the 
" blues" is to work manfully during the hours of labor, and 
drown the cares of business, at intervals, by the enjoyment 



of mental or other wholesome repasts. It is a significant 
fact that literary papers and magazines were in larger de- 
mand during the crisis than at any previous time. 



WHAT THE FRENCH THINK OF US. 
Our readers will find in this number of our magazine an 
article translated from the Mercure ITniversel, a monthly 
journal published in Paris, in which the editor has under- 
taken to enlighten the Europeans upon the state of carriage- 
making in this country. It will be seen, very readily, that 
the writer has obtained his information from sources not 
easily reached by ordinary staticians ; and we have a slight 
suspicion that, in addition to the facts given, he has drawn 
somewhat upon his imagination. The article itself furnishes 
abundant evidence that the author was not an " eye-witness" 
to all the good things he so graphically describes ; and, 
when he speaks of New Orleans as being situated on the 
"oriental banks of the Mississippi," we are inclined to be- 
lieve that his geographical knowledge of that locality must 
have been derived either from the map of a real-estate 
auctioneer, or the advertisement of a country boarding- 
house keeper. 

It will doubtless be news to many of our readers, that the 
English manufacturers, who attempted to monopolize tne 
carriage-trade of that country, and failed, finally transferred 
their skill, and whatever of capital they saved from the 
wreck, to the "oriental banks," and that they are now oc- 
cupying shops in New Orleans, in which may be seen 
" shelves with hooks, on which carriages are hung, and 
others suspended from the ceilings." If any of our readers 
have seen shops of this kind in New Orleans, they will 
place us under very great obligations by employing the best 
photographic artist in the city to take an interior view for 
illustrating our next number, and draw upon us, at sight, 
for costs and charges. 

The writer also naively informs us that the New Orleans 
carriage-makers " possess iron, steel and a good quality of 
wood," and we think one word in the original would almost 
justify us in adding " putty" to the other materials ; but, 
as we are not quite sure that our translation of the word is 
correct, we will omit it from the list : and from the fact that 
they possess these important requisites, the writer goes on 
to arome that the " New Orleans Carriao-e-makers would 
have made beautiful work, if these adventurous negotiants 
had not gone and carried mercantile men among them to 
take the place of the comfortable, strong and solid." We 
like his idea of what a carriage-maker should be, and we 
have no doubt, notwithstanding his assertion that New Or- 
leans is " unhealthy," many of our fellow craftsmen there 
will be found to be both " solid and comfortable." 

It will be observed, also, that this writer shows, conclu- 
sively, that our New Orleans friends are underselling East- 
ern manufacturers, and it behooves us in this quarter to 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



15 



look into the matter. We must not be beaten by them, 
even if they do possess " iron, steel and a good quality of 
wood." He says that " you can easily obtain a carriage (?) 
harness and a horse, all new (except' the horse), for 250 frs.." 
v. Inch is about equal to $50, but he does not give a very 
L'>od description of the horse, and, from the fact that he 
is not " new" we doubt if he can be either speedy or hand- 
some. The quality of the carriage, also, is made rather 
doubtful by his assertion, that they are in the habit of 
using " chestnut spokes" in that quarter. 

All this, we doubt not, will be very amusing to our New 
Orleans friends, and we hope they will be duly thankful 
for this late news from France ; and we will take this occa- 
sion to say to our Paris contemporary that, notwithstand- 
ing these terrible " negotiants" the carriage-trade in the 
Crescent City is flourishing bravely, and that she has one 
establishment which, we do not hesitate to say, sells more 
vehicles yearly than any other in the world — we allude, of 
course, to the well-known house of Messrs. Denman & Co., 
whose establishment has been in operation nearly forty 
years, and celebrated throughout the South for the excel- 
lence of its work. 

There are other first-class houses in New Orleans, which 
would be an honor to any city ; and we venture to say that, 
if our French friend should step into the Repositories of 
Messrs. Lum & Co., and Messrs. Mathews & Co., he would 
find vehicles that would compare favorably with the best 
manufactured in Paris ; but we doubt if he could find in 
either of these establishments " carriages hung upon hooks, 
or suspended from the ceilings." 



OTTR PLATES WITH THIS NUMBER. 

Our friends will notice that we have given them four plates 
in this number, which is one more than we had promised 
in our prospectus. The craft are also reminded that our 
drafts are better got up than they are accustomed to see in 
publications of this kind, and are correct and practical 
working drafts, drawn from carriages, not got up on paper 
by persons unacquainted with correct measurements, but 
of real manufacture, and consequently have a value attached 
to them, not always found ; and we trust that they will, 
consequently, prove satisfactory to the coach-making public. 
It is not our intention to invariably give portraits on plate 
paper — this, however, will depend upon the encouragement 
we may receive — but to have them inserted in the reading 
columns, as is the custom in other works, and to give them 
occasionally during the year. 

The Buggy on plate I. is drawn from the original vehicle, 
and is as correct a likeness as can be made. The Lan- 
daulet is from a drawing by Mr. Isaac W. Britton, of this 
city, whose pencil and talent, we are happy to announce, 
have been engaged for the special benefit of our readers in 
future numbers ; and, although we do not wish to flatter 



him, we must say, we think, when his forthcoming drafts 
are seen, you will admit that he stands unrivaled in this 
department of his profession. When we add that his posi- 
tion is favorable to his being able to give the latest fashions, 
we are convinced we have said enough on the subject. The 
Char-a-Banc, as elsewhere announced, is by Mr. Frederick 
Wood, of Bridgeport, Conn., and furnished us through the 
politeness of Messrs. Wood Brothers, the distingushed 
firm on Broadway, this city. 

The portrait of Mr. Brewster is from an ambrotype 
by Turner, of New Haven, and is pronounced by his 
family and acquaintances to be a capital image of the ori- 
ginal. In justice to the feelings of Mr. Brewster, we have 
to say, that he only consented to sit for his likeness 
after much importunity, as he has great aversion to 
notoriety in any form. The engravings, with the exception 
of the one named above, are principally by Lossing and 
Barritt, whose popularity in that line is not unknown to 
fame. 

In justice to our patrons we are obliged to say, that we 
reserve to ourselves the privilege of confining ourselves 
(except on special occasions) to our original promise of 
three plates. This, however, will very much depend on 
the encouragment we may receive, as we have no intention 
or thought of making enough on this publication, in one 
year, to enable us to retire to some villa, and sleep away 
the remainder of life in comparative obscurity. 

With the July number, we intend to give a splendid 
modern coach, furnished by our special artist, a fine dog- 
cart, by Messrs. Brewster & Co., and a draft we have lately 
received from France, all of which, we trust, will be accept- 
able to our friends, and satisfy them that we shall be able 
to redeem our promises of giving them their money's worth. 



An editor of a respectable sheet cannot afford to 
soil its fair columns with a long-winded personal difficulty. 
If you prove your antagonist to be a great falsifier — what 
then ? It is sowing to the wind and reaping the whirl- 
wind. The patrons, at whose expense you publish it, are 
too little interested in the result to either countenance the 
trespass, or pry into the merits of the controversy; and 
when, at last, their patience has been worn thread-bare, 
they will decide that both parties have made fools of them- 
selves. A cotemporary remarks that such things look 
doubly mean when printed with good type, and on good 
white paper. A certain air of gentility seems to surround 
such a sheet, which should inspire confidence, and recom- 
mend it to favor. 

$W Home-made correspondence is now the order of the 
day. We have been somewhat amused at the display 
lately got up at the office of a Western cotemporary, 
though nearly annihilated by the blaze of invectives and 
crash of italics, through which the writer's individuality 
shines most conspicuously. 



16 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



June. 



TABLE OF TRADE. 

Shipments from New York, Spain, Cuba, Mexico, and Cali- 
fornia have been made ; but business is less brisk in those 
directions, this spring, than usual. The Central American 
trade is disturbed, and nearly cut off, by hard times and 
internal feuds. 

Business in the Eastern States is reviving as fast as 
could be expected. A St. Louis correspondent reports trade 
brisk in that city, and thinks that all hands are busy 
through the South generally. 

In the West, trade seems to be springing up consider- 
ably. 

We hope to give a more perfect summary in our next. 



■ Club-agents will confer a favor by reporting the 
state of trade, in their respective localities, monthly. We 
hope to be able to make this a useful and interesting fea- 
ture in the new work. 

$3T This number is dated June, that we may continue 
to publish in advance of date. We are convinced that it 
is better to be a month ahead than a week behind ; so our 
patrons must be up in the morning to receive an early visit. 
We make no excuses in regard to the appearance of our 
first number ; for, with sensible men, our position is under- 
stood and appreciated. 

JSP The present number is not a strained effort. We 
have no patents to peddle — no humbugging interests to 
fall back upon. If properly sustained, the "Metropolitan 
Magazine" will be the work of our future lives. Our course 
will be firm and even. If we make any change, it will be 
to print a better magazine between canvassing times than 
when soliciting — otherwise our patrons will justly consider 
the management a swindling operation. 

4 ■♦ 4*~4m » 

Taste. — There are many employments which require the 
exercise of taste, to prove successful ; none more so than the 
coach-maker's. The great public, of which an individual is 
but an integral part, will so far study its own interests as 
to learn, in time, that the most substantial and tasty made 
work is the cheapest, even should they pay a little more 
for it at purchasing. We intend to use our best efforts, 
for the " mechanical interests" of coach-making, by foreign 
and domestic correspondence with the craft, monthly. But 
should we only succeed in bringing to the reader's mind a 
solitary original idea during an entire year, ought not that 
to satisfy him for his three-dollar subscription to our 
work ? 

Egyptian "Turn-outs." — An American, now traveling 
in Egypt, writes home from Alexandria, saying, " The styl- 
ish turn-outs we saw here would astonish you ; such car- 
riages, and always a servant running before to clear the 
way." It is said that omnibuses are found in Cairo, carry- 
ing passengers as in London, Paris, or New York. 



(EMlmrial Sjptogs* 



The Carriage Presented to the Princess Royal. — ■ 
Messrs. Hooper & Co., of the Haymarket, Coach-builders 
to the Royal family, have recently completed a very beauti- 
ful carriage, which has been presented to the Bride of 
Prince Frederick William, by the city of Konigsburg, on 
her arrival at Berlin. The carriage is a C and under- 
spring landau ; the body is painted a dark cobalt blue ; 
the wheels and under carriage are of the same color, 
picked out with red. On the panels of the doors are 
two shields, bearing the arms of the Prince and Princess, 
surmounted by a crown, and encircled by the ribbons of 
the Hohenzollern Order. The interior of the carriage is 
lined with figured brocatelle silk, of a silvered drab color ; 
and, at the suggestion of the Prince, the curtains are of a 
delicate rose-color, which produces a very pleasing effeci. 
The hammer-cloth is a dark blue, with red and white 
fringe, and bullion tassels and cords. At each side are 
silver shields, with the arms. The lamps and fittings are 
also silver. The carriage, which is described as being 
chastely elegant, was built in the short space of ten days. 
About ninety men were engaged in its construction. John 
Bull must have been uncommon smart, we think, to have 
done all this in nine days, especially if he did the painting 
in the same time ! 

Johnny Bull Pricking up his Ears. — Our enter- 
prising countrymen, the Messrs. Howes & Cushing, are 
astonishing the natives across the " big herring pond," by 
their magnificent display of chariots, wagons, horses, etc., 
etc. An English print, describing this Yankee enterprise, 
says, that " the pageant consists of a musical chariot or 
Apollonicon drawn by forty cream-colored horses, driven 
in hand by Mr. J. P. Paul." This gentleman, by the way, 
is very dexterous at handling the " ribbons," forty in hand, 
and seems, if possible, to have astonished the English jock- 
ies even more than our own citizens. The chariot is em- 
bellished by a painting of the landing of Columbus in the 
New World, and a spirited illustration of a buffalo hunt. 
Among the inmates of this chariot were a troop of Bedouiu 
Arabs, whose feats appear to have wonderfully astonished 
the Cockneys. A whole tribe of North American Indians, 
in this cavalcade, have excited the wonder of the rural 
population by their strange costumes and manners. 

The Maltese in Luck. — The Maltese, at Tunis, in Bar- 
bary, have a virtual monopoly of all that pertains to car- 
riages for hire. The supply of caleches is large and the 
demand brisk, as the charges are moderate. 

Tax on Conveyances in London. — The mileage duty 
for the past year on omnibuses, licenses, etc., was £74, 270 
Vs. lOd. ; whilst on cabs the total duty was £82,110 9s., 
including the drivers' and conductors' licenses. 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



17 



CLUB AGENTS. 

Coachmakers, who take the lead in making Clubs 
for our present volume, will receive a handsome 
chart at the close of the year, containing the fashion 
plates published in our work up to that date. This 
will furnish our friends with a fine reference chart 

c 

for office and shop use. 

|)G^ anft Help for \\z fmntg* 

MY BOUND BOY AND I. 

The house that you see underneath the great pine, 
With walls that are painted, with doors that are fine, 
And the garden, with hedges about it, are mine. 

Yet Elijah, my Bound-boy, may dream in its shade, 
And breathe the perfumes of my garden and glade ; 
Or may wander and chat with some bonny fair maid. 

Of the town, or the country, he owns not a rood — 
No stone by the road-side, no stick in the wood ; 
Yet ne'er lacks my Bound-boy for clothing or food. 

When creditors beg, and stern bankers demand, 
He sits by the chimney — his book in his hand- 
As merry at heart, as if money was sand. 

Tis good in his blue eye the twinkle to see ; 
That the shop goes awry, never troubles his glee ; 
'Tis I that must pay for the damage, not he. 

He laughs while I frown, and he sings as I sigh, 
And his hours pass more lightly and happily by ; 
So Elijah, my Bound-boy, is richer than I. 



A DKEADFUL MALADY. 

Perhaps, without offense, we may be allowed to say a 
few words on a disease to which we are all subject. It is a 
malady common to both sexes and to all ages, but it is 
easier controlled in children than adults. Not all the 
physicians in Philadelphia, not the whole body of the Col- 
lege of Surgeons, not all the drugs in Apothecaries' Hall 
can effect a cure. They cannot minister to a "mind dis- 
eased," and therefore throwing " physic to the dogs" 
would be in no wise contrary to common sense in this par- 
ticular. 

Thedisease to which we refer is occasionally produced 
by trivial circumstances. It has often been caused by a 
badly cooked dinner, or a delayed breakfast, by a dishon- 
ored bill, or a rise and fall in the money market, a hasty 
word, an unfulfilled promise, a denied request, a disappoint- 
ment of pleasure, an idle rumor, and sometimes even a 
shower of rain has been known to cause the most dreadful 
results. 

The disease is in some cases infectious. It has been 
known to attack a whole family, and to have been com- 
municated from one to the other like measles or the small- 
pox. The head of the house has been seized by the 



epidemic while from home. He has returned with the 
virus in his system. Symptoms of the malady have rapidly 
developed themselves in his lady ; the children and servants 
have been seized in precisely the same way, until every 
one in the household has been more or less affected, and 
the sign of the plague ought certainly to have been painted 
on the door of the dwelling, with the appropriate inscrip- 
tion, " Have mercy upon us." 

The symptoms of the disease vary in different cases. 
Sometimes the patient is seized with a paroxysm, during 
which he (or she) utters very strong language in a highly 
excited manner, and rapidly passes from room to room, 
banking the doors and discommoding; the furniture. In 
other cases the patient appears to be struck dumb, and 
suddenly to have lost all energy. A deep silence is pre- 
served. Questions, though frequently repeated, remain un- 
answered. The appetite generally fails; nothing is eaten, 
and an utter prostration of the system is noticeable in 
every movement. 

The symptoms, however, are almost endless in their 
variety, producing in some a kind of temporary insanity, 
in which they are ready to commit any act of violence; in 
others a gnawing sensation of desire to inflict suffering on 
those about them ; in some the attacks are sudden, and are 
not be accounted for by any known laws : while in others 
they are invariably traceable to some known origin. In 
any case the attack is severe while it lasts ; and its peculi- 
arities are such that it is extremely painful to wait upon the 
patient or to remain in his society. Happily, the malady is 
seldom if ever chronic, and only requires a careful regimen 
on the part of the sufferer to effect a complete cure. 

Bad Temper is the disease to which we thus delicately 
allude ; and so prevalent is it, and so destructive in its re- 
sults, that we think we are right in introducing it among 
our " Hopes and Helps for the Young." 

It is really astonishing how little our moral reflections 
dwell upon our tempers. How seldom do its errors impress 
us with any strong regret. We neither blame ourselves 
nor think that others should blame us on this account. 
We value a good reputation, and to secure fame or for- 
tune we think no exertion too great; but as to the 
regulation of temper we rarely give it a thought. We do 
not reflect how much happiness or how much misery for 
those who are nearest and dearest to us lies in the control 
of our temper. We forget that we are all creatures of 
sympathy. We forget that the harshness of our words, 
the coldness of our manner, the bitterness of our looks, 
may inflict deep wounds, that will lie long ere they heal, 
and may never lose the scar. 

It would be impossible to enumerate and classify all the 
failings of temper, for they are as versatile as the peculiari- 
ties of human character. We may, however, glance at bad 
temper in few of its more conspicuous forms ; but we can 
only do this in some of its broader distinctions. 



THE VIOLENT. 

Violence is the coarsest and most brutal form of temper. 
Selfish passions, unable to bear any constraint, or any con- 
tradiction, or any supposed contradiction, blaze into a 
devouring flame, scathing everything within reach. Vio- 
lence of temper is the prime element in the tyrannic char- 
acter. There are as' great tyrants — in their limited sphere 
— ruling over the family circle as ever swayed a sceptre 
over an empire. A low, barbarous, ruffian nature, obtuse 



18 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



June. 



and unforbearing, can fill to the brim the cup of calamity 
for those few over whom he exerts authority. The house 
he calls his castle he can for others make a prison ; the 
liberty of which he boasts he can make to them the direst 
bondage ; the power which should be their guardianship he 
can make their terror — heaping sorrows without number 
on his dependent and defenseless victims. 

There are wives in America who turn pale at a hus- 
band's step, and hurry their trembling children out of the 
way when " father's coming." Ther are brothers and 
sisters with one amongst the number with whom they 
can never be familiar ; one who goes into a passion at 
every trivial circumstance, and, in asserting his or her own 
independence, renders everybody else wretchedly uncom- 
fortable. This sort of spirit, if given a theological direc- 
tion, makes the bigot, the fanatic, the persecutor ; this 
makes the martinet of the army, the fire-eater of the mess- 
table, and would make the most absolute of all absolute 
tyrants, if clothed with imperial insignia. In its passionate 
paroxysm it loses everything that calls for respect, and in 
the thoughtful excites more commiseration than fear or 
hate ; for he who can please nobody is not so much to be 
pitied as he whom nobody can please, who 

" Speaks plain as cannon fire, and snaps and raves, 
And gives the bastinado with his tongue." 

THE MOROSE. 

As temper of this class has its various forms, so it has 
likewise manifold sources. It may be found in extreme 
self-consequence, or in extreme self-dissatisfaction. It may 
be evidenced by haughty contempt or silent and cold indiffer- 
ence. Such a temper constrains the spirit. It leaves the 
soul few social attractions or generous desires. It throws 
gloom where it ought to throw light. It withers the smile 
half formed. It silences the word half spoken. It robs 
action of loveliness, and takes all grace from speech. It 
has no soul of frank and generous appreciation. It seems 
to live only to prove how much pain one human creature 
may give to others without reaping any gain or pleasure to 
himself. 

The misery that violence inflicts, it inflicts openly — this 
does it silently : violence often feels its wrong — this never: 
violence has its moments of deep compunction, but this has 
no time of tenderness. If a violent temper makes a tyrant, 
a morose temper makes a cynic — one makes the persecutor 
and the other the ascetic. If both, therefore, are equal in 
unkindness, the one is at least more coldly intolerable than 
the other. 

THE REVENGEFUL. 

Revenge is very commonly the result of a marriage 
between pride and vanity. Pride is better than vanity ; 
pride can forget and forgive, but vanity very seldom does 
either. To the vain or the petty proud, flattery is as the 
very breath of their nostrils. Rough or disagreeable truth 
is not to be endured. Sensitive at all points, such persons 
are hurt when you did not know it and did not intend it. 
They resent as mortal stabs what was merely meant for a 
joke. They magnify little slights into great wrongs, and 
by perpetually gazing at a molehill at last bring themselves 
to believe it a mountain. 

To give tit for tat — quid pro quo — is the only thing that 
can satisfy their morbid vanity. They must revenge every 
slight — intentional or otherwise, great or small — they catch 
the transgressor by the throat, and will not let him go till 



he has paid the uttermost farthing. These anti-social and 
unmerciful dispositions will make no allowance for the 
frailty of human nature, or the failings and provocations of 
their own character ; they set themselves up above every- 
thing, and, to punish an offense, to revenge an insult, would 
compass heaven and earth. 

THE CAPTIOUS. 

The captious and discontented are never to be satisfied. 
They are prompt to complain; are only at peace when they 
are in a quarrel, only contented when finding fault. Their 
heads are as full of quarrels as an egg is full of meat. They 
are the most obdurate opponents, because the most preju- 
diced ; they are the least susceptible to conviction, and the 
last to appreciate kindness. 

" All seems infected that the infected spy ; 
And all seems yellow to the jaundiced eye." 

In all waters there are some fish that love to swim against 
the stream. In every community persons are to be found 
who delight to be in opposition to everybody else. They 
are angry without a cause. They glory in their obstinacy. 
But as stiff necks are always diseased, and hollow trees the 
most unbending, so their inflexibility is a proof of their un- 
soundness, rather than their strength. 

The captious and the discontented would travel from 
Dan to Beersheba, and at every step of the way cry, "It is 
all barren." No society can please them; no character suit 
them ; no exertion earn approval, and no condition satisfy 
their wants. 

EXCUSES OFFERED. 

In considering a few of the excuses offered when faults 
of temper are admitted, we notice — 

Natural constitution. — People say they are bad-tempered 
as they would say they are of a nervous or bilious tempera- 
ment, they are betrayed, when they know it not, into 
wrong speaking or wrong actions. It is their natural con- 
stitution, and cannot be cured. 

Others plead ill health, or the misfortunes of life. 
These, they declare, have embittered their constitution, and 
made them different from what they once were. Fortune 
and the world have been rough and boisterous in their 
course. Want of health has thrown gloom over their 
spirits, and they consequently suffer from a soured dis- 
position. 

Others plead errors in training. They were not taught 
better ; were never furnished with right principles ; were 
allowed to have their own way; were spoiled by evil 
example. 

Others urge irresistible provocation. These say, Not to 
have exhibited passion would have been more than human ; 
that their ebullition of feeling was just and necessary; that 
they acted precisely as they meant to act, and that they are 
the aggrieved parties. 

None of these excuses hold good. That physical consti- 
tution is the root of many of our faults is not to be denied ; 
but it is a mistake to suppose that these faults are in- 
curable. Bodily illness or misfortune may embitter the 
spirit ; but it is neither just nor necessary that they should 
do so. It is not because we are unhappy that others 
should be made the same. Evils of training, also, may be 
overcome and eradicated ; and when we excuse ourselves 
on the score that our quarrel was justified, and our passion 
nothing more than necessary, we are our own judges, and 
are therefore not likely to be unbiased. 



June. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



19 



Temper can be controlled. The man who says he can- 
not help being angry, or sullen, or peevish, deceives him- 
self. We constantly avoid being so when interest or 
decorum requires it. Those whims which strangers would 
not bear, we cast upon our friends. That temper can be 
corrected is proved by thousands of instances. It is a 
glorious achievement, and within the reach of all. Better 
is he that ruleth his spirit than he who taketh a city. 

Kindness is the greatest strength ; exerts the strongest 
influence ; does the most good, and receives the brightest 
reward. A kind and accommodating spirit is the genuine 
trait of manly character. A Spanish proverb counsels us 
to grow angry slowly, but wisdom of a higher source for- 
bids us to be angry at all. 

Although, as we have said, the disease of a bad temper 
is not chronic, although it may be cured, it is much easier 
to arrest its progress in youth than in maturity. Therefore 
we affectionately call our young readers' attention to them- 
selves. " Know thyself." See to it that habits of temper 
— violent, morose, discontented, capricious, revengeful — are 
weeded out of that bit of garden ground, the heart, that 
the flowers and fruits of peace and purity may have space 
to grow and to flourish. 

INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

March 2. Metallic Carriage- wheels. — Waldron Beach, of 
Baltimore, Md. : I do not claim to be the first inventor of any 
one of these features, nor ask a patent therefor. 

But I claim the combination and arrangement of the several 
parts as described, whereby I have made a strong, light, dura- 
ble, and cheap metallic wheel, which consists of but three essen- 
tial parts, while I have preserved all the important qualities of a 
good carriage-wheel in the highest degree. 

March 9. Machine for Fitting Wagon-tires. — E. L. Dor- 
sey, of Johnson county, Ind. : I do not claim the wheel B, or 
the measuring of the tire by means of this wheel. 

But I claim the arrangement described of the wheels EE and 
DD, with the wheel B, hand F, and spring-slide M, substantial- 
ly in the manner and for the purpose fully set forth. 

Lubricating the Axle-boxes of Carriage-wheels. — Wm. 
Diller, of Lancaster, Pa. : I claim the oblique or inclined grooves 
or oil-chambers B, formed within the axle-box A, substantially 
as and for the purpose set forth. 

Fifth Wheel for Vehicles. — H. T. Goodale, of Clinton, 
Mass. : I claim the arrangement of the reach H, with the groove 
f, to receive a screw e, in combination with the conical shell or 
cap E, and projection c, connected by bolt D, substantially as 
and for the purpose set forth. 

March 28. Axle-boxes. — William B. Fahnestock, of Lancas- 
ter, Pa. : I claim the combination of the axle and boxes, ar- 
ranged and constructed as described, for the purpose of allowing 
the axle to turn and accommodate the wheel to the direction of 
the rail. 

Hubs of Carriage-wheels. — James M. Whiting, of New 
Bedford, Mass. (assigner to himself, George F. Wilson, and Al- 
fred Anthony, of Providence, R. I. ) : I claim the making of the 
hub and elastic compound cylindrico leVer, each end of which 
rests for a fulcrum on vulcanized india rubber or gutta percha, 
or other elastic substance, in combination with the coupling- 
nut, by which the pressure thereon may be regulated. 

I also claim the grooves in the body of the hub, or their equi- 
valent, and the projections on the outside of the box, or their 
equivalent, in combination with the said elastic substance. 



WEELWHiacnTs' Machine. — Samuel Holl, of Reading, Pa. : 
I claim, first, The advantage of cutting the whole length of the 
tenons from the circumference of the spokes toward the cut- 
ter, thereby economizing time and labor to what all other tenon- 
ing machines require, as they commence cutting at the end of 
the spokes against the grain of the wood, consequently their cut- 
ters or bits cannot compete with mine for economy and dura- 
bility. 

Second, The advantage of my machine answering the double 
purpose of tenoning and hub-boring on the same frame or table- 
work without removing the wheel. I am aware that gearing 
of different kinds has been heretofore used, but I am not aware 
that this device or motion of gearing has been heretofore used for 
the purpose specified, I therefore do not broadly claim the gear- 
ing separately. 

But I claim the sliding feed rest, c, or anything essentially 
the same, in combination with the devices of the open-ended 
shaft, R, level gearing, V, and 6, check screws, and nuts, e and 
j f, also feed screw, a, shaft, 7, spur gear, 8 and 9, and guide, b, 
when arranged as described, and used for the purpose set 
forth. 

I also claim the combination and arrangement of the device 
for cutting tenons and boring hubs without removing the wheel 
from the machine, substantially as and for the purpose set 
forth. 

Tightening the Spokes and Fellies of Carriage Wheels. 
— B. A. Rogers, of Shubuta, Miss. : I do not claim having the 
the spokes communicate with the eye of the hub and expanded 
by a cone box. 

But I claim the combination, in a wheel, of the annular 
chamber, E, spoke sockets, G, communcating with said cham- 
ber, expanding packing ring, H, taper axle box, I, and extended 
spoke, B B, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 



ADDITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Hanging Carriage-boxes. — J. M. Jones, of Palmyra, N. Y., 
Patented July 22, 1851 : I claim the combination and arrange- 
ment of the disk, or fifth wheel D, attached to the front axle, 
the embracing circularly flanged annular disk, with its lateral- 
ly projecting arms or trunnions to which are attached the bars 
or spring levers K, so as to preserve the horizontal position of 
the fifth wheel while allowing the necessary play of the said 
bars, in the manner descrioed. 



LATE EUROPEAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

William Richardson, 5 Ranelagh Grove, Pimlico, and George 
Richardson, 2 Copenhagen street West, Islington — partly or 
wholly stopping wheels of carriages of every description when 
in motion, and such break or breaks to be applied by the motive 
power. 

Henry Brown and William Brown, Newington Butts — an im- 
proved whip-socket. 

Luigi De Cristoforis, 67 Lower Thames street — an improve- 
ment on the system of vehicle wheels, to be called the " De 
Cristoforis Conical Wheels." 

George Shillibeer, 1 Commercial Place, City Road, and 
George Giles, 10 Gray's Inn Square, London — improvements in 
omnibuses. 

Robert K. Aitchinson, New North street, London — an im- 
proved break, applicable to wheeled carriages. 

Robert Clegg, Islington, London — improvements in register- 
ing or indicating apparatus, applicable to the registration or 
indication of fares, the distance passed over by vehicles, the 
revolutions of machines or parts of machines, and other similar 
purposes. 

John Clarke, Shipnal, Salop — improvements in the construc- 
tion of shafts and poles for cabs, omnibuses, and other vehi- 
cles. 

John T. Shoner, 4 Church street, Kensington, London — 
improvements in common road cariages. 



20 



IPIROSIPIEaTTTS 



June. 



OF THE 



NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

fflrnntftr to tjjB Xiterari| ; inrial nl J^trjinuicnl Snterrsts nf \\}t " Craft." 



PUBLISHED BY E. 



M. STRATTON, 106 ELIZABETH STREET, JSTE"W YOKE. 
EDITED BY E. M. STRATTON AND M. G. TOUSLEY. 



It will contain Tliree Beautifully Tinted Plate Leaves, 20 Pages cho 

pages as ?nay be found necessary 



ice reading matter, and such other fly leaves, covers and advertisement 
to complete the balance of the work. 



THE NAME, 

" New York Coach-Maker's Monthly Magazine," 

Has been selected, that the New might be the more readily distinguished from 

the Old Work published in the We^t, as we have no desire to be identified 

with its interests, or to filch from it the reputation it has acquired. 

OUE MONTHLY DESIGNS 
Will consist of three Practical Working Drafts, contributed by first class de- 
signers and reporters of Style, both in this country and Europe, and drawn cor- 
rectly to scale. To enlarge the field of design, and to give variety and tone to 
the work, we shall (as a general thing) give one foreign, one fashionable, and 
one original or improved design, in each number. To accomplish this, we shall 
secure Paris and London Correspondence; also the most eminent designers In 
this country. 

AS A LITERARY WORK, 
We design to make the "Coach-Maker's Magazine," par excellence, an honor 
to the Craft, and a model to our contemporaries. 

THE EDITORS' TABLE 
Will be heaped with good things of our own cooking, and just suited to the " Lit 
erary, Social and Mechanical" wants of our Patrons. We shall strive to 
instruct the Young, to entertain the Old, and to add a new charm to the Home 
Circle. We shall avoid entering personally into the interests of any man's Patent, 
business, or wares. 

OUR PORTRAIT GALLERY. 
We shall give an occasional Portrait of men, eminent as Designers, Inventors, 
Manufacturers, and Dealers, operating in and intimately connected with Coach- 
making. Many of the first Coach-makers in America have arisen from poverty 
and obscurity to their present position, with no help but native genius and an 
indomitable will : such life sketches cannot fail to inspire the hearts of rising 
generations with a nobler and a higher purpose of life. 

THE BUSINESS DEPARTMENT 
Will contain matter of a purely business character, such as Patent Illustrations, 
Notices, Items, &c. In this we shall speak of Inventions as they are represented 
and of business in the light best, calculated to bring our advertisers into notice; 
so that all remarks of a complimentary character must be regarded in a purely 
business light. 

THE TRIMMING ROOM. 

This department will be open to Contributions, but will contain prospective 
cuts only when some new and practical design is discovered, or some new fash- 
ion is introduced ; but will contain hints and suggestions from the most emi- 
neut workmen, East and West, with diagrams, scientific rules, &c., illustrated 
and explained. 

The Stitching Plate will not come in every number. We do not conceive it 
to be necessary to palm a monthly plate of trash upon the trimming fraternity, 
just for the name of it. We shall give less figures, and select with great care. 

THE PAINT ROOM. 

The Painters' department will also be supported by voluntary contributions, 
and will contain " hints," facts, and valuable receipts, with a series of articles on 
Chemistry, as connected with colors, the manufacture and use of Varnish, &c. 

The Ornaments will be of a rare and tasteful character, and will appear on a 
fine white plate leaf, in the second or third number of each quarter's issue. 
Printing them thus will not only secure a finer impression, but will give us the 
opportunity to choose between engraving and lithographing. 

We contemplate securing the services of a competent Colorist, to color the 
Ornament Plates, for such as feel willing to double their subscription rate to 
have it done. Those who prefer colored plates will suggest it^and, should a 
sufficient number do so, we will proceed to color and furnish them immediately- 



THE SMITH SHOP. 
The Iron Workman will find his branch ably r> presented in this department, 
and ironing designs, &c , will be given by way of Illustration. 

PREMIUMS! PREMIUMS!! 

"We will present the designer who will contribute to the Magazine, gratuitously, 
the best and most original draft (drawn correctly to the scale, and properly ex- 
plained;, during the year 1858, the following premiums: 

1st — A Turkey-bound Volume of this Work, finished in gold, and suitably 
inscribed, containing a finely engraved Portrait, with Biography of the Designer. 

2d.— A finely-bound Volume, and a Silver-mounted Case of Drafting Tools. 

3d. — A finely-bound Volume, and a copy of Harper's Magazine. 
For the best Mechanics' Story— in which the trials and triumphs of a 
life of labor, the 'evils of the present apprentice system, the necessity of union 
among Coach-makers, and the unsung genius of the workshop, shall be happily 
and truthfully portrayed- we will give the author a bound volume of the Coach- 
Maker's Magazine, finished as above described, and containing Portrait and Bio- 
graphy of the Author, with the warm thanks of ourselves and patrons. 

For the best Poem, we will give a finely-bound Volume of the Coach-Mak- 
er's Magazine. 

For the best Collection of Ornaments, six in number, ,we will give a 
hound Volume of our Work, and a copy of the best work on painting that we can 
procure, either in New York or London. 

For the best Trimming Design, we will give a premium of a finely-bound 
Volume of our "Work and a Ticket in the Distribution of the " Cosmopolitan 
Art Association." 

For the best Set of Designs for a Stitching Plate, we will give a 
finely-bound Volume of the Coach Maker's Magazine. 

For the largest amount of useful matter contributed to the Ironing Department 
and Draft Tlate, we will present a finely-bound Volume of our Work, a copy of 
any of the $3 Monthlies, and a Ticket in the "Cosmopolitan Art Association." 

Conditions. — Paid Contributors will remain nameless. Those who send drafts 
will mark their price on the card, and if used we will send the money promptly ; 
if not, return tlie draft. 

None but Voluntary Contributors can compete for the Premiums. Paid Con- 
tributors have no further claims on us than the price set by them. 

We make no prmoises that will not be fulfilled to the satisfaction of all. 

Permanency. — We shall pursue an even course, allowing no change in form, 
scale, plate leaves, department, volume, paging, or anything that will mar the 
shape of the Book for binding purposes. We shall commence no series that will 
not be completed, nor attempt to do anything that we cannot carry out. 

We Believe that a Coach-Maker's Magazine, properly conducted, will meet 
the cordial approval and support of the Craft. We believe that New York, situ- 
ated as it is in the heart of the New World, and at the point of communication 
with the Old, is the proper place for its publication. We believe that there never 
was a time when this was more loudly calU'd for than at present, and that with 
industry, economy and perseverance on our part, and a cordial and united 
support on the part of our patrons, we shall succeed, and gi»"> full satisfaction. 

The French Rule, the Bastard Rule, and Scale Drafting, with all 
matters o fa like nature, will be given just as fast as we can find mechanics and 
writers who are fully competent to do then justice. But we will not humbug 
our patrons with false promises, broken series, or impracticable lessons. 

We intend to deal fairly, represent correctly, and humbug no patron out of 
either his wits or his money. 

(For Subscription Hates see Cover. 



A WORD FROM OUR FRIENDS. 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY, that we have been acquainted with E. M. STRATTON, proprietor of the "New York Coach-Maker's 
Magazine," for several years, and we believe him to be, not only a correct business man, but also perfectly responsible as a Publisher. We 
intend to give his new enterprise our hearty approval and cordial support. 



WOOD BROTHERS, 

•I. R. LAWRENCE & CO., 

BREWSTER & CO., 

MINER & STEVENS, 

JOHN ('. HAM. 

DUSENBURY &, VANDUZER, 



Coach-makers of 
N. Y. City. 



BOUTON & SMITH, ) 1Jeale > s ' ■"• *• WJ- 



PLATE 4. 



Vol. 1. 




5s 
8. 



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is 



PLATE 5. 



Vol. 1. 




NEW ROCHELLE, or JAGGER WAGON.— \ in. scale. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach-Maker' 's Magazine. — Explained on page 2S. 




DOG CART.— \ in. scale. 

Engraved expressly for the Nexo York Coac?i-3faker's Magazine. 
Explained, on pjage 2S. 



PLATE 6. 



Vol. 1. 






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a 








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PLATE 7. 



VoL 1. 




G. <fc T). COOK'S "JUMP-SEAT" BUGGY.— f in. scale. 

(As a One Seat Vehicle.) Explained on page 40. 




G. & D. COOK'S "JUMP-SEAT" BUGGY.— f in. scale. 

(As a Two Seat Vehicle.) Explained on page 40. 



STITCHING PLATE A FOR JULY. 





DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, JULY, 1858. 



No. 2. 



Hisrdlaneaits ITiteratrax 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE THREE-FOLD NATURE OF MAN. 

BY CHARLES C. KEYS. 



No. II. 

The observations contained in onr first article on. this 
subject indicate how desirable, and, for many purposes, 
how necessary and indispensable is a knowledge of what- 
ever pertains to the three great departments of our com- 
pound nature— the physical, the intellectual, and the 
moral. To acquire a knowledge of our physical nature, 
the study of anatomy and physiology was recommended. 
It is not expected that every man will attain to a critical 
accuracy in his knowledge of these important branches, or 
that he will be as well versed in them as those whose pro- 
fessional character and engagements require that 'they 
should be made a constant subject of profound thought 
and laborious investigation. Nor do we suggest that 
every man, whatever his calling or circumstances may be, 
should presume that he is competent to act the part of a 
physician to himself or family, from the cursory and 
general knowledge which he may have acquired of the 
structure and economy of the animal system, or of the 
functions and offices of its different organs and parts. 
There is a criminal self-confidence and an offensive em- 
piricism in these things, which are justly decried by the 
better informed, and which it should be our study to 
avoid. But, on the other hand, a total ignorance of our 
constitution, in the respects named, is equally reprehensible, 
if not criminal. It is not excusable in a man making any 
pretensions to general intelligence, or aiming to maintain 
his self-respect, that he should be ignorant of that system 
which is the source and means of all his sensations, whether 
pleasurable or painful, the economies of which are so ad- 
mirable and important, and which constitute a master- 
piece of divine wisdom, unsurpassed by all the other material 
works of God. Surely he should know something of 
himself, and not be altogether a novice in this department. 
He should have some knowledge of the machinery upon 



the movements of which his very existence depends, and 
should make use of that knowledge, as far as he may, in 
preserving its integrity unimpaired, in the greatest possible 



degree, and for the 



longest 



period of time. He should, 



also, become familiarly acquainted with the fundamental 
laws of life and health, that he may be able, by proper 
care, to preserve the one, and to prolong the other. The 
ignorance of these laws is, in too many instances, a fatality 
which might be avoided, and the prolific source of disease 
and misery which might be forestalled by a little careful 
attention to this subject. But a limited observation is 
needed to sIioav that the most blind and culpable care- 
lessness, with regard to food, medicine and general regi- 
men, and particularly in the case of children, prevails to a 
most alarming extent. The frightful mortality among 
infants and children throughout the country, and especially 
in our large cities, sweeping away, within the first de- 
cennial of their existence, about one-half of all that are 
born, should arouse us from our listlessness, and stimulate 
to inquiry and effort for the purpose of stopping this most 
fearful waste of life among those of tender age. A better 
education of mothers and fathers, if proceeding no further 
than the elementary principles of physiology and medicine, 
would a'O far to arrest this desolating tide, and turn the 
streams of refreshing and of life over the fields made 
barren and under the curse of death. And, of course, 
such an education would serve an equally beneficent pur- 
pose in behalf of every class and age. Our circumstances 
are continually changing, and a thousand occurrences may 
supervene to call into requisition what knowledge and 
skill we may possess. And our acquirements in this de- 
partment should not be so limited in their range as 
seriously to embarrass us, at least, in the more common 
exigencies of life. To a certain prudent extent, in such 
cases, our knowledge should be in sufficient degree, so 
that we may not be at a loss what course to pursue, or be 
afraid to rely upon ourselves when sudden and unexpected 
emergencies require the exercise of an enlightened judg- 
ment and a rational course of action. 

No man can engage in this study without becoming 
deeply interested and realizing the highest gratification. 
A most ample reward awaits those who are willing to 
redeem the time which is now wasted in more frivolous 
occupations and pursuits, and to employ their leisure 
hours in acquiring solid information in the branch to which 



22 



TIFE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



July. 



our attention is now turned. The invigoration of the 
mental powers, the self-culture realized, the independence 
and vigor of our thoughts, the highly interesting and 
valuable kind of knowledge acquired, and its availabili- 
ty in cases where its importance to health and even to life 
is manifest, abundantly compensate us for the self-denial 
practiced, the time occupied, the labor performed, or the 
midnight oil consumed. 

All these considerations should secure the introduction 
of this study into all our common schools (as far as it can 
be made to enter into a primary and elementary educa- 
tion), as well as into our higher institutions of learning. 
Without instruction in this department, the education of 
our youth must be considered as incomplete, and ill fitting 
them to enter upon the duties and responsibilities of life. 
And it is to be hoped that the attention of those who, as 
instructors of youth, have the charge of our schools, 
academies, and colleges, will be turned to this subject in a 
manner corresponding with its deep interest and import- 
ance, and that a reform in this respect will be inaugurated 
worthy of the age in which we live. 

For similar reasons we would recommend this study to 
that class of young men who, as mechanics and clerks, 
have had small advantages in early life, and whose educa- 
tion is consequently generally deficient. A young man, 
who would make his way in the world, cannot better 
qualify himself for a successful prosecution of the various 
pursuits of life than by rendering himself intelligent in 
what pertains to his particular calling or profession ; and 
by acquiring as general and extensive information on this, 
as on all other subjects, as his circumstances and oppor- 
tunities will admit of. We think, in view of what has 
been said, it will be conceded that the peculiar and relative 
importance of this subject has not been overrated. 

Having occupied so much space in the discussion of this 
part of our subject, we must defer to a future time the con- 
tinuance of the general theme. 






COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER II. 

Man's necessities the primary cause of his inventive action — He subju- 
gates the lower animals to his personal benefit — Foot travel relieved by 
Horse-back riding— The " sledge " an inceptive idea in Coach-making ; 
afterwards mounted on wheels — Primitive axles and wheels supposed to have 
been formed from a solid log— The first iron-worker— Chariots an Egyptian 
invention — Wagons sent by Joseph out of Egypt to Canaan, return with his 
father thither— The inventive genius of the Egyptians stimulated by their 
warlike spirit— Chariots used at funerals; great destruction of them in the 
Eed Sea — Sethosis' expedition and successes against the Assyrians, etc. 



Tnsita nobis omnium artium se?nina, magisterque ex occulto 
Dcus producit ingenia. — Seneca. 

Man differs from other animals in that, while the lower 
orders roam about certain limited districts where they be- 
come satisfied if they can find the food necessary to sus- 
tain animal life, he, with other objects and other aims, 
is thirsting with a desire for gaining wealth, or an ambi- 
tion for new discoveries. These inbred principles of his 
nature, from an early period in his history, have exercised 
his ingenuity and absorbed his time in contrivances, varied 
and numberless, for his personal convenience or pleasure. 



Among these contrivances, for pleasure as well as busi- 
ness, has been a vehicle of some kind, tp which, led by 
superior intelligence, he has harnessed his subordinates, 
the lower order of animals. 

Walking, the primitive mode of land traveling, man 
soon found too tedious and painful for his ambitious 
aims, and, consequently, we may very reasonably infer that, 
at an early day, horses, mules, oxen, camels, asses, drome- 
daries, etc., were employed by him for purposes of burden 
and draught — thus using such natural agencies as came to 
his hands. But very soon his expanding mind was engaged 
in seeking for other advantages than these afforded. One 
of the earliest modes of conveyance, doubtless, was riding 
on horseback, since a very slight amount of mechanical 
arrangement would suffice for man's present necessities. 
But, as his mind expanded, and his real or imaginary wants 
accumulated, he found this horseback transportation of his 
goods too slow and limited for his purposes. The earliest 
and primitive invention of man would lead him to adopt 
the sled, or sledge* form, which, with all its disadvantages, 
is still found in some shape among all nations, either civil- 
ized or barbarous, at the present day. This inceptive idea, 
rude and shapeless though it was, was certainly a small 
advancement toward carriage-making, yet it was found an 
inconvenient vehicle on a soil such as, we suppose, was 
found in the land of our first progenitors, and it was soon 
perceptible that something more easily to be drawn was 
needed. 

The transition from a sledge, running on the ground, to 
a wheeled one, could not have been long deferred. The germ 
of all the arts being placed in man by his all-wise Creator, 
his pecessities now stimulating his inert powers to action, 
was attended with favorable results. It required but little 
observation to foresee that, by placing the sledge on 
wheels, many of the difficulties previously encountered 
would then be overcome, and an increased burden moved 
by the same animal, with a diminished degree of friction. 
This important desideratum was effected by changing the 
rubbing motion of a sledge into the rolling motion of a cyl- 
inder, and, whether accidental or the studied invention of 
some early mechanic, is to us of very little consequence 
really, although it might serve to gratify our curious 
inquiries. 

To improve this incipient germ of mechanism, and 
bring the wheels into such form as would answer the pur- 
poses of supporting a load on an axletree, certainly 
required some degree of ingenuity in the primitive me- 
chanic ; and probably they were in the first instance 
formed from transverse sections of a tree, as seen in a 
Chile cart at present; perhaps made with the wheels and 
axletree from one solid log,f and to rotate axle and wheels 
together, as is common in our day in the Irish jaunting- 
car. The use of iron gudgeons, or iron axletrees, could not 
have been common in the earlier stages of civilization, and 
the separation of the wheels from the axletree was, there- 
fore, of more recent date, although, if we take the frag- 
ments of the chariot in Dr. Abbott's Egyptian Museum as 
authentic — and we see no reason for doubt — we are forced 



* " Sledge " is a term still given in England to a low description of vehicle 
or cart ; but the term "sled is a term "peculiar to America. In the rural 
districts here, the agriculturist employs what is termed a stone-sledge, or 
sled, drawn along on the ground, chiefly by oxen, for the removal of large 
stones. In this, as in other instances, brute mail shifts the labor of tilling on 
the hrute beast in drawing, and is a fair illustration of what ignorance has 
submitted to in every age of the world. 

t See illustration on page 7 of this volume. 



July. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKEll'S MAGAZINE 



23 



to conclude that the use of a wheel rotating on an axle ia 
as old as any authentic history which has made mention 
thereof. 

The world was at least five hundred years old when 
Tubal-cain,* the first blacksmith, is recorded as having 
flourished, who, as we suppose, being (to use a common 
expression) self-taught, made it his peculiar mission to in- 
struct others ; very probably his chief business was making 
hooks, spades, etc., since his customers in those primitive 
ages were mostly agriculturists, and would require such 
instruments. Thus early was the saying verified: God created 
man upright, but he has sought out many inventions. 
In other words, God created man upright, with the germ 
of the arts instilled in his nature, which, while in a state 
of innocency, he had no necessity to exercise, but after his 
transgression of the Divine law, finding his natural as well 
factitious wants greatly multiplied, he was forced to use his 
talents to obtain means of support. 

It would, at this distance of time, be very interesting to 
the coach-maker could he be favored with the details of 
the experiments used, the failures made, and the successes 
gained by the successors of Mr. Tubal-cain in this incipient 
stage of its history in getting up their earlier carriages; but, 
as that is now quite out of the question, we are compelled 
to receive the first mention of it in a full-grown shape, as 
we are the fabled Hero sprung from the head of Jove, and 
find the chariot of 
Pharaoh in Egypt, 
nearly 2000 years 
after the days of 
the creation [A. 
M. 2289] employ- 



ed in contributing 
to do honor to his 
prime minister, 
Joseph, in a tri- 
umphal proces- 
sion through the 
streets of the capi- 
tal of his domin- 
ions [Gen. 41 : 
43). Thiswas641 
years post-dilu- 
vian. At the time 
referred to, vehi- 
cles of all descrip- 
tions were evi- 
dently very ex- 
pensive, and prob- 
ably confined to 
Egypt. Two facts 
goto confirm this : 
The first is that, as no wood suitable grew in Egypt, but was 
brought from distant countries, the wood itself must have 
been very costly, and that it was scarce is evident when 
we examine the Egyptian mummy cases, and see of what 
small pieces they are often made up. That wagons were 
not common in Canaan is confirmed by the circumstance, 
that when Jacob sent his sons into Egypt, during a famine, 

* That iron had been invented to man's injury was thus anciently illustrat- 
ed. Lichas, a Spartan, coming to a smith at Tegea, looked attentively at 
the iron being forged, and was struck with wonder when he saw what was 
done. * * * Seeing the smith's two bellows, he discovered in them the 
two winds, and in the anvil and hammer the stroke answering to stroke, and 
in the iron that was being forged, the woe that lay on woe ; representing in 
this way, that iron had been invented to the injury of man. — Herodotus, 
Olio, 6S. 




to purchase food for his family, on their return (Gen. 42 : 
2G), it is expressly said, that they " loaded the asses with 
corn, and departed to Canaan." Again, when Joseph after- 
wards was directed by Pharaoh to send for his patriarchal 
father and his family to Canaan, he told him to " take wagons 
out of the land of Egypt for your little ones and for your 
wives, and bring your father, and come" (Gen. 45: 19). 
Dr. Adam Clarke remarks on this passage that mbw aga- 
loth, from bss agal, which, though not used as a verb in 
the Hebrew Bible, evidently means to turn round, roll 
round, be circular, etc., and hence is very properly applied 
to wheel-carriages. Very soon after this we learn (Gen. 46: 
29), that Joseph possessed a chariot of his own, which he 
made ready, and went up to visit his father, to Goshen. 
From these early notices of the use of vehicles, we are 
led to conclude that art was at an advanced state of perfec- 
tion in ancient Egypt, and as Dr. Clarke observes, " when 
we find wagons used to transport goods from place to place, 
we need not wonder that these suggested the idea of hav- 
ing chariots for conveying persons, and especially those of 
high rank and authority". These facts (assuming as we 
have elsewhere done) show that the arts were not in a 
rude state in Egypt at this early day." 

These facts conclusively show that vehicles for business 
— and probably for pleasure too — were very early in use 
among the Egyptians, and were probably an Egyptian in- 
vention, confined 
to the wealthy, if 
not at this early 
period limited to 
the king's house- 
hold. That Jacob 
had none is im- 
plied in the fact 
of its being neces- 
sary to send "wag- 
ons out of the land 
of Egypt" to Ca- 
naan to bring him 
and his family in- 
to Pharaoh's do- 
minions. As Ja- 
cob appears to 
have manifested 
no surprise at the 
sight of these 
wagons, which Jo- 
seph had sent to 
convey him into 
Egypt (Gen. 46: 
27), [A. M. 2298, 
B. C. 1706], we 
may reasonably infer that he had seen " wagons " previous 
to this occasion, and became familiar with their uses. 

The kingdom of Egypt was founded [A. M. 1816, B. C. 
2188] four hundred and seventy-three years already, and be- 
come densely populated with a people whom all subsequent 
historians have agreed were the most ingenious of any na- 
tion of that remote age. Of this we have positive evidence 
from inspired writers (Cant. 1 : 8— Isa. 30 : 9). Stephen 
the Martyr, in that noble discourse before his enemies 
(Acts 7 : 22), dictated by the Divine Spirit, expressly says, 
that Moses, the distinguished Jewish lawgiver, was learned 
in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. This ancient and 
interesting people possessed an inventive genius which they 



RUNNERS ATTENDING A CUARIOT. 



24 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



July. 



turned to a useful as well as profitable account. Their " me- 
chanics," says Rollin, " filled Egypt with wonderful inven- 
tions, and left it scarcely ignorant of anything which could 
contribute to accomplish the mind, or procure case and 
happiness. The discoverers of any useful invention received, 
both living and dead, rewards worthy of their profitable 
labors." 

The warlike 
spirit of the na- 
tion made the 
profession of arms 
highly reputable, 
and, as soldiers 
were well reward- 
ed, the attention 
of ingenuity \\as 
necessarily direct- 
ed to the produc- 
tion of some con- 
trivance for the 
better and more 
expeditious trans- 
portation of the 
army and its ma- 
terial to the field 
of operation, and 
this probably was 
the primary cause 
of the production 
of chariots. To 
these chariots the 
Egyptians were 
accustomed to 
harness but two 
horses, of which 
they possessed a noble breed, nor could the world produce 
better horsemen. 

Jacob having sojourned seventeen years in the land of 
Egypt, died in the sixth year of the reign of Amenophis, at 
the advanced age of 147 years. According to his expressed 
will, when alive, all the house of Joseph and his brethren, 
and all his father's house (Gen. 50 : 9), the servants of Pha- 
raoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders — all the 
principal men of Egypt, with chariots and horsemen, are 
represented as going up to Canaan with Jacob's embalmed 
bod) r , in a grand funeral procession of chariots and horse- 
men, to do honor to a patriarch who had, previous to his so- 
journ in the land of strangers, all his life long dwelt in tents. 
One hundred and forty years after this event, in the 25th 
year of Amenophis II., [A. M. 2513— B. C. 1491] when 
the children of Jacob departed out of Egypt, Ave learn from 
the 14th chap, of Exodus, that the kino; took his chariot 
and six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots 
of Egypt, and all the horses which Pharaoh had, and went 
in hasty pursuit of his fugitive slaves; but as these angry 
pursuers audaciously pursued after them through the Red 
Sea, the Lord of Hosts "took off their chariot wheels, and 
made them go heavily." Some have argued from these 
wheels being taken off, that they were rotating on an axle 
instead of axle and wheel rotating together; but we judge 
that at this early period they were made in both ways. 

Whether with poetical license or historical truth, we 
cannot now determine, yet Homer says : 

Thebes, where thro' each her hundred portals wide, 
Two hundred charioteers their coursers guide, 




ANCIENT EGYPTIAN \\ All OlIAUIOT. 



rushed out to battle, and the passage has proved a stum- 
bling-block to commentators from Diodorus Siculus to our 
times. As to the real strength of Thebes, Diodorus tells us, 
after the above quotation from Homer, that, "in truth 
20,000 chariots did c;o out from it to the wars." 

Sethosis, after this" period [A.M. 2513— B.C. 1491] hav- 
ing appointed Armais, his brother, viceroy over Egypt, 

and investing him 
with kingly au- 
thority, went on 
an expedition a- 
gainst Cyprus and 
Phoenicia, a n d 
waged war with 
the Assyrians and 
Medes,all of which 
he subdued, either 
by force of arms 
or voluntary sub- 
mission by the 
mere terror of his 
name. Encour- 
aged by his suc- 
cesses he advanc- 
ed still more con- 
fidently, and sub- 
dued the countries 
of the East. Ever 
after, when he 
went to the tem- 
ple, or entered his 
capitol, he har- 
nessed the princes 
of the countries 
subdued, w h o 
came to pay him tribute, four abreast to draw his car, in- 
stead of horses. S. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 



CHAPTER I. 

My narrative, like charity, must begin at home. Man- 
hattan Island, now swarming with busy life, is no longer 
the rural spot visited by the sturdy Hollander of former 
times. A century has wrought marvelous changes ; the 
farm has been cut into town lots, and minor centers of 
interest have become consolidated; the farm wagon has 
made room for the stately coach, and the rustic farm-house 
for the charming villa, until upon its site the fast metropo- 
lis of a precocious nation looms up in its present magni- 
ficence and power, resting its colossal forehead upon the 
bav, and fringing the entire Island with suburban resi- 
dences. But go where you will, through broad or narrow 
streets, and the eye will continue to meet with the indus- 
trial operations of that noble class who march only in the 
van of civilization. In glancing at the minutes of a tour 
editorial through the mazy labyrinths of upwards of fifty 
coach factories, some of which employ upwards of a hun- 
dred hands, when I reflect upon the interest which 
granted the Magazine an unobstructed pass to the bench- 
es of workshops never before disturbed by the intruding 
vender, when I recall the many intelligent brows that, 
shaded by care, revealed the sad tale of a winter's sorrow, 



July. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



25 



and, withal, the many kind wishes and promises of aid la- 
vished upon the first fruits of our darling enterprise, a 
strong, deep, and earnest desire moves me to an utterance 
which the burning pen of Heaven's own prophet could only 
trace. But space and circumstances will not allow me to 
individualize, so I will smother the tale which is too long 
tobe told, or which, half-told, might do injustice, leaving a 
warm hand for the future to do that, toward newly-formed 
friends, which the pen might be too slow and too injudi- 
cious to utter. It is sufficient to state that, notwithstand- 
ing the hard winter, and the present gloom which a cheerless 
and drizzly spring has thrown upon the returning energies 
of trade, our subscription book, which was spaced off 
liberally for city names, was soon filled past the prescribed 
limits, and the amount of pages allotted to the entire State 
was at length filled. The city list of this Magazine is 
now almost equal to the entire list of our cotemporary. One 
thing which attracted my attention, while passing through 
the various manufactories, was the number of open front 
buggies constructed after the pattern illustrated in our last 
number, which was being manufactured in all parts of the 
city, from the borders of Brooklyn to the Harlem precinct. 
The many failures in country trade have thrown a gloom 
over city houses, from which they will not speedily re- 
cover, so that little indulgence can be expected in the fur- 
nishing line. Most of the hardware men are actually too 
poor to advertise ; some, however, will be found snapping 



their fingers at failure, by reference to our advertising 
columns — those are the lucky ones, who go about their 
business and monopolize trade, while others are supinely 
lamenting their losses. Meeting, the other day, with a 
veteran member of the press, a strong desire possessed me to 
hear his views upon the quality of our project. After look- 
ing at it for a moment closely, he made a few hieroglyphics 
upon a piece of paper, and shaking his head replied, " Too 
fine, too expensive, mechanics will never appreciate it; they 
are no judges of good literature, as a general thing, and I 
fear that they will never support it properly." Is this true ? 
Will coach-makers spend their money for every other style 
of literature, and let the only one which upholds the honor 
of their craft prove a loss and a mortification to its pub- 
lisher ? That this would be true of many trades I have not 
the slightest doubt, and that there are men of low and sor- 
did minds, who live without one high aspiration, and die 
as the brute dieth, in every walk of life, is a fact no less sad 
than true ; yet our calling stands first in the rank of trades for 
intelligence and liberality, and home experience points to 
a brighter future — 

When he who deems himself a slave 

Shall wake to find that he is free, 
When, sunk beneath oblivion's wave, 

The demon fell, Misanthropy, 
Shall rise no more, with hideous face, 
To drive him from his rightful place. T. 







A YANKEE AUO.VG THE CELESTIALS 

THE ABSENCE OF CARRIAGES IN CHINA. 



Our Celestial cousins never ride in carriages or on 
horseback ; these are luxuries with which they are alto- 
gether unacquainted, and, besides, the streets are so very 
narrow, that it would be impracticable, were they ever so 
much inclined to do so. In fact, horse-flesh is scarce in 



China, and a Celestial would much rather indulge in a 
pleasant dream — such he imagines it to be — the effect of 
smoking opium, than ride behind a two-forty minute nag, 
forcing along the finest " trotter" ever seen on the Bloom- 
ingdale Road. The perfection of travel in that country 
is to move slowly along at a snail's pace, borne upon the 
shoulders of men, in a palanquin, or sedan-chair, in streets 



26 



THE NEW YORK C O AC H -MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



July. 



so very narrow as scarcely to permit the passage of two 
chairs from opposite directions. In country places the 
streets are said, on good authority, to be still more con- 
tracted, and, consequently, still more impassable. 

We attribute the absence of any vehicular contrivance, 
for the facility of travel and the convenience of business, 
to the lack of intercourse with the " outside barbarians," 
as they designate "all the world, and the rest of man- 
kind," and shows their civilization to be far behind that of 
most other nations. As we have elsewhere intimated, the 
coach is an emblem of civilization, and we want no other 
nor stronger evidence of our position than to point any 
person, who may be skeptical on this subject, to the self- 
conceited nation enclosed within the Tartar-built walls 
which have for centuries shut out her people from the 
enlightened and progressive world. China would no more 
suffer a railway to traverse her narrow and contracted 
thoroughfares, than permit " outside barbarians" to enter 
her prohibited provinces. In fact, the smart Yankee, who 
figures in our illustration at the head of this article, fairly 
exemplifies what would probably be the result to life and 
limb in that empire by Jonathan's advent amongst those 
degenerated specimens of the human species, although 
governed by " the Brother of the Sun," and shows very 
conclusively what would be the result of any such enter- 
prise. Only see ! John is prostrated before the Yankee 
has come up with his victim, and the sedan-bearers are 
seen in the picture to be in the practice of a discretion 
truly wonderful. In short, he appears to have made such 
an impression on the rat-eating inhabitants of the " central 
flowery kingdom," as to send the old sedan-chair and its 
bearers into obscurity altogether, aud to pave the way for 
the introduction of a better class of vehicles! S. 



[Translated from the French expressly for the N. Y. Coach-maker's Mag.] 

THE INTRODUCTION OF CARRIAGES INTO 
FRANCE. 

If sonic one of our good forefathers — a son of the 
ancient Lutetia,* that city of mud and rags, of old domes, 
dilapidated by time, of dark and mean streets, of wooden 
bridges, which creaked under heavy houses — should re- 
appear in our days, with his remembrance of past ages, I 
imagine that at the sight of our present Paris, which is 
lighted every night like a drawing-room, by thirty thou- 
sand gas burners, while we await the electric light — that 
at the sight of those passages adorned with mirrors, as 
also the oriental palaces, those sidewalks of stone or of 
bitumen, those splendid hotels, with long galleries on the 
river shore, sculpture-carved, of those side-streets paved 
with stone, and with wood, and macadamized, and filled 
with an ambitious and working population, who wear boots 
instead of shoes, and umbrella canes instead of a dagger — 
I imagine, I say, that at the sight of those coquettish, 
respectable houses, built in a straight line, which turn 
around to look at the passers-by ( !) — the cotemporaries of 
Flamel, or of Charles the Ninth, or of Rabelais, or of 
Henry the Fourth, would be marvelously astonished. 

I Mil, assuredly, what would stupefy him, arc the changes 
which have taken place in the vehicular fashions ; the im- 

* The ancient ami Latin name for Paris, which, after having hcen beautified 
with noble buildings, and walled in by Julius Ca'sar, was by some called Ju- 
liopolis. — [Ed. 



provements made in the art of not using one's feet. Where, 
at this time, are the coaches of which Gregory of Tours 
speaks; the Carpentum of Eginard, a species of cart 
drawn by bullocks, and which in derision were called car- 
riages of thirty-six doors? AVhere are the coaches with 
small nags ? Since the famous uncovered litter, decked with 
gold and precious stones, in which, in 1389, Isabella of 
Bavaria made her entry into Paris, the form of the carriole, 
as they were then designated, has undergone great 
changes. Those first sedan-chairs were considerably trou- 
bled by the caprice of the times. 

At first, none but the ladies made use of litters ; witness 
the adventure of Charles VI., who, in a crowd, being 
mounted behind one of his courtiers, was beaten by some 
sergeants who did not recognize him. Frequently, even 
the ladies preferred going thus grappled to some cavalier 
rather than go in a litter, and it may be conceived, then, 
in what esteem carriages were held. In 1471, Philip, Duke 
of Burgundy, attended the tournament on the occasion of 
the coronation of Louis XL, having his mother, the Duch- 
ess of Orleans, mounted behind him, and on the neck of 
the horse before him a young girl of fifteen, the most 
beautiful in Paris, whom the Duchess had named her 
darling. This custom became so general and lasted so 
long, that in 1650 there were still to be seen, in some of 
the streets, the last public mounters (montaires) — a species 
of stone benches, which served to get on horseback — as it 
was then in regard to stirrups, so it was in regard to Ameri- 
ca, they awaited Christopher Columbus. 

It was only near the end of the League that carriages 
began to appear, and it was then necessary, to possess them, 
to have a patent of nobility [Bourgeoisie)— to battle fiercely 
against the prohibitions of Parliament, who, by a decree of 
1563, had interdicted coaches. The victory, however, was 
gained by the friends of the movement, so that at length 
these coaches became naturalized, but not without difficulty. 
The first two persons who dared to sit in them were pur- 
sued by hootings and ridicule, and I know not what, caused 
by the round shape of the equipage, and which the people 
compared to a privy. One of those daring Avomen, who, 
by allowing herself to be drawn first, has, perhaps, 
advanced civilization for fifty years, was the daughter of 
an apothecary of Rue Saint Antoine (St. Anthony street). 
Her rival in audacity was a Madame Pilon, one of the 
heroines of Cyrus, the famous romancer. For the rest, 
the carriages of which we speak felt cruelly the effects of 
the infancy and simplicity of the art. Sauval relates, that 
they were suspended on ropes — the richest upon straps — ■ 
and that they were entered by means of an iron ladder. 

Some years after that, Margaret of Navarre introduced 
in the Court the covered sedan-chair. It was not long- 
before the use of them spread among the public, and it is 
easy to imagine what effect they produced on the fashions. 
In course of time, instead of being carried by hand, two 
middling-sized wheels were applied, and shafts, to which a 
man was harnessed. They were immediately called, in bur- 
lesque, vinaigrette (yinaiyriers), owing to its resemblance 
to the small wheels of the vinegar merchants. It is no 
doubt owing to this circumstance that they were soon aban- 
doned, so true it is that, with us, a joke suffices to enrich or 
ruin a man. 



There is a young lady up town, who says that, if a 
cart-wheel has nine fellows, it is a pity a woman can't 
have one. We think so, too ! 



July. 



THE NEW YORK CO ACU- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



27 



%\z Some Circle 



For the N. T. Coach-maker's Magazine. 

CHARLES ARCHIBALD HENDERSON; 

OK, 

THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR. 



BY MISS MARY E. THROPP, OF VALLEY FORGE, PA. 



" Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime, 
And, departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of Time ; 

Footprints that perhaps another, 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, 

Seeing, shall take heart again." 

Longfellow. 

One beautiful evening in spring-time, when the long 
shadows lay slantwise under the western sun, and the birds 
folded their wings, and settled down on their little feet for 
the night's rest, while the flowers and blossoms in the front 
gardens waited silently and hopefully the coming of the 
refreshing night-dew, a stranger, in felt hat, blue blouse and 
dark pants, with a stick and bundle over his shoulder, 
walked quietly up the principal street of A. — the pretty, 
picturesque village of A., with its two long rows of cottage- 
like houses, and shadowing lindens stretching over the 
sunny knoll of its site quite down to the very shore of the 
dreamy lake beyond. The stranger's shoes are worn, his 
pants patched, and his dress altogether looks very shabby. 
Still there is something about him that makes you turn 
and look at him well, notwithstanding. Is it his fine firm 
figure ? his energetic, independent gait ? No : it is the 
expression playing round his pure mouth, and looking out 
of the handsome hazel eyes adorning his sun-burnt face. 
It is in itself winsome. Those great earnest eyes look 
kindly clown on the little children he meets ; frankly up, as 
a brother amongst brothers, at the men ; modestly, respect- 
fully, but lingering, at the women, as if they reminded him 
of mother and sister far away, perhaps in heaven. Yes, 
look at him. Look to your heart's content. He is a jewel, 
none the less valuable, if it be in a plain setting. He halts 
suddenly now in front of the Widow Leaf's white cottage, 
stands still and listens. What is it? Hark ! Music. The 
window is open, and through the jessamine and roses over- 
hanging come the sweet tones of Nellie Leaf's voice, accom- 
panied by the piano, in perfect melody. Well may he 
pause and listen. Nellie is singing, as she only can sing, 
" Sweet Home." Why, what is the matter with him ? 
He seems strangely affected, trembles visibly through every 
nerve of his strong frame. He removes his hat, draws out 
his handkerchief, and wipes the perspiration from his broad, 
beautiful forehead. Nature has been no niggard there. The 
majesty of intellect is enthroned on that Melancthon-like 
brow, damp now with the dew of emotion. He steals 
nearer the window, and, through tears gathering in his 
deep, tender eyes, looks in. He sees little Nellie within, 
sitting with her back to him, in her white drapery, at the 
piano, the last lingering rays of sunset from the west win- 
dow nestling amid the curls of her chestnut hair, and fall- 
ing round and about her fair white figure, like a golden 
halo. She seemed like an angel to him, singing there in 



her clear, tuneful voice, a white, peaceful angel, straying 
from that " better land" that now hid away from him for- 
ever all that he had ever loved of womankind, all that had 
ever loved him, his mother and sister. Was it the tears 
that welled up and dimmed his eyes, or little Nellie's white 
figure, that prevented his seeing, before, the placid, mild- 
featured, elderly lady who now approached with her 
friendly, " Will you not walk in, sir ?" " Excuse me," said 
the stranger, much embarrassed, "but that sweet tunc 
recalled old associations. The young lady's voice sounded 
so much like my mother's (and his own faltered) that I 
could not help but listen." The gentle widowed heart 
vibrated to that touch. She had lost a son as well as hus- 
band, a son who must have been nearly the age of him 
who stood before her. " Come in, do. Come in and rest," 
and her mild eyes glanced compassionately at the worn 
shoes and travel-stained garments of the stranger. The 
young man's quick eye saw that look, gathered its mean- 
ing, part of its meaning only, for what did he know of her 
bereavement, and it nerved him. Poor, penniless almost 
as he was, he was above pity. Still he appreciated the 
widow's kindness, and, to prove that he did so, entered the 
hall-door, and seated himself just within side till the tune 
was ended. Then, thanking the lady briefly but fervently, 
he passed out and on to the village inn. 

Few hearts are so good and confiding in themselves as 
to be able to look upon the stranger that comes into their 
midst without suspicion. The people of A. were not pecu- 
liar in this respect. It did not take long to find out that 
a stranger had come amongst them, calling himself Chas. 
A. Henderson, a fictitious name, perhaps — (it is a fictitious 
name, the one I have given him, but he gave his own) — a 
reserved stranger of whom they could make nothing, though 
they plied him well with questions from time to time. That 
he was poor, for he dressed shabbily, and hired a small 
apartment in the attic of the inn, where he worked 'con- 
tinually from daylight till dark, at some mysterious ma- 
chine, about which he seemed anxious to preserve secrecy, 
for he invariably covered it over with a cloth when the 
chambermaid or any one entered. That he was seldom 
seen during the daytime, except at meals, and not always 
then, for he rarely supped, taking time for relaxation only 
in the evenings, after dark, when he either walked out or 
sat in solitary quietude in the furthermost deeply -shaded 
corner of the bar-room, his eyes alone active — those 
splendid hazel eyes, deep as lakes, steady as stars, reveal- 
ing every varying shade of feeling as the smooth watery 
mirrors of our mountains reflect every change of earth 
and sky. Strange to say, the villagers scarcely ever noticed 
these clear, wonderful eyes, gleaming forever with their 
steady soul-light, except as one would look at the hand- 
some eyes of a picture, perhaps because they were set deep 
under heavy overhanging brows, or, perhaps, because the 
rest of the lace, except the magnificent dome above them, 
was so plain, plain as sun-browned skin and irregular fea- 
tures could make it. They saw, however, that he regu- 
larly attended the village church on Sundays, and, when 
there, it was observed that he sat far back in the most 
obscure part of the gallery, not so much from modesty, it 
was supposed, as to avoid observation. So obscure was 
this corner, that it was some time before they found out 
that the superb voice that now infused its melody into 
their hymns could belong to no other than the stranger. 
This is the substance of all that the busy-bodies of the 
village could find out about him, after weeks had elapsed, 



28 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



July. 



and " still the wonder grew," till the stranger and the stran- 
ger's movements became an object of village interest, a 
theme for village gossip. Various were the attempts made 
to discover whence he came, and what he was doing. They 
watched the post-office, to see the post-mark, but no letters 
came. They made key-hole observations, till one day an 
unlucky sneeze close to the lock brought the stranger 
directly to the door, before the house-maid and stable-boy 
quite managed to tumble down the stairs together. This 
stable-boy was subsequently cured of his prying propensi- 
ties by climbing up the tall old sycamore, whose topmost 
bough overshadowed the stranger's gable window, where- 
upon the topmost bough gave way, and precipitated the 
unlucky John to the yard below, with no other damage 
done than the complete flattening out of all shape of that 
very aspiring and curiously contrived nose of his. 

Time wore on, and oh, the baffled curiosity of the vil- 
lagers. It was rumored now very currently that he was 
a counterfeiter. What else could he be, working up there 
all day long, with door locked. Very suspicious, very; 
had a bad look with it. In any case it was deemed most 
prudent to shun him, if, indeed, he could be shunned, who 
never sought their society. True, he had gone, in compli- 
ance with pressing invitations (given, it must be confessed, 
in the hope of eliciting something), to one or two of their 
quilting parties, but the last time he was made to feel, not- 
withstanding his quiet, unobtrusive demeanor, that one in 
so shabby a dress was not considered an acquisition, and 
he never troubled them with his presence again. He only 
confined himself more closely to his little garret. While 
they suspected, maligned, the unconscious object of all 
this misconstruction went steadily on in his own quiet way, 
little dreaming of the undercurrent about him. Poor, soli- 
tary, neglected, he struggled on, in singleness of purpose, 
in steadfastness of soul. Stout-hearted Henderson, toil on! 
Fight the life-battle bravely. Grand, earnest-hearted pio- 
neer! Cheerily, cheerily! They who despise thee little 
dream that the great heart of the village is beating itself 
away in that solitary attic. 

[To be continued in our next number.] 



\)n\ Itatratimrc of \\z Drafts. 

CALECI1E COACH. 
Illustrated on Plate IV. 

This beautiful draft is from the pencil of our special 
artist, Mr. Britton, and we judge that its beauty of sweep 
and correctness in scale are sufficient to enable our friends 
to build this coach without any extended instructions from 
us. In this instance we have omitted the mock joints, for 
the reason that it is becoming the fashion to do so, many 
manufacturers looking at them in the light of useless ap- 
pendages. The term Caleche (English, Calash), in this in- 
stance, and under these circumstances, may subject us to 
criticism, as being inappropriate. In vindication wc would 
state, it is termed such by the originator, and although it- 
was finished with a stiff roof, yet it was covered with 
leather, and the sides were contrived for being taken off at 



pleasure. Coteline lining makes a beautiful trimming. 
The body and carriage part may be painted a plum color 
and striped with black. 

The reader may remember that the term coach, generally 
applied to this kind of vehicle, is radically from the Ger- 
man kutscke, changed into the French coche, from its having 
been modified from the sedan-chair, a species of covered bed 
formerly borne on the shoulders of men. Sec our trans- 
lated article in this number, on " The Introduction of 
Carriages into France." 



NEW R0CHELLE, OR JAGGER WAGON. 

Illustrated on Plate V. 

This is a very plain Avagon, which appears to have sprung 
into existence, in this vicinity, from the exigencies of the 
times, and may be set down as decidedly popular at this 
moment. One reason for this popularity, no doubt, is, the 
cost to a customer can very easily be regulated to corre- 
spond with the condition of his pocket— cheap, if desired # 
Another is, and there is significance in the very idea, that 
we, who have been living altogether too fast for good health) 
have not only been obliged to resort to cheap wagons, but, 
in order to cure the dyspepsia in our stomachs, have adopt- 
ed the best remedy extant — a vehicle without springs — and 
gone back to the old-fashioned "bolster," riding just as our 
fathers and mothers did (we mean those of us who are able 
to purchase even this cheap article), and are jolting our 
bodies into returning health, to the serious injury of charla- 
tans and quack doctors. As we have no pity for the doc- 
tors, we advise every invalid " to go in" for the "Jagger," 
immediately. 



DOG CART. 
Illustrated on Plate V. 

This description of vehicle is very much used in Canada, 
as a sporting necessity, and likewise in England, where it 
is frequently used for what we would call a depot wagon, for 
carrying boxes and parcels. In sporting expeditions the 
attendants occupy the back seat, which, being hinged, may 
be turned bottom upwards, making it a smooth-decked article 
showing only one seat, and that in the front. The tail- 
board being let down, with a leather covered chain, offers 
an opportunity for Nimrod to stow away his dogs on the 
march, and presents a convenient foot-board for his servants 
on the back seat. The front seat should be smooth paneled, 
and if with round corners gives it a very light appearance. 
The body panels are of French carved mahogany, costing, 
imported here, $1.50 per foot. An article, to supersede the 
French manufactured, is being now prepared in New York. 
Trimmings should be enameled leather. 



July-. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



29 



The general color for this vehicle is black. The carved 
mahogany is sometimes shaded with yellow, to imitate wil- 
low. When the carriage part is black, a fine vermilion 
stripe gives it relief. 



buggy (Fr. Boffuet). 

Illustrated on Plate VI. 

This class of vehicle, called by the French a buggy, is 
mounted on two wheels and is not more modern than a 
pony-chaise, yet has recently come into fashion in Paris. 
The difference in the arrangement of the springs is the 
chief object of interest to our readers, and therefore may 
prove suggestive. The springs, as may be observed in the 
draft, differ from those in the Tilbury, in that C springs 
take the places of those called the T., transverse, &c, rest- 
ing on the hind transverse. This manner of arranging the 
springs is an English invention, and possesses an ease and 
comfort preferable to the old T, called the telegraph 
springs. We have had this vehicle engraved for our work 
from the Mercure Universe!, with the horse attached, in 
order to show how the French are accustomed to harness 
their horses. It will, at once, readily be observed, that the 
breeching is much higher on the hip of the animal than 
with us, and allows the horse to travel more freely and com- 
fortably than on our plan. 



In our June number, we gave an approximate esti- 
mate of the costs involved in the manufacture of the open- 
front Buggy, drawn from one in the establishment of our 
friends, Messrs. Dusenbury & Vanduzer, of this city. As 
constructed by this firm, and some other first-class manu- 
facturers, the costs exceed the amount as reported by us, in 
some particulars ; for instance, Messrs. D. & V. give hub- 
bands, which cost them $4.50 per set ; silk for sun-curtains 
costing $1.50 per yard, and curled hair (they do not use 
moss) at 40 cents per pound. By some oversight in pass- 
ing through the press, we were made to give If yards of 
silk at 90 cents, whereas the manuscript read $1.90. To 
these should be added a number of contingent expenses, 
unnecessary to be named in this connection, but which, 
when summed up, are sufficient to assure " outsiders" that 
the cost to them is not all profit to us. 

%arks from \\t %Mt 



WELDING STEEL WITH IRON, AND STEEL 

WITH STEEL. 

The two following receipts embrace the latest experi- 
ments. In the case of steel with iron — the parts being- 
brought to the proper welding heat, a mixture of the 
following ingredients is applied to the surfaces to be joined : 



boracic acid, 35-6 parts; common salt, 30-1 parts; ferrocy- 
anide of potassium, 26-7 parts ; and rosin 7-6 parts. For 
steel and steel the mixture is — boracic acid, 41-5 parts; 
calcined common salt, 35 parts ; ferrocyanide of potassium 
15-5 parts; and anhydrous carbonate of soda, 6 parts. 
These ingredients are well calculated to clean the surfaces 
of the hot iron and to insure a good weld if properly 
used. 



A NEW FOLDING STEP. 




This new kind of Coach-Step is by its inventor claimed 
to be more firm and not so easily deranged by opening 
and shutting as was the case with the old mode of con- 
struction. When closed, says the French inventor, they 
are not more clumsy than those hitherto in use with a 
single step, and being opened they drop (according to the 
height of the carriage) from 9 to 14 inches. We have 
heard of one in this city, imported directly from France, 
but it meets with no favor here. We give it merely as a 
matter of curiosity. 



BUGGY DASH. 




Pig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1 is a front view of the present most fashionable 
New York style of dash, and is applicable to the open- 
front Buggy illustrated on Plate I. in our last No. 

Fig. 2 is a side view of the same dash, showing that it 
is made to curve forward. 

The most fashionable form of dash for a square Buggy 
will be given in our August issue. 



30 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



July 



Blacksmithing among the Native Africans. — At 
Jolleh Bunu's town, sixty miles back of Monrovia, in Africa, 
the Rev. J. W. Thorne says he saw a native blacksmith's 
shop in the outskirts of the town, comprising thirty-nine 
houses. The bellows were made up of a pair of tub-like 
vessels connected together, covered over with a leopard's 
skin lying loosely on the top, and having a couple of hold- 
ers for the hands. The air was conveyed from the vessels 
to the forge along the hollow of two wooden pipes. Char- 
coal was used for combustion and heat. And, now, the 
the native iron being at hand for the work, a man blew the 
bellows by raising and then depressing the leopard-skin 
coverings. In this way quite a blast was made and kept 
up, so that, in a few moments, the iron glowed and sparkled. 
He noticed, lying about, such rude native tools as ham- 
mers, pincers (tongs ? ), punches, etc., in the use of which 
the native workmen show some skill, in the manufacture of 
knives, spear-heads, small hoes, and the like. 

The persons engaged in the iron manufacture in the city 
of Philadelphia and its neighborhood are stated to be over 
ten thousand, the products of whose industry is $12,857,000 
annually. 



pint Ijtomn. 



A FEW SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS IN PAINTING 
A BUGGY. 

PAINTING THE CARRIAGE-PART. 

We shall begin with the " carriage-part," which we 
may suppose the " wood-workman" has deposited in our 
paint room, finished neatly and smoothly. 

1. Having mixed the "priming" of pure white lead with 
boiled linseed oil, (if the job is to be done in a hurry, with 
japan instead of oil,) and slightly colored it with refined 
lamp-black, spread it on the wood-work evenly. This coat 
when dry has prepared the job for the ironing. 

2, 3. Supposing our carriage has been "ironed off," and 
properly trimmed by the wood-workman, we next give, in 
succession, two more coats of " lead color," mixed as above, 
each coat being well " rubbed down" with sand-paper — the 
first coat (second of the series) since leaving the smith-shop 
being "sand-papered" very close — here do your puttying — 
and the second (third of the series) "sand-papered" enough 
to make a perfectly smooth surface, we then give 

4. Another coat of lead — one part lamp-black and two 
parts white lead (if in a hurry, two parts japan, one do. oil), 
ami one partoil and two parts japan — fora final coatof "lead 
color." If the color of the carriage is intended to be any 
other than black, that particular color may be mixed in 
with the white lead of this fourth coat, instead of the 
lamp-black. This coat must be "sand-papered" down with 
paper of a fine quality, etc. 



5. Our job is now ready for the "preparation" coat, com- 
posed of our intended color, mixed in boiled oil and japan, 
and ground very fine. 

6. The next coat is our final one of "color," and should 
be mixed with raw linseed oil and sugar of lead, and nicely 
spread on with a fine brush. This raw oil is particularly 
necessary where the paints are to be lake, carmine, or 
some other than a transparent color. xVt this stage it is 
very desirable that our job should " shine" as much as 
possible, from the gloss caused by the oils in the preceding- 
coats. This oily gloss is a strong guarantee that the suc- 
ceeding coats will not "strike in." Instead of the above 
preparation of the color, some painters use one part varnish 
and three parts japan, but in such a case their work is very 
apt to " crack," from the effects of the weather. 

1. Next apply two coats of color and varnish, in the pro- 
portion of one part color and three parts varnish, after being 
put on and properly dried, both having been " rubbed down" 
with a rag and ground pumice-stone, consecutively. Some 
lazy painters " moss" these " color and varnish" coats. 

We may here remark, that two coats of color and one 
of clear varnish are better than one coat of color and two of 
varnish, in many painters' judgments. 

8. Striping the job, if such is required. 

9. The final coat is English varnish, every previous use of 
the article having been American. Before this is put on, 
try and select a clear and dry day, as by so doing you may 
escape the trouble and expense of another coat thereafter, 
on account of its blistering. The getting on of too many 
coats of varnish is to be avoided as far as possible, since, too 
freely used, it is apt to impart a green shade to black, and 
to some other colors a grayish tinge. 

We are compelled, by the length of this article, to post- 
pone the painting of the body until the August issue. 



QUICK-DRYING OIL FOR PAINTING. 

Take old linseed oil and mix it with protoborate of 
manganese, in the proportion of an ounce to a gallon of oil, 
and put it in a close vessel for two days, exposed to a heat 
of 212° Fahrenheit in a steam bath, and stir it frequently 
durino- the time. This will make a fine article for mixing 
up a quick-drying paint. Dr. Hoffman says it becomes, 
by tins treatment, of a clear greenish yellow color; remains 
thin even when cold, and zinc white paint mixed with it 
dries in twenty-four hours. 



What led Macbeth to say that he would die with 
harness on his back ? Why, he knew very well that Mac- 
duff was about to taeMe him. 

A witty lady, being asked by a fellow-passenger the 
name of the stage-coach (that traveled very slowly) in 
which they were riding, replied, " I think, sir, it must be 
the Regulator, as all the other coaches yo by it." 



July. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



31 



on 



(Uinunutq $00111. 



DESIGN FOR TRIMMING. 




The above design, contributed by Mr. H. Mensbausen, of 
New York City, is not new, but is very rare, and perbaps we 
migbtbe justified in saying tbat tbere are less than a dozen 
trimmers in tbe United States wbo understand its practical 
application. At any rate, its rarity justifies our giving it a 
place in our Magazine. Tbe cut is merely designed to illus- 
trate tbis peculiar feature, and we have consequently shown 
the braided arms more in a lateral perspective than would 
accord with correct mechanical laws. 




BRAID FOK ARJIS AND FRONTS OF CUSHIONS. 

In tbe second place, we give an enlarged view of a sec- 
tion of braid as it would appear before being stretched 
endwise and seamed into a coach or other job, which, after 
such an operation, would appear with smoother edges and 
more elongated strands. 

The trimmings should be formed on a scale sufficiently 
large to cover a three inch arm, by cutting four long 
strips of coteline, or silk, each three inches wide, and "whip- 
ping" them together. The pipes should afterwards be 
stuffed with cotton, but not too hard, as by so doing the 
elasticity requisite in a job of this description would be 
destroyed. Tbe four strands having been thus properly 
prepared, should now be braided together in a plait as 
shown above. The reader has doubtless seen plaits, of a 
imilar character in appearance, made of dark or other 



colored ribbon, intended to imitate tbe hair worn by ladies, 
around tbe comb, at tbe back of tbe head, as a head-dress. 
The strands should be laid in such a manner, in forming 
the braid, as to bring all tbe seams on the bottom side of 
the plait. Some first-class bouses in New York, Bridge- 
port and New Haven use tbis style of trimming, but only 
on first-class coach work and generally on work ordered 
for a foreign market. 

The objections to this style of trimming are : first, the 
cost, and, secondly, its compactness. But in large factories 
the building of fine coaches is an everyday affair, and it 
becomes necessary for the proprietors of such to economize 
and follow a less expensive and plainer style, except on 
some particular occasion; whereas, in shops where tbis 
mode of trimming is only adopted occasionally, they often 
lavish an amount of labor in other ways expensive and be- 
fore which even this rich finish appears economical. As to 
its compactness, it bears no comparison to the herring-bone 
style, and when rightly made is as soft as any ordinary roll- 
work. But, in coach work, many consider downy softness 
and ease the greatest desideratum, to obtain which every 
other consideration must be sacrificed ; hence, the broad, 
soft diamond, unrelieved by a finishing border of any kind, 
is a universal favorite, amongst, at least, piece workmen and 
economical manufacturers. 

In order to relieve tbe apprehensions of our friends, who 
may think, from the example of a cotemporary, that we 
have resurrected another Mister McLane, who so suddenly 
sickened and died "one day," after getting out of a job with 
his original employer, we would state that our contributor 
is well known, and stands as foreman in one of our largest 
city establishments. 



EXPLANATION OF STITCHING PLATE A. 

CONTRIBUTED BY A. J. DALY, N. Y. CITY. 



No. 

a 



is a half section of a pattern for facing figure. 

" full pattern for bow cap. 

" quarter of a figure for a dash flap. 

" full figure for a side vallance. 

" quarter section of an oval and vine to en- 
close figure 5, the lightest ends to join 
at the center, top and bottom. 

" quarter section of a figure for a small boot 
center. 

" tbe half of a corner pattern for a dash. 

" a quarter figure to be applied according 
to fancy. 



M. de Chatelain has just discovered, in tbe library of 
tbe Arsenal, at Paris, the original of the " Squire's Tale," 
which Milton calls the story of " Cambrescan Bold." The 
poem is twice as long as the " Iliad," since it extends to 
thirty thousand lines. 



32 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



July. 



Clje Iter fork (Lm^-mkafB ISagap*. 



JULY 1, 1858. 



E. M. STEATTOU & M. G. TOTJSLET, Editors. 



TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

"J. T., of Ind." — "We have always found that ground white 
lead, thinned with spirits of turpentine, was the best article in 
which to drive the spokes into the hub of a wheel designed for 
a business wagon, since it effectually resists the action of the 
weather, to which they are constantly exposed ; but for all 
pleasure carriages, where the wheels are kept well painted, we 
decidedly give glue the preference. 

" L. H., of ." — The allusion to the individual who you 

" think has run out of soap" would be decidedly rich — were it 



a fact; but, as that mine is apparently inexhaustible, we fear 
that your suspicions are groundless. Soft soap, you know, is a 
first-rate article for cleaning dirty clothes ; but it is not very 
agreeable to have applied to one's face, with an additional rub- 
bing in. We very naturally conclude that such a person's room 
is better than his company. 

" T. S., of Conn.," who manifests so great an interest in the 
success of this publication, will feel very much gratified when 
we inform him that, notwithstanding the hard times, we obtained 
over forty subscribers in the first shop canvassed for this maga- 
zine, in the city of New York. The summing up in this city 
amounts to 250. The most successful year of a similar publi- 
cation never reached above 55 subscribers. 

"B. P. S., of C. E." — We have no means of ascertaining why 
the "pome" in our Western cotemporary for March was orna- 
mented with a cut at the head. We can only guess that it was 
intended to show that somebody was in distress. 

"A. W., of Ind.," " S. II. of Wis.," and others.— You will 
please remember that in all cases where you write to us solely 
on your own personal business, we require an envelope with 
your address and a stamp attached to prepay postage on our 
answer thereto — -and unless this is attended to no notice need 
be expected. Our postage bill is very large, and were we, in 
addition to our own yearly expenses, to add that of others, we 
fear our profits would be swallowed up very soon. 



HOW TO READ THE MAGAZINE. 

There is a certain order to be observed in the reading 
of a book, or magazine, as well as in any mechanical un- 
dertaking. A literary man can measure the attainments 
of his neighbor by simply handing him a morning paper. 
If lie is illiterate, the first page is as apt to arrest his atten- 
tion as the news, or leading editorial, and in nine cases out 
of ten he will mistake an advertisement, or business notice, 
for an editorial item ; in which case, he will conclude that 
Editors are great falsifiers. 

In this age there are but few persons who cannot read ; 
still, of the entire number who know how to read, there 
are very few who can understand and judge correctly ; 
and, yet, that class who understand the least are in many 
cases the loudest critics. 

In all conditions of life this class of readers are nu- 
merous, and we doubt not but many such will be found on 
our list. But the worst class of readers, and. those whom 
we most dread, is that smart class of men who can find no 



time to read, but will pick up the Magazine, glance at the 
fashion plate, pass a complacent criticism, and throw it 
aside. Bill Muggins, who served his time as blacksmiths' 
assistant at Carelessville, thinks that the " draft with 
a horse drawing it is too Frenchy." Mr. Bell, who is 
a reading man, turns silently to the explanations, and 
by careful examination not only learns the particular 
object in placing the others before the public, but finds 
that the one alluded to is a French design, and eiven as 
such ; and, when he reflects that those lithographic models 
are very costly, and much sought after as suggestors by 
American designers, congratulates himself and the readers 
of the Magazine generally upon their good fortune in being 
thus able to obtain a dozen or more, at so trifling a cost. 
Another, whose eye is not trained to detect the minor dif- 
ferences of sweep, moulding, or style of finish, and who is 
in constant danger of mistaking a Tilbury for a Buggy, or 
a Cab for a Coupe, glances at the plain practical working 
drafts "without learning anything;" he at last comes to 
some serio-comical affair like the chariot of Queen Mab, in 
our last number, or some other flighty invention, and is 
greatly edified. 

One is constantly looking for some strange thing to 
excite his marvelousness, and another condemns everything 
that is not particularly adapted to the wants of his locality, 
each, of course, looking at the drafts as though they were 
made to order for his own particular use, and Rowdy Bob, 
Dutch Jake and Yankee Bill all agree — though they never 
examined it critically — that the Magazine is out of joint. 
The real difficulty with all these critics is, that they read 
and understand the Magazine in too careless and super- 
ficial a manner. They glance through it in an unsystem- 
atic way, understand things as they read them, " wrong end 
foremost" get the peculiar notion of some correspondent 
marked down against the Editors, or some advertiser's dis- 
play digested as an editorial humbug, and by this cross-firing 
process addle their own brains more and more. Now, all 
will admit that no one should know how a book ought to 
be read and judged of better than those who make it. So 
we will venture to offer a few suggestions. 

First, look at the plate next to the title-page, and then 
turn silently to the page refered to under the draft, after 
reading the explanation and referring back to the illustra- 
tion, until its peculiarities and the object of inserting it arc 
clearly understood, then examine the next, and so on until 
all are understood. Next turn to the editorial department, 
and see if they make any remarks about the plates ; if so, 
read them, and then read the rest of the items and leaders. 
You have then got the key to the book, and can turn either 
to the business, communicated, or mechanical departments. 
But, above all things, avoid reading the Magazine, or even 
opening it in the workshop during working hours ; should 
you allow your curiosity to get the better of your judgment, 
you will destroy the relish of a second reading by too hasty 



July. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



33 



a perusal, and then, when you sit down to an evening study 
and have a suitable opportunity therefor, the charm which 
never fails to attend first impressions will be gone. It is, 
we confess, no easy task for an inquisitive person to receive 
a Magazine in the morning and let it remain unopened on 
his work-bench until he has finished the day's toil, and 
seated himself at home for the evening. But, since it will 
test your self-government, and strengthen your weak points, 
let us insist upon it, that you reserve the first charm for 
a leisure perusal. 

Another caution ; be particular to identify each article 
you read with its own proper author, and note the depart- 
ment in which the article is found. The observance of 
these rules will save you much confusion, and afford 
particular gratification to the Editors. 



PROSPECTIVE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

We have received a spicy article from the graphic pen 
of Mr. James Scott, entitled " The Fast Journeyman — a 
Sketch," which came too late for this number, but will ap- 
pear in our next ; also, a highly interesting continuation of 
our co-laborer's "Notes of Travel" from New Haven and 
Bridgeport, giving his impressions of the scenery, business, 
and other matters of interest to our readers, which, with 
other communicated and original articles deeply interest- 
ing, we feel no delicacy in saying, will present a galaxy of 
versatile talent and varied interest which will not fail in 
pleasing our numerous and intelligent readers. 

We have, likewise, engaged' several artists, in different 
sections of the country — no less than six — whose talents 
will assist in making this Magazine worthy of the craft 
whose name it bears, but whose names we do not care to 
parade before the reader; but shall let them introduce 
themselves — some one monthly. 

Messrs. Heddcnberg & Littell, of Newark, N. J., have 
promised us a draft of a carriage they are constructing for 
our Royal cousins in England, which we intend to give 
soon. We would further announce to our subscribers, that 
we are about making arrangements with Mr. Lewis Brosi, 
who contemplates traveling in Europe the coming season, 
for a monthly correspondence. Should he go, as he now 
intends, he will travel extensively through England, France 
and Germany, giving us pen and pencil sketches of every- 
thing that may be either useful or interesting to coach- 
makers here. Through his agency, we hope to secure the 
regular correspondence of some competent local craftsman, 
in London, Berlin and other Continental cities. 

The " Geometry of Carriage Architecture" will be given 
as soon as it can be properly presented. We purpose to 
commence with its simple element, and carry it out in 
every branch of the art; but it must be right before giving 
it to the public, even should it be deferred two or three 
months longer We speak thus cautiously — not with the 



intention of deceiving, but with the determination, if possi- 
ble, of avoiding the rock upon which a cotemporary made 
shipwreck, by holding out false pretenses. 



-*-~ + <*-*- 



TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. 
Should any doubt remain in the minds of our friends, 
as to the success of our enterprise, they will please dismiss 
it at once. Our confidence in this respect is founded in the 
fact that we have received up to this date — being four 
weeks since our first issue— fully one-third of the number of 
subscribers ever taken for any similar publication in Ameri- 
ca. When it is remembered that there are not more than 
half the number of coach-makers employed now, which 
there was three years ago, this may appear exaggeration, 
but, nevertheless, we declare such is the fact. The very 
first shop in the city, into which we introduced our Maga- 
zine, gave us over forty names, and the remaining shops 
have done proportionably as well. The second city can- 
vassed was New Haven, where we obtained even more sub- 
scribers than here. These two cities have given us over 
five hundred subscribers. New Haven " goes in" entirely 
for our new enterprise, and declares that " the New York 
Magazine must be supported if it takes their last dollar." 
When the Yankees talk in this manner, there is very little 
danger of our being " run off the track" by envy. There 
is another very encouraging fact — it is this, that although 
our Eastern friends subscribe liberally when they are visit- 
ed, still the most of our subscribers by mail are from the 
South and West, particularly from the State of Ohio. We 
already have ordered a reprint of our first, and have en- 
larged our edition with this No. We know that at the 
present time, we have a larger circulation than any Coach- 
Maker's Journal on this continent, and therefore say that 
this Magazine presents the best medium, for advertising any 
wares pertaining to the manufacture of carriages, ever pub- 
lished. We trust, therefore, that those who are patronizing 
other journals, which are scarcely seen by fifty coach-makers 
in America, will consider it to be for their interest to 
send along their favors, where we engage to send them 
among 20,000 ! See the 

Rates of Advertising in this Magazine : 

Transient, per line, each insertion, - - 50 

" " square, - $2 00 

1 Square, months, - . - - 8 00 

1 " 1 year, - - - 12 00 

i Column, " - - - - 25 00 

^ « « ... 48 00 

I » " ... 65 00 

1 " " .... 80 00 

Whole page, or whole plate advertisement taken at proportion- 
ably low rates. 

Terms. — All amounts less than $25, payable in advance ; from 
$25 to $48, in 90 days from first insertion ; for all sums exceed- 
ing that, 6 months from first insertion, or cash, less 5 per cent. 
Acceptances or Checks to be forwarded with the corrected proof- 
sheet. 



34 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



July. 



OUR ADVERTISERS. 
Axles — Wm. H. Saunders, Hastings, New York. 
Boxing Machines — Dole, Silver & Felch, Salem, O. 
Carriage Couplings — G. L. Haussknccht, N. Y. City. 
Silver Plating — J. A. Gardiner, " " 

Whip Sockets— P. M'Curdy, " " 

Hardware, Trimmings, &c. — Jas. H. Dusen- 

bury, " " 

Carriage Trimmings — J. P. Jube & Co. " " 

Coach Manufacturers' Stock, &c. — 

Cornelius Van Horn, " " 

Name Plates— D. W. Thomas, " " 

Hubs — Stephanas Stearns, North Granville, " 
Hubs — C. D. Ingham, Chittenango, " 

Hubs — Piatt Keeler, Westport, Conn. 
Hubs & Wheels — A. Russell, Newark, N. J. 
Wheels, Wheels — G. F. Kimball, New Haven, Conn. 
Trimming and Finishing Hardware — 

C. Cowles & Co., " 
Coach Carver — Jas. H. Campbell, " " 

Carriage Parts — Dann, Bros. " " 

Fine Laces, &c. — Laban Pardee, " " 

Coach Lamps — J. Cutler, " " 

Recuttting Files — J. F. Anderson, Haverstraw, N. Y. 
Axles — Jas. M. Post, Newark, N. J. 

Axles, &c. — Thos. Breese, " " 

Axles— John H. Tuttle, " " 

Coach Varnishes — Moses Bigelow, " " 

Copal " — D. Price & Fitzgerald, " " 

Our patrons will find the cards of the manufacturers 
and dealers above alluded to by reference to our advertising 
columns. Those interested should read each advertisement 
carefully. Our Magazine contains none but those that 
appeal directly to the pocket interest of the purchaser; 
so that even the minor shades of phraseology are worthy of 
study and reflection. We would suggest to our readers the 
propriety of patronizing the above houses, from the fact that 
they have stood the test of the hard times, and now come 
before the craft to solicit their patronage, and the same 
spirit of enterprise and the same desire to extend their 
business, in a legitimate and honorable way, will not only 
act as a spur to keep them in the van of markets and 
styles, but will induce them to deal fairly and liberally in 
order to keep their customers from going abroad. 

If there is anything Avhich is pleasant, it is to deal with 
a man who wants custom, and who is sufficiently affable to 
make it known by asking customers to come and deal with 
him. If there is anything calculated to throw a feeling of 
disgust over the sensibilities of a finely-wrought nature, it 
is to meet with a dry "old crust" who is so self-sufficient 
as to imagine that the world could not move on without 
him, and so unsocial that it would break his back to invite 
a customer to call. Their goods are generally as antiquated 
as their notions. None but liberal-minded men advertise. 
Read what they say. 



|S"Wc give in our Home Circle, this month, the first 
chapter of a beautiful mechanical story, to be continued in 
our August and concluded in the September number of 



this Magazine, which, for beauty of conception and tender- 
ness in narration, has seldom been excelled. We hope to 
be favored with further communications from the same 
refined and cultivated pen, which we feel confident will be 
read with the most satisfactory pleasure and profit by 
every individual in whose heart there flows a love for pure 
and genuine domestic life. The fair authoress has touched 
a chord, which must awaken sympathy for that poor but 
ingenious class of mechanics, whose consumption of the 
system and the midnight oil has brought abundance and 
luxuries to a world of less useful minds, but who seldom, as 
in the case of Charles A. Henderson, ever become so fortu- 
nate as to obtain a pecuniary reward for their indispensable 
labor. But we are anticipating. 

S^° Will the friends of The New York Coach-Ma- 
ker's Magazine take the trouble to show it to every 
Coach-Maker within their reach, whether boss or journey- 
man, and urge them to subscribe for it at once ? By so 
doing you will not only aid its circulation, but at the same 
time will benefit others. The importance of encouraging 
such a work as ours, at the present time, will be apparent 
on a little reflection, and, as the times are a little hard, we 
hope to have a little gratuitous effort from all who have 
lono- desired to see an organ for the craft aiming; to take a 
high position among other publications of the day. We 
hope, also, to have such communications from our friends 
qualified by experience and ingenuity, as shall impart varie- 
ty and freshness to our columns. Even should they be a 
little rough, they will be none the less acceptable, as the 
Editors will see that they are properly " dressed up" for 
the public eye. 

Jg3T Our June No. was sent to a great number of sub- 
scribers whose names had been sent in before publication, 
some of whom have forwarded their subscriptions, but there 
are still many who have forgotten that our terms are in 
advance. There are likewise some to whom the first No. 
was sent in hopes of getting their names for our work 
before his issue ; to all these we would say, we want all 
the patronage we can command, and, which is equally im- 
portant to us, all the money we can get. Will our friends 
see what they can do for our enterprise, in perfecting clubs, 
&c. Please examine our notice to club agents on page 17, 
June No. 

J3T Those who value our Magazine and are preserving 
it to be bound at the close of the year, are invited to look 
at Mr. Stocking's advertisement on the cover. He pro- 
poses to have suitable and characteristic stamps, of original 
design, made expressly for our work. All our subscribers 
who can, conveniently, will do well to remember this fact, 
and favor him with their patronage. When bound (and 
we intend to furnish title-page and table of contents with 
the May No.) it will make a handsome volume of literary 
and mechanical matter, either for the workshop or parlor 
table, and something- that will increase in interest — 



July. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



35 



especially will it be so to your children — long after you 
have ceased to use the drawing-knife and plane. 



California Life Illustrated. — Our friend, the Rev. 
William Taylor, who appears equally at home, whether 
standing on the head of a whisky barrel on the dock 
preaching, or facing the gamblers in the streets of San 
Francisco, has sent us a copy of a book he has just issued, 
with the title which heads this article. We have read it 
through (a thing we rarely do), and can say we have been 
very much delighted with the author's story from beginning 
to end. Its instructive and moral tone recommends it to 
every reader who wishes to avoid the quicksands on which 
many an unfortunate man has been wrecked, in his search 
after that, the love of which has been pronounced to be 
the root of all evil. Published at 200 Mulberry st., N. Y. 



-«-*.*> ♦h 



TRADE SUMMARY. 

In this city trade is quite dull, manufacturers not em- 
ploying more than half the usual number of hands they 
have been accustomed to, except in one or two instances. 
In better times the number of men in this branch of busi- 
ness amounted to about 1000. 

A correspondent at Madison, Wis., reports business as 
being " very poor and money very scarce." 

From Willoughby, O., we learn that trade " is awful," 
and "you cannot begin to think how hard the times are. 
Provisions are cheap, but there is no money to buy with." 

In contrast with the above, another correspondent, at 
Rainsboro, O., says : " Our business in this section of coun- 
try is improving very much." 

In New Haven, Conn., the men are mostly working at 
reduced wages, but are full of hope that business will soon 
improve and banish the effects of a dull winter, through 
which they have recently passed. 

In Canada trade is said to be as dull as it is generally in 
the United States, which we had hoped had not been the 
case. 

The Australian trade, which is chiefly in the hands of 
our Boston friends, may r be said to be "no better than 
elsewhere." 

The California market is glutted, and although very 
little beside "jobbing" is done there, still that strange 
land has a supply of carriages for at least one year. The 
average exportations thither from New York, Boston, and 
a few other parts, are about seventy-five wagons and car- 
riages monthly. Invoice prices are rarely netted to the 
shipper, when risks, interests, commissions, &c, are very 
sure to eat up all his profits. 



« m ♦ m » 



Discovery of a Leibnitz MS. — Accounts from Hano- 
ver announce that a manuscript, entirely written by Leib- 
nitz, and forming part of a refutation of Spinosa, which 
was never completed, has just been discovered in that city. 



CMtartal Sjjabinjs, 



Carriages in the "Exposition of Swiss Industry." 
— An intelligent correspondent of Porter's Spirit of the 
Times, writing from Switzerland, says he saw there, from 
the canton of Berne, a very handsomely finished private 
carriage, the price of which was 3,500 fr. (or about $245). 
The workmanship is excellent, and the " entire build," in 
lightness and elegance, only equaled by some of our own 
manufacturers. A trotting wagon from the Canton of 
Aargau, very excellently built, and intended for a double 
or single team. The wheels are light and well put together; 
price 350 francs, (or about $56). This price is evidently not 
the manufacturer's first price, as the vehicle had seen some 
service. Two private carriages from the Canton of Zu- 
rich, price 2,000 francs, or about $416; and 2,800 francs, 
or about $448 ; elegantly finished. The corners of the 
window (windoiv glasses), ground glass, of one of them, 
flowered with border lines, had a very good effect. A dili- 
gence, a sort of stage-coach, got up without regard to 
expense ; also, a traveling carriage, got up without regard 
to horses! as it must have weighed tons. Every spoke of 
the wheels would have served for a " back-log," to a wood- 
fire." 

The First Coach in England, &c. — The first coach 
in England appears to have made its appearance in 155*7, 
or eight years after its introduction into France. It was 
rudely constructed, and, as the art of making was not yet 
understood in England, it was imported from the Continent. 
It was not until the close of the sixteenth century when 
carriages of good workmanship were employed by persons 
of quality. Henry IV. had one, but without straps or 
springs. In the age of Queen Elizabeth they had assumed 
various forms, under the name of Whirlicoies. The Duke 
of Buckingham, in 1610, drove six horses, and the Duke 
of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove eight. Carriages 
were first let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at the Hotel France, 
and hence their name. 

Thunder-Bolts and Broken Axle-trees. — The ancient 
poets, particularly Homer and Virgil, were very fond of 
magnifying the virtues of thunderbolts, and consequently 
have represented the old sooty god, Vulcan, as employing 
his choicest and best workmen in the manufacture of that 
article, of which he is reported to have had the oversight. 

In words of implication, the poet slanderously lessen s 
the importance of chariot building, when he says : 

" Inferior ministers [workmen] for Mars repair 
His broken axletrees." 

Had old Mars been half as particular as some men in 
our day are, he would not have " stood that anyhow." 
Just as if a simple thunderbolt of old Jove would require 
more skill in its production, than would be required in 



3G 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



July 



making and welding an arm to the broken axle-tree of a 
war-chariot, in the proper repairing of which the fate of a 
whole nation might be involved. This, we would think, 
was favoring the Thunderer, at the expense of the majority 
of Vulcan's customers, both gods find men. But mo- 
nopolies have always proved great evils, of which, doubt- 
less, our readers have had manifest proofs during the past 
few years. We are glad to find that the late crisis has 
brushed away some of them, and that consequently there 
Avill still remain a chance for all to live. 

A New Preserve — the Lady-Jam. — We have often 
heard of such "jams" as currant-jams, raspberry -jams, &c, 
but never until now did we hear of" the lady-jam." The cor- 
respondent of a daily cotemporary, who subscribes himself 
"An Up-town Resident," complains in bitter language 
against the "lady -jams" in the city cars. We presume 
" this deponent " is some old crusty bachelor, who does 
not appreciate " the article? We advise him and others, 
sensitive in this respect, to always patronize the 'bus, and 
give up the cars to " the hoops " exclusively, without so 
much grumbling about that over which no man can exer- 
cise control. There can be no doubt of the fact, that the 
ladies are the only sovereigns in this country ! 

Journey from Rome to Naples. — The Vehicles on 
the Road. — Dick Tinto, in the Times for Dec. 26, 1857, 
says : " The next day, by noon, we reached Capua, sixteen 
miles from Naples, and communicating with it by railroad ; 
we preferred to continue, however, in our vettura. Several 
miles before entering the city, our approach to it was an- 
nounced by unmistakable signs. The broad paved road 
was covered with vehicles of new forms, with harnesses of 
peculiar fashion. There were oxen yoked together with 
horses and asses — a triumvirate exclusively Neapolitan. 
There was a droll mixture of negligence and display — of 
don't-care and care-a-good-deal in everything we saw. 
Portions of the vehicles were painted fiery red, while other 
parts were torn, worn, and dilapidated. The harnesses and 
saddles of carts and wagons were glowing with brass and 
bedizened with ribbons and red flannel, while old ropes, 
rags, and jagged strings dangled here and there to supply 
rents and repair damages." 

An "Old Whip" vs. Railways. — Perhaps the distinc- 
tion between tvhere are you and there you are was never 
more happily denned than in the words of an English 
"whip," at the time when railways first came into vogue. 
" A railway," says he, " why, there's the engine goes a 
bursting, or is blown up, or they are running into each other, 
or over prcsemjiices (precipices), and then where are ye ? 
Whereas a coach-wheel may bolt off, or a /taccident occur 
— mayhap you get a bruise or two — mayhap a broken 
limb ; but there you are — we sees you, and we picks you 
up, and carries you to a hospital ; now that's what I calls a 



/^adequate /iadvantage." Precisely so ; the Editor and the 
Johnny Bull " whip " are perfectly agreed on this " point." 

" A Stump-er." — A friend of ours from " out West," (he 
will please to pardon this allusion to him), had more than 
half persuaded us to "pull up stakes " and start out West 
with "our household goods," where he assured us we could 
make our fortune at coach-making, in five years; when, 
picking up a newspaper, all our calculations were " knocked 
into pi," by the following extract from a letter, dated from 
Mound City, Pulaski, 111. : 

" A farmer in New England, living comfortably by his 
thirty acre possession and his trade, that of wagon-maker, 
thought to better his fortune, and that of his two daugh- 
ters and son, by emigrating to Iowa. He readily found a 
purchaser for his snug and really beautiful home, and with 
three thousand dollars started West. Arrived in Iowa, he 
visited many of these paper towns, and finally made a loca- 
tion in a thriving village, near the geographical centre of 
the county. Property commanded pretty ' steep' prices, 
but he succeeded in buying out an earlier settler, agreeing 
to pay one hundred dollars per foot front for the lot, and 
eight hundred dollars for improvements, consisting of a 
small one-story frame house, slab-shed for horse, well, 1 2 
feet deep, and the oak -board fence around the premises. 
He turned the shed into a wagon-shop and commenced 
work, paying very high prices for every inch of timber 
which he had to use. Provisions were very high, and, 
economize as his good wife would, it was found that ten 
dollars per week were necessary for his household wants. 
He could not get money for his work. In a word, he could 
not make ends meet ; and, at the end of the year, he sold 
out for fifteen hundred dollars what had cost him three 
thousand dollars. His family were dispirited, but there 
was now no home for them except in 'the West,' and he 
was en route for Kansas when we left him." 

We have now concluded to "wait a spell," until the 
comet gets out of the way, or " something turns up." 

Responsibilities oe Cab Owners in France. — A case 
of appeal, involving the responsibility of masters for the acts 
of their servants, and which has excited much interest i n 
Paris, was lately decided in that city. Some time ago a 
cab driver, named Collignon, assassinated one of his fares. 
He was tried, condemned, and executed. The widow of 
the murdered man laid an action against the owner of the 
cab driven by the assassin, from whom she claimed 50,000 
francs damages. The court condemned the owner to 
10,000 francs damages, and his appeal against this sentence 
has beeu rejected, and the decision of the court below been 
confirmed. 

A Monster Carriage. — Unless some of our readers 
have been more searching in their readings than ourselves, 
they have never before read the veracious history we now 
transfer to our pages from that interesting sheet — Harper's 
Weekly. Here it is : " At the time when Rabillac assassin- 
ated Henry IV. (him who had neither "springs" nor 
" straps " to his carriage), he was sitting in a carriage, so 
large that some of his immediate friends were within with 



July, 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



37 



his majesty, and yet no one of them saw the blow given, 
so vast was the carriage." According to this writer, coaches 
at this time were as large as houses ! This story may be 
true — the coaches may have been " as large as houses ; " 
but one is very naturally led to inquire, how large must 
have been the horses that drew them ? 

The gentlest taskmaster we ever knew was a black- 
smith, who said every evening to his apprentices, " Come 
boys, let's leave off work and go to sawing wood /" 



COACH-CARVING. 

An Introductory Letter. 

New Haven, Conn., June 7th, 1S5S. 

Messrs. Editors, — Adopting the principle, that my 
light will be none the less after enlightening my neighbors, 
I shall proceed to give a few practical suggestions in coach- 
carving, and you are at liberty to publish them if you 
think that they will be of interest to your readers. Should 
my project meet with your approbation, I intend to give 
practical illustrations of the first principles of ornamental 
design, as applicable to coach-carving. 

Within the past few years, carving on coach and car- 
riage work has become quite fashionable with us, and very 
extensively adopted. The great obstacle in the way of its 
more general application seems to be, first, the expense, 
and secondly, a lack of knowledge as regards ornamental 
design, on the part of those who have the drafting of car- 
riages, in not making a proper allowance for its introduc- 
tion. Ornament, when introduced, should have some pur- 
pose ; that is, should be useful, as well as ornamental. 
There should be a starting-point, a beginning and ending, 
so thai the eye may trace every line. In many instances, 
where the attempt is made, it is without any particular de- 
sign — jurnbled up together to fill some panel or corner. 

Now, the beauty of ornament lays in the elegance of out- 
line, and the proper manipulation of detail, with due 
regard to proportion ; not overladen, nor too meagre. The 
great mistake in many instances is the excess of elabora- 
tion, which makes a confused mass and offends the eye. 
In carriage carving, the more simple, elegant and light, the 
more appropriate ; and which, introduced, should be pro- 
perly distributed, so as to balance well. 

These few hints are merely preliminary to what I intend 
hereafter to say, and, if agreeable to you, you will soon 
hear from me in the way of illustration for your next num- 
ber. Friend Tousley departed so suddenly, that I was 
unable to bid him God-speed. But success to The New 
York Coach-maker's Magazine. May your motto 
always be Excelsior I From your humble servant, 

Jas. H. Campbell. 



Pip attft Hopes for \\t fmntg* 

HOAV SHALL I FIND HAPPINESS? 
My young friend, do you really desire to be happy ? if so, 
listen to the counsels of a friend and he will teach you the 
whole art of happiness. An allwise Providence, in its deal- 
ings with man, has made a curious disposition of this pre- 
cious boon ; indeed, we may say, that in the entire range of 



man's desires there is none so difficult of access or so deeply 
puzzling in its nature as this. Wealth, honor, and friend- 
ship, each has its proper avenues of approach, and the 
natural instinct brought into action by a strong desire to 
possess them is the surest guide to their attainment ; but 
with happiness Dame Nature has reversed all rules, and 
baffled the keenest instincts. The worldling who seeks it 
finds it not ; while those who disregard it seldom return 
empty. 

Happiness is a gift which Heaven only can afford to be- 
stow upon the truly good, and the selfish wretch who seeks 
pleasure instead of duty is not sufficiently elevated above 
the brute todeserve orenjoy it. In this life,joy and grief seem 
strangely blended. Sweet fountains often well up from the 
very pit of sorrow, and the placid brow can only feel the 
fanning wing of celestial visitants. Pleasure, when sought, 
often proves the censer of a fury ; it changes the eyes to 
blood-clots, the heart to fire, and the hair to a nest of 
vipers. Turn your back upon it with manly fortitude. 
Seek duty and self-denial as footprints of the Divine. The 
chastened spirit, like the bruised flower, is redolent with 
the odors of happiness and self-content. How noble ! to 
see the strong will of a moral hero turning to battle with 
his own desires, and rebuke his own unhallowed longings. 
Greater than Alexander is he who can conquer himself ! 
Kings and courts have wasted a nation's wealth without 
adding a single charm to their fetes, or a new pleasure to 
their existence. The great Czar ruined his health in the en- 
joyment of dainties, until he actually envied the gusto with 
which the peasent devoured his simple fare, and at last, as a 
penance to outraged nature, came down to bran-bread and 
active field duty. The present is a dissolute age; the 
force of example and lack of good counsel render the 
term of apprenticeship a fearful ordeal. Few, very few, of 
the young men who come to our cities to learn a trade bring 
a sufficient amount of cool philosophy and good practical 
sense to take them unscathed to the end of their trial. 
They begin by taking a cigar ; continue to acquire filthy 
and useless habits, and thus step by step descend the 
ladder of dissipation. Apprenticeship is the seed-time of 
after -years; one may as well try to escape from his 
shadow as to put away the effects of early discipline. Re- 
member that happiness is the outgrowth of principle, and 
that principle can never be established until you have ob- 
tained a complete mastery of yourself. Pleasure-seeking 
is at best but the blossoming of an animal nature; its 
ripened fruit, misery, crime and suicide. Subdue your 
budding desires — like apples of the Dead Sea, they are fair 
to look upon, but when tasted only fill the mouth with 
dust and bitterness. T. 



A Lawyer's carriage is only a legal conveyance, and 
it is the client, as often as it stops at his door, who pays 
for the drawing of it. 



ONLY ONE BRICK UPON ANOTHER. 

Edwin was one day looking at a large building which 
they were putting tip just opposite his father's house. He 
watched the workmen from day to day, as they carried up 
the brick and mortar, and thou placed them in their 
proper order. His father said to him : 

"Edwin, you seem to be vow much taken up with the 
bricklayers; pray what might you be thinking about.' 
Have you any notion of learning the trade .'" 

"No," said Edward, smiling, "but 1 was just thinking 
what a little thing a brick is, and yet that groat house is 
built by laying one brick upon another." 

■• Very true, my boy, never forgot it. Just so it is with 
all great works. All your learning is only one little lesson 
added to another. If a man could walk all around the 
world, it would be by putting one foot before the other. 
Your whole life will be made up of one little moment after 
another. Prop added to drop makes the ocean." 

Learn from this not to despise little things. Learn, also. 
not to be discouraged by great labor. The greatest labor be- 
comes easy if divided into parts. You could not jump 
over a mountain, but step by >tep takes you to the other 
side. Do not fear, therefore, to attempt great things. Al- 
ways remember that the whole o( the great building is 
only one brick upon another. 



LITERARY ITEMS. 

The Shah of Persia, who is a great amateur of 
Arabic ealigraphy and water-color painting, is having pre- 
pared, under his immediate and personal superintendence, 
a magnificent edition of the " Arabian Nights' Entertain. 
ments." During the last seven years the most celebrated 
Persian painters have been engaged in the illustration of 
this work, which has already cost 300,000 f., and will be a 
production unique in its kind. 

A Mi'skvm of German Literature, — The house and 
gardens inherited by Jacobi, near Pusseldorf. where so 
many of the great literary men of the last age — Goethe, 
Tieek, and others — were accustomed to assemble, has been 
purchased for the Malkasten Art Society. In it will be 
deposited their library and collection of art, and will be a 
suitable monument of Germany's most brilliant literary 
epoch. 



WHAT THE PRESS SAYS OF OUB MAGAZINE. 

From :!u V - V . . , of M:iy 81, 

Tuk New Yobs Coach-Maker's Monthly Magazine. 
— Here is the commencement of a novelty among the thousand 

and one periodicals which swarm in so many departments of 
business and amusement It is devoted to the interests of the 
craft whose name it bears, and proposes to give designs and 
drafts of improvements in the art, with a copious miscellany of 
reading matter, notices of new inventions, and ether matters of 
interest to the trade. The first number, which we have exam- 
ined, looks promising. 

From the Mm /I'revn Morning AYir,< of May it. 

Tuf. Coach-Makers and their Organ. — We have 

been amused and interested in the perusal of a new mechanical 
publication, bearing the title of "The New York Coach-maker's 
Monthly Magazine." The fashion plates, elegant in style and 
- till in proportion, are finely engraved, and, in keeping with 
the whole work, beautifully printed. As a literary work, it 



aims at the elevation ol' the social tastes and literary interests 
of the working man. The maintenance of such a communica- 
tive medium, places coach-making in a high position in the 
scale ol' trades, and we hope, for the honor as well as the inter- 
est of that intelligent class, that they will apply their economy 
to the curtailing of useless expenses, and patronize this work 
liberally. The life-like portrait of our much esteemed towns- 
man, Mr. dames Brewster, is alone worth the price of sub- 
scription. 

From the AVir Karen Journal and Courier of May 21. 

Interesting to Carriage-Makers; — We have seen the 
first number of " The New Y'ork Coach-Maker's Monthly Maga- 
zine," edited by E. M. Stratum and M. G. Tousley, 106 Elisa- 
beth street, New Y'ork. It is a valuable periodical for the 
fraternity, being devoted to its literary, soeial and mechanical 
interests. It is well supplied with engravings of different styles 
of carriages, but what particularly pleased us was, a striking 
likeness of James Brewster, Esq., of this city, the veteran and 
greatly esteemed carriage-builder, of whom a biographical 
sketch is also given. 

We are informed that there are no less than 75,000 carriage- 
makers in the United States and Canada, a number capable of 
handsomely sustaining an organ, and that there are fifty large 
establishments in New Haven. The coach-makers are the only 
mechanics who support an organ, and ol' course they should 
have a commendable pride in so doing. 

From the A* no York Christian Advocate and Journal of June S. 

Tuk New York Coachmaker's Monthly Magazine 
is published by E. M. Straiten, 106 Elizabeth street. New York, 
at $;'• j%er annum. It is a noble quarto, beautifully illustrated, 
and edited with genuine tact and spirit. We are surprised at 
the amount of interest thus thrown upon a single mechanical 
craft We commend the work to every coach-maker — it cannot 
fail to reimburse him for its expense by improvements in his 
business. 



INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME AXT> ABROAD. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

April -0. Runners of Sleds. — Silas Bullard, of Hartland, 
Mich. : T do not claim giving a movement to sleigh runners 
independent of the load that is above them. 

Nor do I claim giving the runner ou one side a movement in- 
dependent of that of the other. 

Nor do I claim the use of the link joint for connecting sleigh 
runners to the frame work of a sleigh. 

But 1 claim constructing the rear runners of sleighs in sepa- 
rate frames, each frame being hung by link joints to the cross 
bar. II, so as to admit of a fore and aft rising and {'itching move- 
ment in each runner, which shall be independent of the move- 
ment of the opposite runner, asset forth. 

1 also claim the construction of the tie beam. H, so contrived 
as to hold the separate forward runner frames at the proper dis- 
tance apart by the fastening belts, B h. near its ends, and at 
the same time to allow the independent rising and pitching 
movement in each runner by making the mortise holes in H' 
so large as to admit the bars. E" E", to play loosely therein, 
SO as to allow of a slight rolling motion on the axis of H\ when- 
ever the runners rise or pitch, from the irregularities of the 
ground. 

April 87. Attaching Shafts to Vehicles. — J. A. Boyce. of 
Monroe. N. Y. : I claim attaching the shafts or poles to the axles 
of carriages or other vehicles, by means of the combination of 
fastenings, as described, namely, the bolt connection, and the 
projections, c e, on the pieces, b b, made to bear against the de- 
pressions, d d, in the double concave ring, e, the whole being 
constructed and arranged in the manner and for the purpose 
set forth. 

Adjustable Seats for Vehicles. — George d. Lucas, t,as- 



July. 



T 1 1 E -N E W Y R K C A C II - M A K E R ' S M A G A Z I N E 



39 



sigoor to himself and John G. Lucas), of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. : 
I do not claim broadly and irrespective of the arrangement, 
shown, so connecting wagon seats that one may be folded or 
closed over the other, for this has been previously done. 

But I claim the connection of the two scats, B C, by means 
of levers, I) D, and links, 1 1, substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

May 11. Hub Machine. — Lovett Eames, of Kalamazoo, Mich. : 
I claim operating or giving the feed movement to the carriage, 
B, in which the mortising tool is fitted or placed, by means of 
the horizontal rotating disk, K, provided with the ledges, c f, 
and having its shaft, G, stepped in the treadle, H, in connection 
with the rollers, i h, on the shaft, 1, which is rotated from the 
driving shaft, F, the parts being arranged as shown, or in an 
equivalent way, to operate as described. 

May 18. Forming the heads of Carriage Springs. — Samuel 
H. Hartman, of Pittsburgh, Pa. : I claim forming the head or 
socket on the head plate of a spring, by subjecting them to the 
action of the dies and counter dies in the die blocks, F F' F", 
and the levers G G' G", in the order of their sequence, substan- 
tially as represented and described. 

May 25. Omnibus Register. — R. E. House, of Binghampton, 
N. Y. : I claim the combination of a step, protected substantially 
as described, resting on a yielding support, such a spring or its 
equivalent with recording mechanism to be operated by the 
step, substantially as and for the purpose described. 



LATE EUROPEAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

Joseph B. Howell and John Shortridge, Sheffield, Eng. — an 
improved mode of rolling steel for springs. 

Geo, T. Bousfield, Loughborough Park, Brixton — improve- 
ments in machinery used in the manufacture of springs, and in 
the application of springs to carriages. 

Samuel Roget and Daniel Roget, Blackburn — an improved 
method of coupling and uncoupling railway, tramway, and 
other carriages, wagons, lorries, trucks, and other vehicles. 

J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, and 1GC 
Buchanan street, Glasgow — an improved signal apparatus to be 
attached to common road carriages. 

Thos. Playle, Chatham — improvements in two-wheeled car- 
riages. 

James Boydell, 65 Gloucester Crescent, Camden town — im- 
provements in carriages propelled by steam or other power. 

Vital de Tivoli, 67 Lower Thames street, London — an im- 
proved omnibus. 

John H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, and 166 
Buchanan street, Glasgow — improvements in the boxes and 
journals of carriage wheels and axles, and in journals and bear- 
ings generally. 

Chas Risworth, .Sheffield — an improved construction of spring 
for sustaining loads and moderating concussion. 

Geo. Richardson, 2 Copenhagen street, Islington, and William 
Richardson, 5 Ranelagh Grove, Pimlico — the construction of 
three-wheeled carriages, and omnibuses so constructed to be 
called first-class omnibuses. 

Patrick Heyns, 2 Wade's Place, Poplar — improvements in 
wheels and axle boxes. 

Charles Girardet, Vienna — a new movable shaft-bearer, or 
supporter of coaches. 

William E. Newton, 66 Chancery Lane, London — the appli- 
cation to carts or other vehicles of apparatus for weighing the 
load contained in such vehicles. 

Robert F. Miller, Hammersmith — improvements in omnibuses. 

John Skelly, Kilcurry, Ireland — improvements in carriage 
springs. 

Paul J. Gautrot, 206 Regent street, London — instantaneous 
tents, invented purposely for the use of public vehicles called 
omnibuses, but which can be also applied to any others, open 
vehicles, carts or wagons and traveling hawkers, at a very low 
cost ; new system of shelter against the inclemency of the 
weather. 

Andrew Whytock, 12 Little St. Andrew street, Upper St. 



Martin's Lane, London — improvements in apparatus to be applied 
to wheels to facilitate them in traveling on common roads and 
other surfaces. 

Benjamin Beale, East Greenwich, Kent — an improved method 
of cutting and shaving spokes. 

Bland W. Croker, Vienna — improvments in axle boxes to 
render them self-lubricatinn;. 



CJfj insira plan's CaLeitkr, 



G. A D. COOK & CO.'S JUMP-SEAT BUGGY. 

Illustrated on Plate VII. 

Manufacturers often demur against the principle in- 
volved in all Shifting-seat Carriages, on account of its 
changing the bearing of the load upon the springs, and 
thus rendering it impossible to so regulate their force as to 
make them equally efficient under all circumstances. This 
is truly a serious objection, and one that, from the nature 
of the case, can never be entirely overcome; yet the ne- 
cessities of the age call for their manufacture, and, right or 
wrong, they must and will be built. 

If everybody were rich, there would be no necessity for 
them to suffer any inconvenience, and, with carriages as 
with tools, they could keep a general assortment, and order 
a vehicle for every use — hunting, traveling, or business ; 
but when a customer has only the means to buy one pleas- 
ure wagon, and that one must do duty in a variety of ways, 
he 'will naturally reason that a liglit, well-constructed 
vehicle, of this description, is more convenient, according 
to its cost, than either a single or double-seat carriage. 
In the west, the shifting-seat buggy is very popular, as 
the country is quite level, and many of the roads are planked 
or Macadamized — so that a single horse can easily draw 
more than a single seat will accommodate ; and, for those 
whose families (like their means) are not very large, this 
style must be regarded as a necessity ; hence a standard 
style. But a shifting seat, constructed in the ordinary 
way, is a most uncouth, complicated and unscientific affair. 
It is difficult to make, unpleasant to shift, inelegant to the 
eye, and, worse than all, cuts and defaces its own finish, 
even when used properly and judiciously. 

The finished and much-needed improvement shown on 
Plate VII. was invented by the above-named influential 
firm, in New Haven, Ct., about four years since, but has 
never been manufactured outside of their establishment, 
from the fact that the right to do so has never before been 
offered to the public ; yet they have continued to manu- 
facture and perfect this style of vehicle, and they now send 
a large number, annually, to their customers south and 
east — and they can be seen in most of the carriage reposi- 
tories on Broadway, in this city. From the above facts, it 
has been supposed that they did intend to retain the exclu- 
sive use of their invention ; but we found, upon inquiry, 
that their quiet use of the improvement arose more from 
a pressure of business in other directions than from their 
desire to monopolize its use, and that they are not only 
willing to bring it before the public, but are also willing to 
divide the profits of its use for a reasonable and proper 
compensation. The style, as it now appears, is as modern 
in its outline and as elegant in its proportion as its shifting 
device is original and perfect. 

By way of giving the reader a more general idea, we 
have illustrated the two different positions of the seat, by 



40 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



July. 



two different drafts — the one as a shifting-top buggy, the 
other as a two-seat vehicle with the top removed. 

The jumping irons, by which the seat is lifted from its 
bearings and carried in a semicircle to another position, 



are arranged thus 




Two irons are fastened at the top of the seat-block, by 
means of bolts — the one near the front, and the other 
towards the back. These pass down to the top of the 
rocker, and are attached to the body, as shown. The slant 
of these irons not only raises and carries the seat and its side 
blocks back to a corresponding position in the rear, but 
braces it in such a manner as to hold it firmly in its place, 
by its own weight and that of the person sitting on it. It 
also effectually conceals the front seat, and all traces of its 
being a shifting-seat vehicle, from the fact that it requires 
no friction plates on the edge, and the seat fits as neatly to 
the body as if permanently attached to that one place. If 
the seat is to be moved thirteen inches, the irons must be 
slanted in that direction just half of the distance, and the 
lower bolts, acting as the pivot of a circle, will lift and 
carry it backwards or forwards, when pushed. In order to 
steady these traverse irons, a light plate is attached to the 
seat-block, passing on the outside in such a manner as to 
allow them to pass between it and the block, latch-form. 
A strap of iron is also screwed to the inside of the body, to 
serve as a friction plate and to form a solid surface for the 
jump irons to rest against. This device is not only simple 
and effective, but very scientific, and reflects a high degree 
of credit upon the inventor. 

We will now saw the body through the centre length- 
wise, cutting off all of its appurtenances, and take a general 
survey of all its parts. 




The above sectional drawing shows an enlarged view of 
the top buggy on Plate VII., but our engraver-artist has giv- 
en it a tight seat, and has not only failed to discriminate be- 
tween the relative thickness of a panel and that of the 
bottom of a seat, but has given a machine-like clumsiness 
and heft to its various parts that the job itself does not 
have. But the operation of the front scat is the main 
thing introduced to be shown. When raised to its proper 
position, the front seat is the same height with the hind 
one, and its neatly finished base corresponds with the style 
of the seat blocks and finish of the back scat. When 
folded back, as shown in the engraving, the skirt of the 
front seat block folds in upon the bottom of the seat, be- 



ing attached by hinges for that purpose ; and although it 
stands above the level of the body, still the back seat will 
pass over it, and the blocks upon which it rests will 
effectually conceal the open space and seat, finishing all as 
though it had no second seat. But when the main scat is 
thrown back as shown, the front seat can be turned over 
to its place, and another simple but perfect little arrange- 
ment expands the skirts as it raises, until they attain just the 
proper position to place the flanges (cut upon the bottom) 
into its place between the side of the body and seat part, 
and the outside of the skirt firm and level upon the edge 
of the body. When thus placed the skirt fits so neatly, 
both to the seat and to the edge of the body, that an inex- 
perienced eye would not be able to detect its changeable 
nature, but would suppose that it was a light, elegant pat- 
tern of a two-seat body. The little arrangement that ad- 
justs the skirt is no more than an iron slide fastened across 
the seat bar diagonally. At the back side of the bar it is, 
perhaps, an inch higher than the bar, but it recedes as it 
approaches the front corner, and finally rounds off with it, 
as shown in the engraving. When the skirt is folded in 
it lays upon the highest point of this slide, and as the seat 
raises, the slight inclination of the slide is rendered rela- 
tively more circular by the sweep of the seat, which just 
regulates their spread until they drop over the edge and 
fall into their proper places. The skirts, thus resting upon 
the edge of the body, bear the weight of the load, and 
release the back hinge and the seat bar from all strain; 
a thing not usually attained in the ordinary pattern of a 
shifting seat. All of the above points are specifically cov- 
ered by the Messrs. Cook & Co.'s patent, and the perfection 
that they have attained to has cost them much time and 
labor, and deserves that protection which the law extends 
to meritorious inventions ; and which, alas ! charlatanry 
and quackery have brought into such general disrepute. 
But an intelligent public must discriminate between 
the useful and finished invention, and the crude spawn 
of an idle-brained and unscientific inventor. We hope 
and trust that the proprietors will arrange their rates by 
some rule, taking into consideration the number of hands 
employed, and at so much per hand, thus proportioning 
the price, by a just and reasonable rule, to the business of 
each applicant. This will constitute it a fair and legiti- 
mate traffic, and recommend the improvement to the favor- 
able notice of first-class men in those sections where such 
styles are popular. We are informed that such a course 
is to be adopted, and should they be so fortunate as to 
secure men to introduce it, who represent fairly the system 
and standing; of their home interests, the coach-making 
public will have no cause for complaint. 

We omitted to mention that the seat blocks on the main 
seat are generally covered with a leather boot ; this light- 
ens the appearance of the body, and, when finely and 
neatly checked, forms an original style of finish which is 
of itself highly becoming, and corresponds finely with the 
general design of the vehicle. 

Ml'CTJIilDY'S 

IMPROVED PATENT WHIP SOCKET. 

This Whip Socket, having received the approbation of the principal 
Carriage Manufacturers in New York city for the last three years, is now 
offered to the Carriage Makers throughout the United States, in full con- 
fidence that it will be found, on trial, better calculated for being secured 
to a Carriage, or holding a whip, than any other yet invented. 

Prices plain or silver mounted, $5 per dozen. 

Address P. M'Curdy, 97 Jane St., New York. 

The Proprietor of this Magazine will supply cash orders at manufacturer's 
prices. 



PLATE 8. 



Vol. 1. 




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PLATE 9. 



VoL 1. 




CUT-UNDER BUGGY.— \ in. scale. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. — Explained, on page 50. 




TROTTING BUGGY.— i in. scale. 

Engraved expressly for the New York CoachrMakef 's Magazine. 
Explained on page 50. 



PLATE 10, 



Vol. 3. 







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PLATE 11. 



VoL 1 




No. 1. 




No. 2. 





No. 3. 



ORIGINAL ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach-Maker's 
Magazine. — Explained on page 53. 



No. 4. 




DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, ATTG-TJST, 1858. 



No. 3. 




THREE-WHEEL PLEASURE CARRIAGES. 

In mechanics as in literature, the shallow and novel often 
takes the precedence of that which is sound and useful. 
But, who shall take up the pen of criticism to draw the 
line of demarcation between that which is superficial and 
that which is genuine ? The modest]/ (?) as well as the 
perseverance of that nighty class, who delight in ringing 
their insane antics in the ears of a sober public, have long 
since become a proverb ; and woe to the skeptic who dares 
to dispute their claims, or whose duty it is to dissect the 
fallacy. A whine, long, deep and loud, is certain to follow, 
and the shadows of the mighty dead — Harvey, Newton, 
Galileo, and, perhaps, the Savior himself — must be conjured 
forth and spirited around the beaten track as samples of 
their persecuted merit. But those vapid whinings are 
about played out, having served as a mask to every hum- 
bug from the days of Mesmer down to the present time ; 
attention can no longer be diverted by the cry of " Fogy" 
and those who are attempting to gull the coach-making 
public with oddities may well try to monopolize attention, 
lest the medium of a candid review should loosen their 
hold upon public sympathy, and, at last, throw them upon 
their own merits. 

In reviewing the various patents that have for the last 
few years been crowded upon the attention of any unsus- 
pecting circle of readers, we find a few which have not 
only had the respectable parentage of sound mechanical 
genius, but which were original in their conception and 
practical in their tendency ; but the vehicle under con- 
sideration is a twin to that summing up of mechanical in- 
consistencies, the one-wheel gig, and belongs to that family 
of mis-carriages which, as public chroniclers, we are bound 
to show up. 

But while we affirm, in advance, that there are obstacles, 
in the way of building good three-wheeled pleasure carri- 
ages, which are insurmountable, we shall waive its elucida- 
tion until we have presented the reader with a summary 
the subsequent trials and mishaps which have befallen 
of its first conception in the cradle of the Old World, and 
its present experimenter in the new. It is, however, un- 



necessary to enter into a detailed account of all the facts ; 
suffice it to say, that models have been made in France, 
England and Germany. 

The third wheel was first placed in the rear, then changed 
to the front, and thus applied to the London cabriolet ; after 
which it was somewhat improved upon and applied to car- 
riages of the cab form in Berlin. But the main defects 
could not be overcome, and it was soon wisely abandoned, 
save in the cards of French lithographers, who seized upon 
the " item" as a relief from the monotony of sober sketch- 
ing, and gave it to the New World as a caricature of invent- 
ive folly. One of these lithographs found its way to New 
York among a host of other designs, some practical, others 
not ; and after being culled by New York dealers, this ad- 
venturous card fell into the hands of the American patentee. 
He first made a draft of it as if set upon Sprout's springs, 
and illustrated it ; but this was a sad blunder, as the finish- 
ed model soon indicated. An elliptic was next applied, 
and one change succeeded another until at the time of its 
exhibition at the State Fair, held in 1856, at Cleveland, 
Ohio. Here its uncouth appearance was the cause of con- 
siderable merriment on the part of carriage-makers, and, to 
crown its mishaps, it broke down twice while standing 
quietly under the pavilion, from the effects of the agents 
getting in and out to display its fine qualities to visitors. 

The cross-perch, with supporting rods, was added to 
stiffen the front, and thus prevent the vibrations of the 
front wheel, the purchase of which was enormous, from the 
fact that the pivot-circle stood supported by jacks above 
the driving wheel, but the addition of this unsightly append- 
age did not prevent the mishaps. Many expedients, to 
save the credit of this new vehicle, were tried, but with no 
better success, until at last the workmen, who had re- 
modeled it, came to the sage conclusion, that it could not 
be made to operate successfully, and at last flatly refused 
to tinker at " the humbugging thing any longer." But the 
perfecting of this invention had become a ruling passion, 
and slight obstacles were not to impede his progress ; he 
sought out another carriage-ironer, and the " editorial 
flings," both domestic and convivial, which followed, would 
furnish serio-comical sketches that would be worthy of the 
pencil of a Hogarth. Finally, that unruly machine was 
put off upon a brother inventor, of " Giant-cob-mill" noto- 
riety, but the vehicle would not stay sold, for, like the man 



42 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



AUGUST. 



who purchased and read Gulliver's tales, he returned a 
complaint to his merchant, that it was all a humbug. 

The steam fire-engine finally came to the "capitol city," 
and its wheel-within-a-wheel suggested the idea of con- 
structing the pivot-circle in such a manner as to rest direct- 
ly upon the axle, and to enclose the driving wheel. This, 
with its old-fashioned C spring arrangement, now constitutes 
its chief peculiarities, as it has lately been presented before 
the public. This mammoth pivot-circle, some three feet 
and three inches in diameter, must be made sufficiently 
heavy to prevent the vibration of the wheel from spring- 
ing it out of true, and we leave the reader to imagine 
bow uncouth an appearance it consequently must now pre- 
sent with its numerous bolts, rivets and attachments. The 
second American model was the one which signalized its 
first use with a celebrated "smash-up" in the city of Balti- 
more. 

An anecdote, not in order, but worthy of notice, in con- 
nection with this class of vehicles, may not be out of place, 
if the reader has a disposition to be merry or can appre- 
ciate a sparkle of fun. The American patentee, in com- 
mon with other inventors, seemed to have a desire to 
furnish his protege with some high-sounding cognomen. 
That of " Equirotal" finally turned up in a work published 
by Wm. B. Adams, an author on English Pleasure Car- 
riages, and its cbime fell like music upon the ear of the in- 
ventor, and he immediately adopted it with no proper 
knowledge of its signification, calling it an " Equirotal 
Phaeton." Now, the joke in this instance consists in the 
fact, that the term equirotal is applicable only to carriages, 
the wheels of which are of equal height or diameter ; and 
could not, therefore, be with any propriety applied to a 
vehicle of this character. 

But aside from all the blunders of the past, which serve 
to illustrate the folly of the inventor, rather than the de- 
fect of the principle, there are other obstacles of a funda- 
mental character connected with the use of three-wheeled 
carriages which can never be obviated. In the first place, 
carriages of this description are very complicated, and the 
cost of their manufacture is far greater than that of ordi- 
nary carriages. In the second place, the strain upon a 
single driving-wheel is so great that it requires an amount 
of bracing and heavy ironing which gives it the appearance 
of a piece of machinery, more than that of light fancy car- 
riage work. In the third place, the driving-wheel must 
stand in front of the body, and the horse must be put far 
enough away from the wheel to keep his heels from coming 
in contact ; this places the motor too far away from the 
point of draught, and for convenience would need a rider, 
d la volante. In the fourth place, this class of vehicles 
arc unsafe, as a sudden tilt down a bank, or the crossing of 
a gutter in a diagonal direction, would be. almost certain to 
turn it over. In the fifth place, they are less steady and 
pleasant to ride in than a four-wheeled carriage, for when 
a side wheel strikes a stone, or an obstruction of any kind, 
the shock is equalized at the centre of the axletree, and the 
force of the shock at the wheel is far greater than at the 
point where the head-block rests. On the contrary, a cen- 
tre-wheel controls the entire front of the vehicle, and it, 
consequently, goes bouncing up ami down, with nothing to 
modify the shock; with no equalizing advantages to lessen 
the stroke of obstacles over which it must pass. 

From the foregoing facts, it will be plainly seen that no 
amount of perfecting can ever render this style of car- 
riage either cheap, safe, comfortable, elegant or durable, 



and much less combine all those qualities, without either of 
which no style of vehicle is fit to bring before an intelli- 
gent public as an improvement. T. 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER III. 

A brief reeapilulatioruof the matter contained in the last chapter on this 
subject — Dr. Abbott's Egyptian Museum, and the fragments of an ancient 
Egyptian Chariot, comprising an entire wheel, two pieces of the body and a 
portion of the shafts ; the whole illustrated from photographs on the wood, 
by six characteristic engravings, followed by critical descriptions and obser- 
vations by a coach-maker. 



Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes Paulatim, 

Virgil. 

In our July number we took a general survey of the 
rise and progress of carriage-making among the ancient 
Egyptians, and have shown, to our satisfaction at least, that 
the art of building and using them originated in and was 
confined to that ingenious people — ingenious as contrasted 
with the surrounding nations. In order to illustrate our 
subject the more fully, and to redeem the promise made to 
the reader in our first chapter on this subject, we shall 
devote this article to the illustration of "the Fragments" 
of an Egyptian Chariot, taken from a mummy pit at 
Dashour, and brought to this country by our distinguished 
and respected countryman, Dr. Henry Abbott, and on ex- 
hibition at 659 Broadway, and numbered on the Museum 
catalogue 386 and 387. Mr. Snare, the superintendent in 
attendance, to whose kindness Ave are under many obliga- 
tions, will take much pleasure in showing and explaining 
to our friends — the coach-makers visiting New York — not 
only these fragments of a vehicle of an early age, but like- 
wise a countless collection of the rarest and most interesting 




Eig. 1. 



remains of antiquity to be found, probably, outside the 
British Museum. The Doctor's long residence in Egypt 
has afforded him a fine opportunity to gratify these anti- 
quarian tastes, for which his nature and education had 
fully prepared him, and of which his interesting collection 



August. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



43 



gives ample proof. Our readers, who, after reading our 
remarks, will naturally have a disposition to see these re- 
mains, may therefore anticipate a rich treat in visiting this 
institution, should business call them here. 

Incidentally remarking that the illustrations in this chap- 
ter have been photographed from the original on the block, 
and engraved by our fellow-craftsman, Mr. Waters, of this 
city, expressly for our Magazine, and at considerable ex- 
pense, we now proceed to give the fragments in detail, 
after which we shall close with a few general observations 
pertinent to the subject. 

The first illustration (Fig. 1) is the wheel, which may 
be looked upon as unique, and the most interesting object 
imaginable to the modern coach-builder, since it serves to 
solve a most important question in the early history of 
wheel-making. AVe have critically examined various ex- 
amples of the wheel, as delineated in the lime and sand- 
stone bas and alto relievos, furnished us by the indefatigable 
exertions of modern discoverers, without any satisfactory 
solving of the problem, in our mind, as to how the felloes 
of ancient wheels were united at the joints. But now, with 
the thing itself before us — the workmanship of an ancient 
member of the craft — we find it differs materially from the 
theories of historians and speculators, and places a key in 
in our hands, which enables us to throw a flood of light 
upon this questio vexato. 

The wheel here illustrated is 2 ft. 11 in. without, and 3 
ft. 3 in. with the wooden tire seen in fig. 3 below. The 
hub, which is 14 J inches long, 5 inches through the middle, 
and 4^ inches at the ends, presents not the least appear- 
ance of ever having been burthened with a box, and the 
jagged end — that in front particularly — looks as though a 
linch-pin had given it many hard nibs, in its revolutions 
upon an axle, evidently of wood. This axle was 3 
inches in diameter at the shoulder and 2\ inches at the 
end. The hub, as will be seen in our illustration, is very 
much split up, from hard usage. This hub has every ap- 
pearance of having been turned in a lathe, for we find chan- 
nels formed around it, just such as some imprudent hub- 
manufacturers at the present day still make, for no better 
reason than to give the painter use for his waste putty and 
rusting knife. 

The spokes (Fig. 2), of which we give a lateral 
view, are of a very peculiar finish, and intended 
to be highly ornamental, and very probably once 
belonged, in this wheel, to some chariot in the 
establishment of some one of the long succession 
of the Pharaohs. The photograph in this in- 
stance is so true to art that, as the reader may 
observe, it gives even the indenture in the central 
part of the spoke. Further down may be seen a 
bolt-shaped mortise, the uses — if any other than 
ornamental it had — of which we are at a loss to 
conjecture. It may, as some have supposed, been 
made for some kind of a brace to pass into, and 
serve as a strengthening to the wheel, but a close 
observation of the mortises in the specimen has 
not at all satisfied us that any such brace was 
ever employed there. The mortise is 1\ inches 
long ; f in. at the widest, and f in. at the nar- 
rowest end, and is placed If in. from the hub 
tenon. The tenon at the hub is 1£ by f 
| inch, and, as will be seen in our example, a 
Fig. 2. little out of square, at the shoulder. But that 



which is strikingly observable is the fact, that this tenon 
has a shoulder all round the spoke. The spoke above 
the tenon at the hub is 2 by If inches, rounded in an 
old-fashioned way, and finished, apparently, with a " dread- 
fully rough" rasp. The "tangs" for the felloes arc 1 inch, 
and squai'C in form, passing only about two-thirds through 
the felloe proper, and intersecting the joints. There is not 
the least sign visible of an anger, or bit of any kind ever 
having been employed in making any mortises in this wheel, 
or other fragments of the chariot. Had such been the case, 
there would certainly have been traces discoverable in the 
bottom of the numerous mortises, which do not extend 
entirely through the raves and felloes. 

The felloes next claim our attention — and such felloes ! 
In this instance the " wear and tear" of the wheel has lent 
enchantment to the picture, and places the one given in Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson's Ancient Egypt a long period this 
side of the Flood, or else the camera has been more true 
to our original than his artist was to his. These felloes, 
six in number, meeting at the point of intersection by the 
spokes, as seen in Fig. 1, are placed overlapping each other, 
and prevented from being reduced in circumference from 
the pressure of a superincumbent weight by the tenou of 
the spoke ; no evidence of any baud having ever been ap- 
plied. These felloes, "got out" l£ by l\ inches, are "half- 
rounded down" on the inner side about 3-16ths of an inch, 
the whole being further strengthened by the tire (Fig. 3), 




Fig. 3. 

if we may be permitted to dignify a wooden circumference 
with that name. This "tire" bears a strong resemblance 
to our modern felloes, except that, instead of dowels, they 
are connected together by a sort of male and female joint, 
or mortise and tenon, extending from the inside to two- 
thirds of the depth of the tire outward, so that it is hidden 
at the " tread" of the wheel. This tire is divided into six 
sections, with six joints, meeting, when placed around the 
wheel, half-way between the spokes, and has formed along 
its inner edge twenty-five narrow mortises, varying from 
2-]- up to 2f of an inch in width. These mortises, doubt- 
less, were intended for the purpose of securing this tire 
upon the wheel by strips of hide, or other fastenings, which 
not only served to secure the tire to the felloes, but also an- 
swered the purpose of binding the felloe more securely at 
the joints, where, as contrived, some provision was much 



44 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



August. 



needed. The tread of this tire, 2 inches deep and 1^ wide, 
looks as though it had seen some service, and had been 
used over roads anything but Macadamized. 




Fig. 4. 

Fig. 4 is the end rave for the top of the chariot, 2 feet 
3 inches between joints, and l£ inch wide, with eight 
mortises of various widths formed along its bottom edge, 
as seen above, with tenons at the ends, 1 inch by £ inch. 
A short distance from these tenons is a § hole, in the rave, 
which, doubtless, was formed for the insertion of a cord, 
passing over the connecting side-rave to bind these " raves" 
more firmly, and which was much needed on account of 
the light tenon required, in order to avoid the weakening 
of the side-rave, by a wide mortise. The curve in this 
rave is 5 inches from a straight line drawn from the ends. 



Fig. 5. 

The part assigned to Fig. 5 has puzzled us not a little, 
but we conjecture that it represents the side-rave of a 
chariot body, and one strongreason for such a conjecture, is, 
that the mortise at one end and the tenon on Fig. 4 match 
exactly, and so form the top-end and side-raves of a chari- 
ot. This also is pierced with twelve mortises, at the under 
edge, as in the end-rave. 

Figure 6 presents the reader with 
the " last remains" of our " fragments," 
in which the camera not only gives a 
a correct outline, but has preserved 
even the color of the wood ! This 
at the top, as it stands here, is 2 by 3 
inches, with three mortises, respectively 
1^, If, and 1^- inch long, by \ inch 
wide, intended for securing it to the 
body in some way. 

In Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson's work, 
before referred to, he has supplied to 
Fig. 6, here given, two shafts, and says 
the total length was 1 1 feet. The rea- 
k- ' son why these shafts should be made 
Fig. c. thus long is not reconcilable with mod- 

ern custom, unless it be accounted for on the hypothesis 
that the chariot was hung upon very low wheels. 

The wood of this chariot (we mean what remains of 
it,) is very heavy, as heavy as any timber we are acquaint- 
ed with ; and so very hard that time and the worm have 
made but very little impression upon it. Of one thing we 
are satisfied, and that is, that this chariot, according to the 
fragments, was never visited by any son of Tubal-cain dur- 
ing its construction, for there was originally not a single 
particle of iron used in the making ; for even the tire, as 
we have seen, was a wooden one, and, to use a common ex- 
pression, " is as hard as iron !" The tread of this tire 
(Fig. 3,) bears the marks of hard usage over rough roads, 
as before remarked, and, could it speak, what tales of blood- 
shed and carnage would it not reveal ! But, alas ! 




' "How is thy glory, Egypt, passed away ! 

Pause, child of ruin, o'er thy humbled name! 
The works, alone, that mark thy deep decay, 
Now tell the story of thy fallen fane !" 

The great length to which this article has already ex- 
tended obliges us to defer any general observations upon 
the subject treated of, which would seem to be called for, 
until our next number. S. 



For the New York Coaehmaker's Magazine. 

THE FAST JOURNEYMAN.— A SKETCH. 



BY JAMES SCOTT, OF OHIO. 



About six months ago, a tall, slab-sided, lantern-jawed, 
home-spun clad, and intensely verdant-looking individual 
presented himself at the carriage-shop of John Hubs, in 
search of a job as body-maker. There happened to be a 
vacancy in that department at the time, so the boss, after 
some hesitation, occasioned by the unpromising outward 
appearance of the applicant, agreed to give him a body to 
build on trial, stipulating that, if it did not suit him (the 
boss), when completed, it was not to be paid for. To this 
condition the jour, promptly acceded, and retired to bring 
his tools from the railroad station. 

Next morning, as the last clang of the seven o'clock 
bell gave place to sounds of busy labor, the new hand 
made his appearance. A bench was assigned him, and he 
proceeded to unpack his kit — and such a kit ! Two planes, 
four chisels and a gouge, a colossal drawing-knife, one 
hammer, the remains of two saws, a superannuated broad- 
axe, and a piece of chalk, together with several nonde- 
script-looking utensils of his own make, the names or 
uses of which were unknown, save to himself. The " stuff " 
for his job was given him (sawed out), and divesting him- 
self of coat, vest, and hat, he — to use a popular phrase — 
" went in." Well ! I have seen planing machines of vari- 
ous kinds, but that chap beat them all. Steam-power 
degenerated into an old fogy institution of questionable 
utility, compared with the astonishing velocity of his plane. 
The perspiration ran in streams down his freckled face, 
and hung in drops like miniature icicles from the point of 
his smeller ; the shavings flew ; the bench creaked and 
groaned ; the windows rattled in their frames, and the 
hands looked on in mingled astonishment and awe ! That 
he was fast, uncommonly fast, was the opinion of all ; nor 
were they mistaken, for, in the short space of two days 
and a half, the body (a Rockaway) was completed. I 
would very willingly, for the edification of the craft, de- 
scribe that body, if it could be done with pen and ink, but, 
as nothing short of an elaborate drawing would convey a 
correct idea of how the thing looked, I "will not try. Just 
imagine a rough dry goods box with a standing top on it, 
and you won't hit very wide of the mark. As the boss 
had been out of town on business since the day subsequent 
to that on which the body was commenced, speculations 
were rife among the hands as to what he would say, or do, 
when he returned. Some thought the " green un" would 
have to pay for the lumber that was spoiled ; others, that 
Hubs would " boot" him out of the shop ; while several 
predicted an aggravated case of assault and battery with 
intent to kill. The affair, however, terminated in a differ- 
ent manner. On the completion of his job, the new jour, 
ascended to the paint shop and requested the painters to 



August. 



THE NEW YORK C AC H -MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



" prime" it. Joe Brown, the foreman, who, by the way, 
was an inveterate practical joker, saw a chance for fun, and 
forthwith concocted, with mischievous ingenuity, a plan to 
get rid of the unsophisticated fabricator of bodies, and 
afford, at the same time, a rich treat for the boys. So he 
informed him that they were very busy just then and 
could not attend to it, but he would hire a man to do it 
in the afternoon. Suspecting nothing, " greeny" was satis- 
fied and went to dinner. 

As he approached the shop on liis return, a shrill whis- 
tle — suggestive of mischief — might have been heard, fol- 
lowed by an unusual bustle among the hands. This, how- 
ever, was apparently unnoticed by him, for he entered 
wearing his usual unconcerned expression of countenance; 
but that expression changed with the rapidity of lightning 
to one of stupefied horror and surprise, for, on casting his 
eyes in the direction of his job, he beheld a brawny " nig- 
ger," armed with a long-handled brush, applying a liberal 
coat of white-wash to the back panels, the sides being 
already done. At first, he seemed to doubt the reality of 
what he saw, for, with gaping mouth and protruding eyes, 
he watched in silence the operations of the colored indi- 
vidual, until the spell was broken by some one choking in 
an abortive attempt to suppress a laugh. Aroused by this 
he strode toward the African, and shaking his fist at him 
fairly screamed : 

" See he-ar, you everlasting black skunk, what in tor- 
mented lightning are you a doin' to that ar body ?" 

" Doin' !" replied the darkey, bringing his brush to a 
charge, as if to repel an attack, " Mister Brown hired me 
to wite-ivash it ; he says Ae's a gicain to use it for er chickin 
coop /" 

The sequel is soon told ; the fast jour, from the rural 
districts got his eyes opened. He " smelt a mice," and, 
within an hour, a tall chap about his size was seen, carpet- 
sack in hand, streaking it for the depot at a pace which 
suggested -to passing pedestrians the propriety of giving 
him a wide berth. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 



BY THE JUNIOR EDITOR. 



CHAPTER II. 

" When thou haply seest 
Some rare, note-worthy object in thy travels. 
Make me partaker of thy happiness." — Shakspeaee. 

Respected Senior : 

/ A fortnight's stay in New Haven has wrought marvelous 
changes in the outer man of your associate, who, from being 
shrunken and shriveled by a teasing cough, contracted 
amidst the dust and foul air of the metropolis, has again 
resumed his usual proportions, and the little room (not in 
the Tontine) can scarcely contain him — when the nights 
are pleasant. 

Much has been written by newspaper scribblers about 
the shady freshness and romantic beauty of the "City of 
Elms ;" but there is a something about the very air of this 
quiet retreat which inspires and quickens, but which, like 
the odor of flowers and the sweetness of song, can be en- 
joyed but not described. I have often been delighted, in 
reading the chaste effusions of that inspired priestess of 
nature, Mrs. Sigourney ; but here, in the midst of suggestive 
surroundings, I can read poems from nature, pure, chaste 
and original. Those long, quiet streets — like dim aisles in 



some Druidic temple — -whose arching elms look down and 
nod impressively; those beautiful parks, where the "hunted 
squirrel" may build her nest in peace, or leap from branch 
to branch above the classic shadows of Old Yale ; those se- 
cluded work-shops, where high-browed intelligence may 
blend the study of art with the communings of nature ; 
those retired residences, from whose open casements the 
eye may trace indefinite objects upon the silver bosom of 
the Long Island Sound, and the cheeks freshen in the sea 
breeze, as it sings in its might, or lulls among the flapping 
leaflets. All these, and a thousand other associations com- 
bine to render this spot both the home of genius and the 
parent of song. 

As a coach-making city, New Haven stands forth 
among the most extensive in the country, and, perhaps, in 
the world. In ordinary times, no less than 1,700 men find 
employment at the various branches directly connected 
with coach and carriage manufacture, and almost half as 
many more in the manufacture of stocks, such as springs, 
axles, malleable castings, lamps, laces, finishing hardware, 
&c, &c. 

The greater share of the work built in New Haven is 
sold in a foreign market; some in New York, but a larger 
portion South and West, so the styles are as various as are 
the markets for which they are intended — some plain, 
others highly carved and finely ornamented. 

Many of the workmen have been thrown out of employ- 
ment during the last winter, and all feel poor — some, with 
debts hanging over them, feel very poor ; but still my visit 
to New Haven has added two hundred and fifty odd names 
to our young but giant list of subscribers, a respectable num- 
ber of first-class advertisers to our business calendar, and a 
brilliant list of draftsmen and correspondents to our plate 
and reading columns. 

Of the Western work, I found but one copy in the whole 
city, and that was sent without orders — I think, at least, 
without pay. Who writes those tremendous love letters 
from New Haven for it? Echo answers — Humbug ! Its 
only reader is a staunch friend to the new Magazine, and 
gave us a solid testimonial of his sincerity by taking up a 
fine club for it. The heavy coach factory of Messrs. Law- 
rence, Bradley and Pardee gave a list of about forty sub- 
scribers, and the mammoth light-carriage manufactory of 
G. & D. Cook & Co. took nearly as many copies. Other 
heavy coach and carriage factories did proportionately well, 
and our city list will more than double, if times revive this 
fall. 

Some of the prominent artisans and first-class stock manu- 
facturers deserve special notice. For instance, the trimming 
and finishing hardware manufactory and general furnishing 
house of the Messrs. C. Cowles & Co., whose store and 
mammoth work-shops are illustrated on the second page of 
our cover. In passing through this establishment, I noticed 
many things that were novel and interesting. The cutting 
of steel dies, used in the manufacture of curtain frames, 
ornaments, &c, is an ingenious process, involving the use 
of more than a thousand tools, among which are a great 
variety of files, or, rather, tools of every conceivable shape 
with files upon the points or sides. The " spinning" (or 
rather shaping in a lathe) of lamp-caps, sockets, &c, from 
silver shell; also, the cutting, grinding and engraving of 
glass, used in the manufacture of coach lamps, is done here 
in a very perfect and artistic manner. The refuse chips 
of silver, which fall from the lamp and curtain-frame fac- 
tories, are used in the manufacture of ornaments and silver- 



46 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



August. 



headed nails, as arc the tin scraps into buttons and black- 
headed nails, by a long row of chattering machines, worked 
by silent women. 

One of the human machines with which he manufactures 
hot swedged carriage nuts picked up a cold one from the 
block, and setting it on its edge hammered it into an elon- 
gated slug. ."There," said one of the proprietors, "that is 
the kind of iron that I use." Plating, dash-making, bend- 
ing, turning and casting — each is done systematically in 
its own department. A large and powerful engine drives 
the machinery, and a well situated in the cellar furnishes 
water for the whole establishment, as well as for the fire 
department on " washing days." Cool, retired and pleasant, 
this establishment stands buried in the luxuriant foliage of 
shading elms, and the busy hum of life pervades the whole; 
but, smothered by thick Avails, it sings drearily above and 
around those spacious store-rooms, into which the fruits of 
its industry and perfection are garnered. 

In the line of wheel-making, the establishment of G. F. 
Kimball is worthy of notice. His factory occupies spacious 
apartments in the large carriage buildings of G. & D. Cook 
& Co., on State street. Here the work is systematized and 
divided in the most minute and scientific manner : each 
man understanding his part, and performing that part in 
the most perfect and expeditious manner. The whole is 
aided by a complete and finished set of machinery, which, 
with "bones of iron and sinews of steel," directs its stroke 
with unerring aim and almost lightning rapidity. 

Messrs. Cook & Co. use about one-half of the number 
which he manufactures, which amounts to about twelve sets 
per day. Large store-rooms were filled with the finest of 
white hickory spokes, and the best quality of hubs and fel- 
loes. A light wagon, weighing 145 lbs., sent from the livery 
stable of Mr. Jarvis Jocelyn, for new tires, fell under my 
observation. Its wheels, which were manufactured by Mr. 
Kimball, had been submitted to the hard ordeal of livery 
hire among the fast boys some two years and a half, until 
its tires were unfit for further use, and yet these exceedingly 
light wheels were as true and solid in all respects as when 
first turned out of the factory. 

The systematic manufacture of running parts is also a 
fixed fact, under the business-like touch of the enterprising 
firm of Dann Bros., and not only are they supplying large 
orders to Southern and Eastern dealers, but are furnishing 
that class of home patrons who have become aware of the 
fact, that economy of time and excellence of manufacture 
are the legitimate results of systematic operation. 

The lace manufactory of Laban Pardee is the largest and 
best establishment, in that line, in New Haven. The 
fringes, tassels, ropes, speaking-tubes, with all other manu- 
factures in his line, are fashioned to the latest style, and 
are patronized by the first-class coach-makers in this city. 

At the carving establishment of Mr. Jas. H. Campbell, I 
had the pleasure of examining a large portfolio of splendid 
original desigus, which will appear from time to time in the 
columns of the Magazine. Mr. C. stands high as a designer 
in his line, and his ready pencil traces at will the most per- 
fect and artistic designs, and in the most cool and off-hand 
manner imaginable. 

At the establishment of Mr. A. J. Cutler, who devotes 
his entire attention to the business of lamp-making, I saw 
large quantities of those "nocturnal fire-bugs" which too 
rarely beautify the vehicles of this age for either the safety 
or convenience of night riders. 

There are others that deserve a notice, but space at the 



present time forbids any extension of my rambles in New 
Haven. At some future time I may extend the field of my 
notices. 

The coach-makers of New Haven are fully as enthusiastic 
upon the subject of establishing a National Society of Coach- 
makers as are our friends at home. Several attempts have 
been made to sustain such a union of interests in this city, 
but the platform was too narrow, the ruling spirit too radi- 
cal, and the sphere of their operations too limited. 

A fire occurred in the establishment of Messrs. Bogart 
& Betts, just as I was commencing to take up a club of ten, 
which resulted in the total destruction of their premises, and 
the temporary demolition of our arrangement. They have 
since taken a large stand on Goff street, above Messrs. At- 
water & King's. 



CHAPTER III. 

To write Notes of Travel for a monthly periodical is no 
easy task ; matter accumulates so fast, and months roll 
around so lazily. 

Why was I not born to wield the pen of a fast daily ? 
— and being that, why was I born at all ? Yet, since I was 
" dipped in ink," why was I not dyed all over ? 

But patience, Son of Scriblierus ! scribe of a mighty 
clan- — artificers in wood and iron, and curious workmen in 
many things — thine is a noble heritage : to cheer the heart 
of labor and ennoble the sons of toil. The deep screech of 
the locomotive here broke in upon my meditations. After 
a flying trip to New York, and a second trip down the New 
Haven Railroad, I was landed in the famous little city of 
Bridgeport, the residence of the greatest showman and the 
smallest dwarf in the world, and justly noted for its exten- 
sive manufacture of fine coaches. 

Bridgeport is situated on Long Island Sound, is beauti- 
fully laid out, and, like most of the border cities, finely 
shaded by elms and maples. " Golden Hill," which is the 
residence of Messrs. Frederick Wood and Geo. Keeler, in 
the trade, and the bon ton of outside circles, is a perfect 
paradise. 

Iranistan, the famous residence of P. T. Barnurn, still re- 
mains a blackened heap of ruins, and tall grass and weeds 
almost hide the displaced fountains that once scattered their 
silver spray in the sparkling sunlight. The stooped form 
of the veteran showman, as he paced heavily and thought- 
fully among the flowery Avalks of his son-in-law's residence, 
contrasted strangely with the dashing ideal which I had 
formed in my mind of his real appearance. 

Among other beautiful monuments that adorn the new 
cemetery, is one erected by " Tom Thumb " above the re- 
mains of his father. The shaft is tall, and the workmanship 
fine ; but the top is finished with a perfect statue of the 
dwarf! What taste! 

The "Society movement" is, if possible, more popular in 
this city than in our own, and even the minor towns along 
the Sound, and inland, as far as I can learn, are all auditing 
further information, and are deeply anxious to have a hand 
in it. 

Previous to my arrival the workmen at the Tomlinson 
Carriage Co.'s manufactory, led off by Mr. Cooper, had 
taken up a fine large club for the new Magazine. After 
making that still larger, I proceeded to visit the other large 
factories, and had no difficulty in forming large clubs in 
each, until my list of names numbered upxvards of a hun- 
dred, which is, considering the depression in business and 



August. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



47 



the number of Lands employed, a larger proportionate list 
than has been given by any one city that has been visited. 

Yet, in passing through all the factories, and becoming 
personally acquainted with all the Avorkmen as well as the 
proprietors, I found but one solitary copy of the Western 
Magazine, cither in or around the city, and as with the lone 
copy in New Haven, it was sent gratis ; and its reader was 
not only a warm friend and patron to the new work, but a 
club agent for and regular contributor to it. Now, the 
question arises : Who writes those beautiful epistles from 
Bridgeport ? Echo rolls back — (on three wheels) — 

"'Tis not himself! yet His so like him 
That were it not a shadow 
I would swear it was his brother." 

That fellow should have canvassed Bridgeport. 

There are in all seven coach and carriage factories in this 
city, which, in ordinary times, employ from five to six 
hundred men, but at present the number falls far short of 
that. 

Prominent among the stock manufacturers is the hub, 
spoke and wheel works of Lathrop & Son, and the bending 
establishment of Barlow & Smith. The plating and fur- 
nishing house of Messrs. White & Bradley, whose brilliant 
array of coach lamps, beautiful ornaments, and unique pat- 
terns of coach handles are but the prelude to as fine stock 
of trimmings less conspicuously displayed, is an interesting 
place to visit. Also, the Coach Lace Co.'s works, whose 
beautiful scrolls and "scentless flowers" spring up from 
silver grounds, whose glossy fringes elongate under the hand 
of art, and where ropes, cords, and tassels are twined with 
consummate skill. Mr. Parrott's Anglo-American varnish is 
attracting considerable attention, and his other brands are 
highly spoken of by all the Bridgeport coach manufac- 
turers. The Spring Perch Co. manufactures a new style of 
" French ear " spring, which is more durable and far more 
elegant than the ordinary style. All of their springs are 
tapered from the centre of each leaf, finely tempered and 
thoroughly tested, Mr. Bradley showed me a very power- 
ful reflector, designed for head-lights to locomotives, but 
applicable to the lighting of streets, to policemen's lanterns, 
&c, which will throw a light by which fine print can be 
read some forty rods, and which will illuminate a dark 
alley to an incredible distance. 

After securing a number of draftsmen and contributors, 
and doing a large amount of business, I took my departure. 

At Stamford I found two fine coach factories. Here I took 
a list of twenty names. From thence I retraced my steps, and 
took the Naugatuck Railroad. While at Naugatuck, I paid 
a visit to the wheel factory, so noted for its good wheels, 
and for having given birth to the most speedy spoke 
turner that has ever been invented. Instead of one cutter 
having to move from end to end, doing all the labor, some 
thirty knives play directly upon the spoke, and as it re- 
volves — feeding off and on to give it the oval — dresses it 
from end to end at the same instant. While in Naugatuck, 
Plymouth, and Wolcottville, I took clubs of ten or upwards 
at each place, and small clubs at intermediate stations. At 
Winsted, I visited the Clifton bolt-works, and took some 
names. 

Crossing to the Housatonic Railroad, I visited the axle 
works and coach factory of Mr. Dalzell, at South Egremont. 
Here I found something worthy, of notice in the new patent 
axle which is being manufactured. The improvement con- 
sists in the addition of a hollow nut on to the end of the box 
(for fine mail axles), which contains a quantity of oil, and 



which, by creeping along the channel on the upper side of 
the spindle, keeps the whole completely lubricated. Mr. D. 
furnishes the large establishment of Lawrence, Bradley & 
Co. with his fine quality of case-hardened axles. A club 
was taken in his axle factory, and I journeyed on to Pitts- 
field. Here I made the acquaintance of Mr. Osborn, a 
talented draftsman, secured his services, took a large club, 
obtained a likeness of Mr. Jason Clapp, the venerable pro- 
prietor, and resumed my journey. A large club was formed 
in the shop of Mr. Smith, at Springfield ; also, one at 
Mr. Clark's, and other small ones. 

At Mr. Hart's, in Hartford, the workmen formed a club 
of ten, and other names were taken in the smaller factories. 

The scenery on the entire route from Bridgeport to this 
place is grand and beautiful beyond description. Clear, 
rapid and beautiful rivers, evergreen hills and lofty moun- 
tains, overhanging cliffs and rocky chasms, sporting rivu- 
lets and smiling valleys — everything that is grand to behold 
or sublime to contemplate spreads out before the eye, as if 
to inspire the " sons of New England " with that energy of 
thought and strength of purpose which can alone compen- 
sate for the lack of a more genial latitude and a more gen- 
erous soil. T. 



€\}t Home Circle 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 
A SIMPLE LESSON FROM NATURE. 



BY MISS LAURA GROSVENOR. 



Early this morning I made a bouquet, 

That its fragrance might cheer me this sultry day, 

And win my thoughts from the clouds away 

To the beautiful things of life. 

I culled the fairest and sweetest flowers 
Of all that grow in our garden bowers, 
(They all grow sweet in this garden of ours,) 

So sweet there is ever a strife, 

'Twixt the humming-birds and the honey bees, 
The butterflies gay and the sighing breeze ; 
For each and all lay claim to these, 

And disallow my right. 

But fragrant as these flowers appear, 
A sweeter perfume is floating near — 
'Tis that of a rose not gathered here, 

And its petals are not bright. 

I gathered it yesterday where it lay 

In the burning sand 'neath the sun's bright ray, 

Slowly breathing its life away — 

All withering and white. 

Some careless hand had flung it down 
In a crowded street of the busy town, 
Where thronging footsteps go up and down, 
From morning until night. 

I brought it home, and gently laid 

Its moistened leaves in the cooling shade. — 

Return most grateful thou hast made, 

0, bruised and withered flower ! 

Besides the incense thou hast brought, 
With Eden odors richly fraught," 
Thou hast to me a lesson taught, 

Which shall not lose its power. 



48 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



August. 



I will ever walk with an open eye 

To the beautiful things in my path which lie, 

Nor even a faded flower pass by, 

If but its breath be sweet. 

Let those who from their pathway turn, 
In search of bliss, this lesson learn — 
Seek higher joys, but never spurn' 

Flowers springing at their feet. 
Teruji IIafte, Ind., July, 1S5S. 



Tor the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

CHARLES ARCHIBALD HENDERSON; 

OR, 

THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR. 



{Continued from page 28.) 
CHAPTER II. 

" How beautiful she looked ! her conscious heart 
Glowed in her cheek, and yet she felt no wrong ; 
Oh, Love ! how perfect is thy mystic art, 
Strengthening the weak and trampling on the strong." 

Byron. 

Summer silently withdrew before autumn, autumn before 
winter, spring danced over the land and departed, and 
summer was again abroad in its drapery of gold and green, 
with its sunny skies, sleeping streams, and all its glorious 
wealth of beauty. Yes, the year had circled round. There 
was now another mystery in the village, of a different 
nature, it is true, but quite as engrossing, and, for a time, 
quite as impenetrable. It began to be wondered every- 
where who the "kind invisible " was who invariably came 
to fetch Nellie Leaf home from the sewing society, singing- 
school, and lectures in the evenings. Little Neilie — but I 
have not described her, nor will I. I have nothing to say 
about the long, soft lashes that fringed her violet eyes, of 
her apple-blossom complexion, nor the serene beauty that 
slept in the white arch of her forehead. I can tell you of 
something better. I can tell you of the charm of neatness 
that she bore ever about with her, the sunny cheerfulness of 
good temper, the witchery of modesty, the fascination of 
unselfishness, and, best of all, of the living warmth that radi- 
ated from one of the tenderest little hearts that ever beat, 
throwing its genial influence over all that surrounded her, 
like sunrise over summer. Hers was the inner beauty of 
the soul — that imperishable beauty that fadeth not away. 
No one who saw its expression ever thought of stopping to 
look at the features. Somehow the term lovely had got to 
be considered peculiarly appropriate to her, and she was 
known as familiarly in the village by that name as any 
other. Little Nellie being the general favorite, then was it 
any wonder that the whole village should be on the qui 
vlve to know who " the person " — that lucky common gen- 
der — was, who always seemed to prefer waiting for her out- 
side, intent only on his kind mission, notwithstanding the 
repeated invitations to bring him in, accompanied by sundry 
hints as to the propriety of so much exposure to the damp 
night air. Demure little Nell, with an inconsiderateness 
quite unpardonable, never seemed to think about it at all, 
so, of course, it was of no sort of consequence to the rest. 
None whatever ; only it might seem rather uncivil ; but they 
did not care. It was astonishing to see how quickly Nellie 
could put on her things when told that "the person" was 
come, and before even the others thought of getting ready 
she was gone. 



But things could not always go on so in A. ; trust the 
villagers for that. One night, by some mistake or other, 
at the breaking up of a little sociable, either because the 
dog in the yard would not tolerate a stranger there, or be- 
cause "the help" was particularly stupid or particularly 
determined, "the person" was shown directly into the back 
parlor among the bonnets and shawls. Nellie rushed out 
instantly, perhaps to send him back again ; but it was too 
late — every little damsel in A. was at her heels, as much 
from mischief, perhaps, as curiosity, and there, in the 
furthest corner of the room, lo and behold — the stranger ! 
Poor little Nell, how she blushed, and how pretty she 
looked in her confusion. What a very great hurry she was 
in, and how she trembled when one of the girls gave her a 
pin for her shawl, and kindly advised her to stop and tie her 
bonnet. 

Nellie, Nellie, the murder's out now ! Before the sun 
set next evening, some half-dozen of the matrons of A. 
had been closeted with her mother, ominously shaking 
their heads, and predicting, unless their advice was attended 
to, a long regretful future for mother and daughter. The 
future ! Dim, shadowy, dreamland ! Who upon earth 
knows aught of that, save its one inevitable, ever-approach- 
ing termination ? 

Nellie and the stranger ! Was it possible ? A poor, 
suspected, unknown adventurer. Culpable Mrs. Leaf, what 
could she have been about ? Let us first see what the 
stranger has been about. In order to do so we must retrace 
our steps. Very blamelessly he lived, very steadily he 
worked, very quietly he moved about in that attic all day 
long while the summer lasted, busier with his soul-absorb- 
ing machine than any little swallow scratching away under 
the eaves outside. He began to look very pale with the 
close confinement, it was so warm up in that attic. His 
cheeks grew thin, his hands attenuated. He began to look 
weary, sometimes almost exhausted, and it was noticed now 
that he made overtures to the little children of the village, 
whenever opportunity offered. Was it weariness or lone- 
liness, or both, that made his eyes grow melancholy in their 
deep tenderness ? What a great tenderness came over 
them as he gathered the little sunny-haired infant of the 
landlady to his bosom. How fondly he stroked the little 
head and kissed the small waxen fingers as they wandered 
over his brown face. How softly he laid her to rest in her 
little cradle after she had fallen asleep in his arms ; for the 
little one, with the true instinct of childhood, crept often to 
him at nights to be rocked. Those who only saw a dark 
figure in shadow and a little white one against it, never 
dreamed of the deep painful memories awakened and surg- 
ing silently in that aching breast. He alone saw the pano- 
rama of the past, unfolded so often for him by those baby 
fingers. He alone knew of a once happy home, far away 
now and desolate. Of a small, tenderly united family band, 
broken and scattered by death. He alone knew of a little 
being, dearer and fairer than this, who once loved no rest- 
ing place so well. He alone could recall the vision of- a 
little innocent, warm, soft nestling like this, closing its blue 
eyes for ever on his breast — a little loving sister — cold, 
coffined now, and mouldering away beside his mother, 
under the distant sod of England. Was it the slow torture 
of "hope deferred" or the yearning for sympathy that 
made the flesh waste — the life pulse beat low? Meantime, 
autumn came ; magnificent autumn ! with its varied and 
beautiful tints — green, golden, brown and crimson, group- 
ed and blended by the Divine Artist beyond all power of 



Auou 



ST. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



49 



description — more magnificent in the extensive forests of 
our land, spread out in all its glorious beauty, than 
the stranger had ever imagined. He looked longingly out 
of his little window sometimes during the day, and sighed, 
as if it would be a relief to be abroad ; then turned away, 
and bent resolutely to work again, toiling patiently on till 
the daylight faded ; then he went forth, walking long and 
late in the cool still moonlight, little dreaming of the ma- 
laria in the damp night air. Indian summer, with its hazy 
atmosphere, its subdued and fading glory, found him 
stretched on a sick bed, prostrated by fever. There 
against the wall stood the curiously-wrought machine un- 
finished ! A wonderful machine — curious, inexplicable — 
but beautifully perfect in detail, evincing great skill, great 
power, exquisite workmanship. There was the result of so 
much toil and self-sacrifice; but where was the master- 
spirit ? Down ! — there lay the clay tenement desolate, the 
tenant was a wanderer. The machine that had been so 
cherished, so carefully guarded from curiosity, was well in- 
spected now. But what did it disclose ? Save the patience, 
perseverance, skill, and talent of its artisan, nothing. Great . 
was the cogitating in the village about that machine ; many 
the queries, concluding always with " Will he ever finish 
it I wonder ?" Alas ! no. 

The stranger was unconscious during most of that ill- 
ness ; but one time in his delirium, when a placid, mild- 
featured lady, with streaks of silver gleaming in the golden 
brown of her hair, bent over him in pitying tenderness, he 
said, "Mother, dear mother! I have been so lonely without 
you ! Lay your hand on my forehead, mother, it feels cool 
and my brain is on fire. Don't despair, mother, never give 
up. It will succeed yet. You shall never know want and 
privation then. Trust me well. My work is approved of 
God. His spirit is with me, to will and to do in the cause 
of humanity. My work will save labor, it will save life. 
Beautiful, blessed invention ! Be hopeful, mother, and 
patient, only be patient — meantime, we must work and 
wait." At another time he seemed troubled. Spoke as if 
he had been deceived ; bemoaned some great loss ; grieved 
over the unworthiness of some trusted friend or companion. 
Then he mourned, as if by the bedside of his dying mother. 
Tears dropped from the mild eyes watching him as he mur- 
mured something about the sundering of the last tie that 
bound him to earth, and he was silent too, as if overwhelm- 
ed. But the poor wandering mind could not fix; again he 
commenced. This time he was on the ocean, in pursuit of 
some one — some one that could never be found. Now he 
was among strangers, " a stranger in a strange land," a 
wanderer in the dark, homeless, friendless, desolate. Then 
he spoke tenderly, caressingly, in the softest tones, to some 
little sister — his " darling little Mary" — and in a sort of 
temporary calm he slept, only to awaken to more violent de- 
lirium. Still the fever raged ; stronger and stronger it be- 
came, while the poor, over-taxed body dwindled down to 
utter helplessness. It was blistered, reduced, the life-giving 
current let out by cup and lancet. But the fever could not 
be broken, it had not yet reached its crisis. Was it the 
prayers of the Good Samaritan, who knelt so often at his 
lonely bedside to implore help of the Great Physician, or 
the unconquerable vitality in that young, vigorous frame, 
that caused it to subside suddenly in one night, as if by 
magic? Who shall say? His days on earth were not yet 
numbered, his house had to be set in order : his work 
was not yet done. 

That terrible sickness brought and left with him a friend. 



Henceforth a friend's housa would be open to him, a friend's 
sympathy never denied him. It was the Widow Leaf, 
whose kind motherly heart sent her to minister to the 
stranger's necessities in his hour of extremity, and it was to 
her house that he gratefully wended his way as soon as 
ever he Avas able. The cool weather came with its exhila- 
rating influence, and he was soon well and at work again. 
His old routine was soon resumed, with this single excep- 
tion, he went out often to spend the evenings, and staid 
long, no one knew where. 

How it happened that Nellie and he learned to love each 
other, I cannot say. I only know that he soon loved to go to 
the Widow Leaf's cottage as much as its inmates liked to have 
him come. True, they had sympathy and he needed it. 
They had a pleasant home always open to him, and he was 
solitary. He, in turn, had a great, earnest, truthful nature, 
and they appreciated it. He confided in them, they trusted 
him. They suited him, he them ; in a word, they were 
congenial. At first, in his weakness, he only sat and en- 
joyed the mother's low friendly conversation in silence, ac- 
knowledging every little delicate attention when necessary, 
his deep observant eyes meantime following Nellie's little 
white figure flitting about, obeying cheerfully and with 
alacrity the mother's behest to make him comfortable, with 
earnest attention. When she played for him at first, his 
feeble frame shook as with an ague, and leaning his elbow 
on the arm of his chair and his head on his hand, he closed 
and covered his eyes ; but afterwards his full harmonious 
voice was often thrown in to support and steady hers, 
trembling from diffidence. When he grew stronger he 
read to them, talked with them, unconsciously developing 
the treasures of a well stored mind, till they loved to listen. 
So their evenings passed almost without interruption, for 
Mrs. Leaf never went out and rarely received visitors at 
night. Time wore on, and now as Henderson's fine eyes 
followed the little white figure ever and everywhere, a great 
tenderness came over them, for Nellie had learned to look 
to those eyes for approval or in deprecation, and they al- 
ways beamed back lovingly in return. How it happened 
that he whispered to her one night of his heart's devotion, 
I cannot tell, nor could he, for he had determined he would 
not let anything escape him till after he had succeeded in 
the world ; but it happened very well after all, for now a 
little white dove, whom he meant to shelter and protect 
with his life, had folded its wings and nestled down close to 
his heart. Ah ! he could work now in his lonely attic, as 
he had never worked before. Early and late and vigor- 
ously he worked during the summer. What followed ? — 
was he succeeding ? The people of the inn thought he 
was ; for it was observed when he descended to meals that 
the intent, wistful look that generally characterized his face 
was now gradually yielding to a cheerful, almost buoyant 
expression. That his pre-occupied, often introverted spirit, 
was now coming out, expanding into a genial friendly mood 
towards all, and that there was a glad hopeful light shining 
in his eye sometimes as he sat there silent in their midst, 
that they could not comprehend. Alas, how few ever do. 
Only the great, the faithful-hearted. Those who have 
learned to make their lives sublime by self-renunciation, by 
merging self and selfish interests into the great sea of com- 
mon brotherhood. Only those who learn to live so as to 
leave some valuable heirloom behind them for posterity — 
whom succeeding generations rise up and call blessed. The 
sterling band that press on with steady step and dauntless 
heart over the mountain track of life, bearing aloft the ban- 



50 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



August. 



nered watchword, "Our Commftri Brotherhood," marching 
to this soul-reaching refrain in solemn unison : 

" Own no rank but God's own spirit, 
Wisdom rule and worth inherit. 
Live for all and all employ, 
Share with all and all enjoy, 
God alike to all has given 
Heaven as earth and earth as Heaven." 

How grand it rolls over the listening generations. 
[To be concluded in our next.] 



Jen Illustrations of \\z grafts 



CRANE-NECK PHL-ETON. 
Illustrated on Plate VIII. 
Our special artist furnishes us this month with a very fine 
drawing of a crane-neck phseton, to which the engraver 
has done ample justice. To some, the perspective treatment 
of the fifth wheel arrangements may appear a distortion, 
yet it is a style of delineation very frequently adopted, and 
is rendered necessary where it is intended to represent the 
curved horn-bars, etc. We think the construction of the 
springs in this phseton is well calculated to make the ve- 
hicle easy riding, and the tout ensemble pleasing and 
graceful. We, in this locality, do not fancy the wooden 
dash ; but, judging from circumstances, we are led to con- 
clude that they are fashionable at the South and West. 
This style of carriage should be trimmed with leather. 
The carriage part looks lighter when painted a cream color 
and striped with black ; but, of course, the maker will use 
his own judgment in this matter. 



CUT-UNDER BUGGY. 
Illustrated on Plate IX. 
This is another variation in the buggy species, figured 
on Plate I. of this volume. Our friends the Phoenix Car- 
riage Co., at Stamford, Conn., and others in Newark, N. J., 
from whence our draft comes, are making them. It would 
appear almost like a reflection upon the mechanical inge- 
nuity of our readers to even presume to tell them how to 
form the body, to paint or to trim a job so common as a 
buggy. 



TROTTING BUGGY. 
Illustrated on Plate IX. 
We give this figure, as much as for any other purpose, to 
show to posterity the fashions of the past. The only fea- 
ture having the appearance of novelty is comprised in the 
oval-shaped stitching displayed on the side of the boot, 
combined with the old and familiar centre piece. There 
are some " of the boys" who still prefer this to the more 
modern shaped body in the June No., whose taste we are 
not in a humor to entirely condemn, although, as regards 
the mode of hanging up — on wooden side-springs — we are 
inclined to believe that "the boy" who follows must have 



more respect for his horse than a desire to promote his 
own comfort in easy riding. However, as a certain old 
lady is reported to have once said, "there is no account- 
ing for tastes." 



THE FRENCH CALECHE. 
Illustrated on Plate X. 
We present the reader this month with this very fine 
draft, which we have just received from the hands of a gen- 
tleman recently from Europe. This description of vehicle 
may be considered as the most convenient invented, as ap- 
plicable to both winter and summer weather. The draft 
tells its own story so well that we do not feel called upon 
to enter into any elaborate explanation of its details, and 
more particularly, since every intelligent coach-maker 
needs only a correct side draft to direct him in his efforts. 
The wing, or duster over the front wheel, is a fixture which 
is now generally discarded in America. 

%arfts from tfje %M. 

A THREE-PERCH CARRIAGE-PART. 




Above we illustrate "the march of improvement" by 
giving a buggy carriage-part with three perches. The 
utility of having so many is questionable in our mind, 
indeed, wc are not certain but that the old mode of con- 
struction with a single perch is yet the best for all practi- 
cal purposes. The double perch is now universally used 
in New York for all city buggies. The three-perch has 
been much employed by one firm here, in an order for a 
house in the South, where it appears to have been received 
with much favor. Our opinion is that they will not stand 
on uneven roads, and arc only practical on very level ones. 
We give it more as a picture of the times, than one of im- 
provement, and because we intend our Magazine shall be a 
record of history as well as one of usefulness. 



August. 



THE NEW YORK CO ACH - MAKER' S MAGAZINE. 



51 



BUGGY DASH— THE NEW YORK FASHION. 




We 



gave in our last number the most fashionable New 



York style of Dash for an open-front buggy. The one 
here given is that used on all the square-body light work 
made in this city, and frequently applied to the no-top 
open-front buggies ; likewise it commends itself chiefly as 
being light, especially when, as now, every ounce of iron 
taken away makes the article the more saleable. 



A Lake of Borax. — A company at Napa, in California, 
have purchased and are preparing to manufacture borax on 
a large scale, and to this end have supplied themselves with 
boilers and other necessary apparatus. In a well sunk in 
the midst of a lake, and surrounded with a coffer dam, a 
few feet below the surface is a spring of intense saltness, 
constantly flowing. In the waters of the surrounding lake 
js found, among other substances in solution, iodine in large 
quantities. The Clear Lake region is said to be one vast 
laboratory on a gigantic scale, of which the crude produc- 
tions are borax, iodine, sulphur, salt and soda. 



paint llofjiiu 



Tough Steel. — P. G. Gardiner, of N. Y. city, has patented 
in England an invention for producing steel of a very tough 
and soft quality. The common steel in use is melted in 
crucibles in the common way, after which it is poured into 
heated moulds, to which the metal in a melted state will 
not adhere, Avhere it is kept at a high heat for six hours. 
Taken from the fire and allowed to cool down to a cherry- 
red heat, it is then plunged into oil of 700° Fahrenheit, at 
which temperature it is kept for seven hours longer. After 
having slowly cooled down it is found to have become very 
soft and malleable, a nd, we should think, might supply a 
good substitute for our iron tires on light wagons. 






If 



How the Times affect the Manners. — The follow 
ing illustration is significant : 

A Cabman in 1854. — "Call yourself a genelman? 
you can't afford to ride, vy don't you valk ?" 

A Cabman in 1857. — "The fare is very low, sir; but 
still, as every sixpence is an object, I am extremely obliged 
to you. Be careful of the step, sir." 



A FEW SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS IN PAINTING 
A BUGGY. 

PAINTING the body. 
In our " Paint Room" for July, on page 30, we finished 
with our instructions in painting a Buggy carriage-part. 
Our business now is, to go on with the body. 

Supposing that with the carriage-part we have brought 
along the body also, as far as and according to the instruc- 
tions embraced in sections 1, 2, 3 and 4, we next prepare our 
" rough stuff," or filling-up, composed of the following in- 
gredients : say, 1 part white lead, and 3 parts yellow 
ochre, and thinned with 1 part boiled oil, 1 part varnish 
and 2 parts japan, finishing with spirits of turpentine, 
sufficient to make it of the consistency of cream. With 
this " stuff' 1 ' give the panels four coats of " filling" in suc- 
cession, allowing each coat at least forty-eight hours to dry, 
before the next is put on. After the fourth coat is on, give 
the job from six to ten days, if possible, that the paint may 
become hard — the harder the better — after which rub 
these " rough" coats down with lump pumice-stone until 
you get a sufficiently smooth panel for the next coat. 

Sometimes, in rubbing down, in consequence of the po- 
rosity of the putty, caused by too free a use of japan, which 
makes it dry very quickly, and without sufficient oil, the 
water used in rubbing often causes the wood to swell around 
the puttyings, forcing the putty out ; therefore it becomes 
necessary to let the job stand until it beeomes perfectly 
dry, after which apply another coat of lead, ground very 
fine in a paint-mill. After this becomes dry, rub it down 
again very closely with very fine, or, perhaps, with what 
is better, worn out sand-paper, and then examine, and, if 
necessary, putty up any place that may have been neglected 
in the former puttying, together with those places affected 
by the swellings of the wood before spoken of. When 
these last puttyings have hardened by standing, the work 
should again be gone over with pumice-stone, so as to give 
a perfectly level surface for the 10th or preparation coat. 
We will suppose, in this instance, our " color" is to be ultra- 
marine blue. Mix up together white lead and Chinese blue 
to a proper color (of course regulate this color as to light- 
ness with the white lead) with 3 parts japan and 1 part 
oil — some persons use 1 part varnish, which makes it cover 
better, but which renders it the more liable to crack — put 
on and rub down with moss. Some, instead of moss, rub 
this last coat dcwn with a linen rag. 

11. Color ; if black, mix it with 1 part oil and 3 parts 
japan. If it be some transparent color, thin it with sugar 
of lead and raw linseed oil, for the reasons stated in section 
6, on page 30. 

12. Color and varnish — Avhen dry, rub it down with 
ground pumice-stone with a woolen rag. 



52 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



AuGUS'l 



13. Color and varnish — rubbed down as above. 

14. Another coat of color and varnish, being the 3d, as 
above. 

15. A coat of pure American varnish, rubbed down as 
at section 12. 

16. Stripe and ornament the side panels, if desired. 

* 17. Give the work a final coat of the best English var- 
nish. 

We have now given the painter instructions in the mode 
of painting a first-class job, to which we must in closing add, 
that although we have, perhaps, laid ourselves open to cri- 
ticism from some, yet we believe,in the main, our instructions 
will be found correct, if followed by an experienced work- 
man. Of course a cheaper mode may be adopted; but 
then the work must prove inferior. We invite discussion 
upon this subject, from any painters disposed to enter the 

lists. 

. « ^ -»-^-» 

For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

COLORING— LAKES. 



BY J AS. SCOTT. 



Many painters are but too apt to pay far more attention 
to perfecting themselves in the practice of varnishing than 
to anything else belonging to their art ; thus, neglecting to 
improve their skill in other matters of equal importance to 
him who would be considered a finished workman. As 
the result of this omission, we often see jobs which are 
splendidly varnished but very poorly colored. The casual 
observer might not notice this defect, but, depend upon it, 
the man of taste will perceive at a glance the glaring dif- 
ference between a vf ell painted carriage and one only well 
varnished. It is, after all, an easy matter to learn to color 
properly, and requires but little practice, compared with 
other parts of the trade. Why, then, will painters neglect 
it ? It is surely of sufficient importance to merit at least 
a share of attention. 

The colors (black excepted) most commonly used on the 
panels of work, are lake, blue or purple, and green. Of 
these, lake is, perhaps, the most difficult for the painter to 
use successfully, as it is also the handsomest when finished. 
Some eight or ten years ago, the art of using lake was re- 
garded by the uninitiated as a secret of which only a few 
possessed any knowledge, and those few were by no means 
anxious to remove this absurd belief; indeed, to do so 
would be to strip them of a reputation, which they enjoyed 
among their fellow-craftsmen, for superior skill in coloring, 
when in tact there was no particular display of genius in 
the case. The greatest trouble among those who knew 
nothing of the process, was to prevent it from " streaking," 
and there are at the present day many painters — good 
workmen, too — who are in the same predicament. They 
have no fixed rule — no true theory for mixing and apply- 
ing the color, hence, the frequency of streaked panels on 
jobs otherwise well finished. 

Perhaps the earliest method of using lake was to grind 
it in varnish and put it on with a flat varnish brush. This 
mode is well enough in practice, but there is one grave ob- 
jection to it, viz. : the certainty that it will crack in nearly 
every instance. For the benefit of those who find any 
difficulty in working lake, I will give a few hints, which 



may perchance prove valuable, as they are the result of 
experiment and close observation. 

In mixing colors, carriage painters generally use raw oil, 
turpentine and japan-dryer; all well enough for common 
colors, but, for lake, this system is wrong. In the first 
place, the color being a very delicate one, brown japan de- 
tracts much from its brilliancy ; secondly, this way of 
mixing renders it " sticky," and hard to " spread." It is 
true that sufficient turpentine may be introduced to make 
it work easy, but therein lies the great error — the cause of 
its " streaking." Patent dryer, gold-size, &c, are but little 
better than japan, and should not, therefore, be used with 
lake. Pulverize your color thoroughly, then mix with 
boiled-oil — clear as you can get it — until it is thin enough 
to grind, then add sufficient sugar-of-lead to dry it, a small 
quantity will do ; by one experiment you can learn to gra- 
duate the portion according to the amount of color ; .use 
enough to dry it in twelve or fifteen hours. When 
ground, thin into working condition with turpentine, before 
putting it on the work, try it on the wall where you rub 
out your brush, or on any painted surface. Watch it for 
ten minutes, and, if it still retains a bright gloss, add more 
turpentine, for depend upon it, it is not thin enough, but if 
it settles into a subdued metallic-looking appearance it is 
right ; if, however, there should be reddish-looking streaks 
running through it, put in more oil, until it assumes the 
subdued look described above. It is best, I think, to put 
it on a " ground" of dead black, not so dead, however, 
that it will look like lead color. The objection to brown 
for a " ground" is, that unless it is very nearly the same 
shade as the lake, it will injure the rich tint of the latter, 
if five, or six coats are not applied : three coats will cover 
on a black ground and still retain all its original beauty. 

Now for the brush! not a bristle one by any means. 
No, sir ! The proper tool for coloring bodies is a flat cam- 
el-hair brush, hair about an inch and a half long, bound in 
tin with a cedar handle. They can be found of. all widths, 
from one inch to four ; so you can have tools adapted to 
the size of your panels — tools that will lay your color with- 
out leaving a single brush-mark. It is necessary to thin 
your color more than when using bristles, but it will, nev- 
ertheless, cover better, owing to the softness of the hair. 
Perhaps some of you will ask how " color-and-varnish" 
can be put on with a tool like that ; in answer, I would 
say that I most earnestly protest against color mixed with 
varnish being used at all; it is altogether unnecessary and 
will inevitably crack. Put on a good body of color, and 
then a coat of clear varnish, thinned with turpentine ; it 
will rub better, and produce a better surface than the old- 
fashioned mixture. 

In painting lake, always use the lightest varnish (I 
mean in color) you can procure. If, after mixing accord- 
ing to the above directions, your color is still too thick to 
use with the camel-hair tool, add oil and turpentine in such 
quantities as will still preserve the test which I have given 
— the subdued appearance, not dead, remember ! 

The same directions and remarks will also apply to 
ultra-marine blue, and rose-pink. 

Speaking of painting lake reminds me of an anecdote 
which may not be out of place in this connection, so I will 
relate it. The incident occurred about ten years ago, a period 
when comparatively few painters knew how to use lake 
successfully. 

A State fair, at which many carriages were exhibited, had 
drawn carriage-makers from all parts of the State to the 



August. 



THE NEW YOKE COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



53 



city in which it was held; among the number was Tom 
Jones, a good fellow and a first-rate painter. Tom, while 
on the Fair grounds, accidentally got acquainted with a 
"brother chip," named Smith, who proved to be a very 
gassy man, and a thorough egotist. Jones, soon discovering 
this, began to regard him with disgust, and would have 
quitted his company if it had been possible. It was no easy 
task ; for his new acquaintance stuck to him like a baccha- 
nalian Dutchman to a keo- of " la«;er." 

" Have you seen that large crane-neck coach from our 
shop ?" queried Smith eagerly, as Jones, pleading an en- 
gagement, turned to leave him. 

"Guess not! where is it?" 

"Just over here. Astonishing! you must see that, sure! 
Nicest job on the ground, sir ; fact, sure as you live, so 
come along ! It's painted lake" he continued as they 
stalled, " and 'taint everybody that knows how to use 
that kind of stuff! Do you use it up your way ?" 

" Sometimes, but we don't pretend to be first-rate at it !" 
answered Tom. 

"Suppose not! There aint many that are; but Fll 
show you a job that's about right, see if I don't ! Found 
out how to do it myself, no one ever told me a thing about 
it, sir — just picked it up out of my own head, I did sure ! 
There ! sir. That's it ! Aint it pretty ! Just stand off 
about here, and you can see it to good advantage !" 

By this time they had approached the carriage in ques- 
tion, and the gassy man had taken up a position about ten 
feet from it, holding Jones by the arm, while he pointed at 
the job with the air of an artist showing his master-piece. 

" It looks fine, that's a fact ; let's get up closer to it !" 
said Tom, trying to disengage his arm from the grasp of 
the other. 

"Oh, no ! don't go a step, you can see it far better right 
here — indeed you can, sir ; fact, sir. If you go too close, 
the lake will look like a common black. This is the spot 
to look at it from !" 

But Tom was not to be convinced. He smelt a rat ; 
so, jerking loose, he went up and examined the panels close- 
ly. The job was well varnished, but the lake was awfully 
streaked ; in fact, it looked as if it had been painted on a 
red ground, and then "gone over" with a grainer's comb. 
A wicked smile danced in his eyes as he made this disco- 
very, then turning to his companion, who looked red and 
rather chop-fallen, he said quietly: 

"Yes! it ivould be a tolerable job if it wasn't for those 
red streaks !" 

" Red streaks !" echoed Smith, deprecatingly. Then 
suddenly brightening up, he explained, triumphantly: "Red 
streaks! Yes, of course it is streaked ! Thais where I get 
them! It aint every painter that can do that, let me tell you!" 

Tom caved in, and took the first opportunity which 
offered to give Smith the slip. The last time I saw him, 
I inquired if he had learned how to put in the red streaks 
yet. With a look of mock humility he replied : 

" No ! I have learned everything else about the trade ; 
but when it comes to putting in the streaks, I aint around!" 



ORIGINAL ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

Illustrated on Plate XL 

The ornamental plate presented to our patrons with this 
number has been designed and drawn expressly for this 



Magazine by Mr. Charles Ferdinand, heraldic and orna- 
mental painter, of this city. We add a few directions as 
to coloring the figures. 

No. 1. The figure dark and light shade; collar of the 
hound gilded ; scroll work of the shield should be 
laid on a metallic ground ; bars shaded red and white ; 
stars gilded ; tints at the side of the open space blue. The 
figure is generally allowed to stand on the ground color, 
but may be finished with a landscape background. 

No. 2. The scroll work may either be laid on a metallic 
ground or painted in relief; if on the former, shaded with 
asphaltum and raw sienna, as usual ; water scene in dark 
blue, light and yellow tinge, and centre figure as above. 

No. 3. Dolphins, net-work, and shield, all laid on a gold 
ground ; dolphins shaded with ultramarine, which will give 
them a proper tinge of green ; scales and outlines in black ; 
the light lines of the net-work gilded, only so as to show 
the ground color through between the lines; the harp 
should be either the color of rose-wood or mahogany, or 
in white or gold ; scroll work shaded as above. 

No. 4. Shaded and laid as No. 2, above. 



Crimmmrj |kom. 



CHANGEABLE TOPS FOR SHIFTING-SEAT 

WAGONS. 



D. DALZELL, SOUTH EGREMONT, MASS., CONTRIBUTOR. 




EXTENSION CHANGEABLE TOP. FIG. 1. 

Fig. 1 represents the front attachment on a jump-seat 
wagon. The back joint extends from the prop iron up to 
a low point on the back bow. The horizontal joint passes 
from the back to the front middle bow. The joint that 
passes from the third to the front bow is made very light, 
and placed in the inside ; the joint of this operates down- 
ward. When the front extension is put on, those inside 
joints are slacked, and the front bow is lashed back by 
means of a web running through a plated loop on the front 
bow, with a ring on the front end to draw back and hitch 



54 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



August. 



to a "line-hook," set on the back middle bow. By throw- 
ing this bow back, it is raised to the height of the middle 
bow, and ample space is given to get in and out at the side. 
The extension is then knobbed on to the back middle bow, 
and the joint attached to the back one by means of a hook 
formed on the back end, which drops into an eye formed 
for that purpose, on the front end of the back iron. The 
bows are then set in their place in the handles of the front 
seat, and, the joints being strained, the top is complete. 




Fig. 8. Fig. 2. 

THE CHANGEABLE TOP, TAKEN APART. 

Fig. 2 shows the appearance of the top when the vehicle 
is used as a single seat buggy ; the joint is unhooked, and 
the front unknobbed, and, the inside joints being strained, 
the top spreads, having the appearance of an ordinary top. 

Fig. 3 shows the detached part, but finished with a single 
joint, and attached to an old fashioned seat handle. The 
end of the joint, as it hangs slantwise, shows the form of 
the hook at the back end. The back edge of this piece is 
pasted out, and lining and all bound together as far down 
as the scollop left for the prop-irons ; the outside, which 
has been properly fitted on and finished ready to go on, is 
then turned back, and the tops of the two front bows cov- 
ered with cloth which corresponds with the lining — nailing 
it on the top ; the lining is then drawn over the top of the 
bows, and tacked down with strips of leather or listing, to 
prevent the tack-heads from tearing through ; the vallance 
is then applied as usual, and the leather drawn forward to 
its place. A knob should take the top on a line with the 
seam, and in cutting the top a lip of leather should be left on 
each piece for that purpose ; the top is then seamed up close 
to the lip, so that when it is turned they will lay past each 
other, and stitch together with the knob-piece. The front 
should, of course, be strained with canvas, between the 
lining and the outside. 



WHITE AND BLACK STITCHED CLOTH 
FACINGS. 

Since the stitching machine has commenced to work 
such a complete revolution in trade, the economy and neat- 
ness of stitched cloth facings are being appreciated more 



than ever before. On light work, trimmed with blue fab- 
rics, or snuff-colored, a light scroll, machine-stitched with 
white silk, looks well, especially if the seat is welted with 
bow leather. 

On heavy work, finished with dark rich snuff-colored 
goods, a heavy cord, drawn endwise about one-fourth of 
the way from the edge, so as to raise the cloth on each 
edge of the facing, stitched with a simple line of plain 
black laid close to each side of the cords, makes a neat, 
rich style of finish which is highly becoming. Some work- 
men welt with a strip of leather cut down on each edge — 
others with cotton wicking. Hand-holders, made of cloth 
instead of lace, and welted and stitched in this manner, 
make a suitable accompaniment for the cloth lace facings. 

Style of trimming in New York about the same as pre- 
viously reported. White figures for light work — plain 
black for heavy styles. — Ed. 

ANYTHING FOR A PATENT. 

To illustrate the greediness with which patents are 
sought, and to show the tricks that are resorted to in order 
to throw dust into the eyes of the public, we will relate a 
little incident that fell under our observation. 

A western patent-vender, who had caught a luminous 
idea from the Winans' Patent, and certain other relics of 
former skill, concluded to complete his cabinet of curi- 
osities, and add a new charm to his cognomen, by bringing 
out a patent side-spring buggy. The model was soon com- 
pleted, and sent, with copious specifications, to the Patent 
Office, but as speedily returned, "refused," for lack of "sub- 
stantial novelty !" This was a stumper, but he soon ral- 
lied. Who ever saw such a thing as a small block of 
wood clamped between the back end of the spring and the 
(swedged iron) axle upon which it rests ? No one, of 
course ; besides, it would be a decided benefit to the job, 
as the nut could be tightened up better than when iron 
rests upon iron. A second specification was made out, 
and the result proved that the little block thus inserted, 
constituted a "substantial novelty," and the said "patent 
side-spring buggy" is now before the public ; an arrange- 
ment has, or can be made to manufacture said springs, and 
the public are, in the most frank manner, invited to test 
them for one year, and should they give satisfaction (?) they 
can, of course, "walk up to the captain's office and settle." 

We insist that in such a case the inventor needs to be 
a man of genius, as mere mechanical talent "is nowhere!" 



The Quaker and the Livery Stable-keeper. — The 
Buffalo Express tells a story of a Quaker who was charged 
the exorbitant sum of seventeen dollars for a horse and 
buggy for a short drive, and, upon being presented with the 
bill, simply remarked : " Thou mistakest me, friend ; I do 
not wish to purchase thy vehicle, but only to hire it." 



August. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



55 



Clje 9riu Work CoacJHiutker's Utejajhie. 

ATJG-T.TST 1, 1858. 

E. M. STKATTON & M. G. TOUSLEY, Editors. 



TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

" R. M., of Mis." — The most certain way to get our maga- 
zine is to enclose the subscription price in a letter, addressed, 
"E. M. Stratton, 106 Elizabeth street, New York city," and re- 
member especially, that we have no connection with any other 
office. "We have reason to suspect that letters, intended for us, 
have carelessly found their way into " the enemy's camp." 

"J. S., N. Y." — We have not heretofore thought it advisable 
to furnish the dealers in cheap publications with our work, as, 
not being stereotyped, we are anxious to preserve our sets un- 
broken. We, however, contemplate doing so in a few localities, 
should dealers come under obligations to take a certain number 
of volumes complete. 

" E. T. T., of Conn." — Where a shop possesses interest as to 
location and architecture, we propose to illustrate it in our 
columns — such illustration and the necessary description being 
furnished to us by the owner free — without charge. Those 
wishing to avail themselves of this offer will please confer with 
us by letter. 

" G. N. of Va.," who inquires as to " who make the best 
axles," is referred to our advertising pages — we are the last to 
refer you to any " outsider." We honestly consider the interest 
of our advertisers and our own as identical. 

" C. F. of Mass." — We have not seen the side spring alluded 
to, but one who has, says it " is a desperate humbug." 

" J. C. N. of Canada W."— We are gratified to find that our 
humble efforts have pleased you, and hope that by unremitting 
exertion we shall continue to deserve your favor. We are pleased 
with your design for an ornament and intend to give it here- 
after — say in our next quarterly plate. Please instruct as to 
coloring. Try and get us up that " something for our next." 



FASHION AND DESIGN. 

There are two equally ruinous extremes into which the 
publishers of mechanical sheets may run. The first is that 
"masterly inactivity" which renders its reading columns 
dull or trashy, and its illustrations ill assorted ; the second, 
that fastness of purpose which would thrust designs upon 
patrons — either good or bad — faster than they can digest 
or apply them. In a publication of this character, either 
of these extremes is doubly ruinous : first, because coach- 
makers are generally men of cultivated taste, and second, 
because styles are less transient in first-class shops than 
in such as from lack of balance indulge more freely 
in experimenting ; and designs, once given and allowed to 
pass into forgetfulness, are counted among the things that 
were, and consequently out of date ; when, perhaps, the only 
fault lies in its being injudiciously crowded upon the craft 
among a flood of designs equally good. So the reader will 
discover that there is such a thing as having too much of 
even a good thing. 

As we remaaked, a good shop cannot afford to change 
styles too often, as it involves too much experimenting to 



allow them either to make money, or to systematize and 
perfect any one thing. 

Sensible coach-makers care less for the amount than for 
the quality of patterns given in a work like this. Suppose that 
we were to give from four to six designs in each month's 
issue of this Avork, what coach factory could follow us 
through the labyrinth of shapes that would appear in its 
pages ? And then, suppose that we were to run mad on 
the idea of originality, and, like a certain contemporary, 
fill our plates with every conceivable crook, when nothing 
but straight work was in use, lest we should chance to come 
down to sober reality, and draw something that somebody 
could make, and somebody might want. Yet what else 
could be expected of a work that made such large preten- 
sions to being exclusively a journal of design, and that 
affected such sovereign contempt for fashion — as though a 
valuable and practical design was soiled by contact, and 
lowered in the scale by general use. One would suppose 
that those who are so nervous about the orthodoxy of their 
tailor could scarcely maintain themselves in so radical a 
position. Our position upon fashion is this : We have no 
desire to drag our patrons into the use of any one particular 
style, just because others use it, any more than we wish to 
set our own or our neighbor's ideal sketches above the dic- 
tations of experience and the sanction of common use. We 
have taken the medium course. By giving French designs 
we presuppose that there is talent enough outside of the 
Magazine office to Americanize and apply them. By re- 
porting fashions faithfully, we give an idea of the taste and 
generally received styles of the living present, and still 
leave sensible men — who do not fear being enslaved by " the 
tyrant " — to do and think as they please about adopting 
them. But, still, we are not so old-fogyish as to suppose 
that the ancient only is honorable. We propose to sprinkle 
judicious with original sketching, but shall not waste 
material by over-doing it, or allow it to drive us into that 
thicket of unique designs which are original only because 
no one was so great a fool as to father them before. 
We are convinced that the intelligent body of coach- 
makers prefer one new or improved design, well worked 
down, and rendered practically reliable, to a round dozen 
of the modestly (?) appropriated mongrels that "pioneer" 
their way into the notice of our friends ; and we are satisfied 
that this will give our Magazine a more standard and satis- 
factory tone than any other course that can be adopted. It 
is a law of trade, that even good articles depreciate in value 
when the market is glutted. 



AN AIRY (VISIONARY ?) INVENTION. 

A Cotemporary, in New York City, who is becoming 
somewhat notorious for flighty notions, says, in an editorial 
article, that "air springs for carriages and other uses — they 
may do for the 'other uses' — are now being constructed, by 



5C 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



August. 



employing water or other fluid, confined in flexible covers 
of water-proof fabric in inclosed metal chambers, wherein 
the air is confined in such a manner that the water keeps 
the air from coming into contact with the flexible covers, 
and also from coming near the openings where the air is 
introduced, and also from the joints of the chambers where 
the covers are fixed. By this means the air is inclosed on 
all sides, except when in contact with the water or other 
fluid, in a metallic chamber, in such a maimer as to prevent 
leakage." 

This ivatcry description is a little muddy in the recital, 
yet is sufficiently clear to exhibit the entire absurdity of 
the thing. Two of the elements, then, are requisite in get- 
ting up this " latter-day"- production. "We would suggest 
a third (that of fire), for which idea we charge nothing, and 
then we think it would go — the metallic cover we mean — 
just as the boiler of that steamer which blew up the other 
day did. While we think of it, we would direct the at- 
tention of our ingenious friend, Mr. J. K. Fisher, of the 
steam-carriage on common roads, to this " air-and-water- 
spring." It would probably be a vast saving of expense 
as well as economy of space, since the boiler and springs 
could be used in combination. 

We would further suggest these springs as being " emi- 
nently calculated" for use in the construction of the aerial- 
carriages that we hear so much about now-a-days, as, by an 
improved exhaust chamber and a double pressure condens- 
er attached, the supply of water evaporized in this boiler- 
spring could be replaced from the vapor floating about in 
the upper regions, and thus save a vast deal of labor, by 
being its own water-feeder. 

Seriously, we wish to inquire of this inventor, whoever 
he may be — for his name is not yet made public — how he 
expects his water-springs to operate in frosty weather? 
What advantages does he anticipate for them over the 
favorite elliptical steel springs ? Does he expect the ap- 
plication of his water-confined-in-flexible-cover-metal-in- 
closed-springs to look more graceful and lighter, &c, than 
any now in use ? If not, cui bono ? 



A LADY CONNOISSEUR OF THE NOBLE ART. 

Mrs. Viele, formerly a New York belle, of no small 
celebrity as a wit, but now the wife of an army officer, has 
written a spicy, but not an elaborate work, which she calls 
" Following the Drum." 

Her varied jottings bear less the character of a standard 
book than of a personal narrative, as it lacks that elabor- 
ation of thought and continuity of style with which pro- 
found authorship wearies the unsophisticated; but as living 
photographs, gilded with the sunlight of exuberant fancy, 
each paragraph hangs a new picture upon the wall, 
thus forming a galaxy not uninteresting to the general 
reader. But the technical manner in which this admirer 



of epaulets discourses, upon the various vehicles which fall 
under her notice, shows that she appreciates the " emblem 
of civilization" as a proper accompaniment in the world 
of art, for that more threatening background of a nation's 
glory, the strong arm and tented field. In speaking of her 
residence at Havana, she says : 

" The volante, the vehicle of this country, is at the door 
before six o'clock. To those who have ridden in them, a 
description would be superfluous ; and to those who have 
not, it will be almost impossible. Its lazy motion, as it 
moves along, hardly disturbs the soft atmosphere. 

" Our volante, hired by the day during our short stay, 
was the property of a Cuban nobleman, who had retired to 
his country seat among the mountains, and left it and his 
coachman in town to be hired by strangers He must pro- 
bably have been 'hard up,' judging by this proceeding; 
but this is merely a natural surmise. It was ' got up' in 
most gorgeous style, and in the gaudy taste peculiar to 
Spanish-Americans. Its body, what we would call a til- 
bury on a large scale, the top shifting, the pole double the 
length of one of our ordinary vehicles, which consequently 
leaves quite a space between the body of the volante and the 
mules that draw it. These latter were fat, and beautifully 
groomed, and trapped in gold and crimson cloth — one of 
them being ridden d la postilion by the driver. 

"The Cuban 'whips' are in themselves quite a study. A 
jacket, a la Grecque, of crimson cloth, embossed with gold, 
falling open and exhibiting a gayly trimmed vest, and 
linen edged with deep lace ruffles ; tights and top boots, 
inlaid, and finished round the top with gold fringe, and a 
cord and tassel of the same. A beaver hat, with a broad 
gold band and cockade, complete their stylish outfit. 

" These liveries are always gay, sometimes elegant, and 
at times bordering on the grotesque. 

" A volante, with all its charms, would be as much out of 
place in a city of the United States as a trotting-wagon and 
pair of fast horses would be at the Plaza de Armas of 
Havana" 

Speaking of her adventures on the Texan frontier, and 
of her entertainment in the family of a Spanish resident in 
Camargo, she continues : 

" When dinner was announced, I was handed, with no 
little ceremony, by Don Jesu, into the dining-room, which 
opened on the garden in the rear, through a stone archway. 
Similar arches on either side opened, on the one hand, into 
a long, low kitchen, and on the other into the carriage- 
house, where stood the massive family coach, covered with 
brass mountings and armorial bearings, but which was sel- 
dom used, as their means could not supply the necessary 
horses and men. The coach, however, remained a relic of 
the departed glories of their line, and was preserved with 
almost religious care. It seems impossible to entirely era- 
dicate the old Castilian pride of blood. In all the better 
class of houses, both here and in Havana, the room for the 
carriage is in close vicinity to other suites of apartments." 



BILL JINGLE'S COACH AND LADIES' HOOPS. 

It is said that the ladies, in consequence of their hoop ex- 
tensions, had attained such enormous proportions in 1707 as 
to have become a source of alarm to satirists and custom- 
house officers. Is it not written in a periodical of that 



August. 



THE NEW YORK COACH -MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



57 



day, that "for the service of ladies wearing hoops, one 
William Jingle, coach-maker, has built a round chair, in 
the form of a lantern, six yards and a half in circumference, 
with a stool in the centre of it, the said vehicle being so 
contrived as to receive the passenger by opening in two in 
the middle, and closing mathematically when she is seat- 
ed ?" This Bill Jingle must have been an extraordi- 
nary great genius, and fitted for his times; for, besides 
the above useful invention, he invented another coach into 
which the hooped ladies of that day were admitted from 
the top. A "lady's woman" in one of these hooped petti- 
coats was let down from a balcony, and drawn up again by 
pulleys, to the great satisfaction of her lady and all who be 
held her. If matters continue to take their course as they 
have heretofore done, we have no doubt but that the in- 
genuity of some modern Bill Jingle will be called into ser- 
vice to do for our wives and daughters the same thing: 
which was done for our grandmothers in 170*7; for we al- 
ready perceive' that the doors of our coaches are altogether 
too narrow for the votaries of hooped crinoline. While 
the banks are contracting, it is said that the ladies are ex- 
panding their skirts. As this latter insinuation is alto- 
gether ungallant and ungenerous, we are ready to believe 
it to be altogether untrue, and only uttered by some miser- 
able old bachelor in a fit of despair. 



A WORD ABOUT OUR DRAFTS, &c. 

It will be observed that our engravers have again " let 
themselves out," in executing the plate illustrations for 
this No., all of which come fully up to those given in our 
first, and which received the universal commendation of 
the craft and the Press. The phaeton is from Mr. Britton's 
pencil, as well as the cut-under buggy. We have endea- 
vored to give the fashions, as far as these " hard times" 
have fostered such " shadows." To these we have added, 
according to our original plan, a plate of original and orna- 
mental designs, which alone are worth a year's subscrip- 
tion. 

Among the illustrations for the September number will 
be fine original designs for a hearse and a coach, by Mr. 
James Irving, of Bridgeport, Conn., drawn expressly for us. 
We shall also present a draft of the "Woosteree." Also a 
portrait and sketch of the life of Mr. Jason Clapp, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., which cannot fail to please. 

Before leaving this subject, we would request any who 
intend to compete for the premium for the next plate of 
ornaments, to hurry up before next quarter comes round. 



A Good Move. — Mr. C. Van Horn, of this city, who, 
by the way, is an advertiser in our columns, has further 
exemplified his shrewdness, and set an example which 
others might imitate to their own advantage, by present- 
ing a number of his customers with a gratuitous copy of 
our Magazine for one year, mailed from our office direct. 



No doubt, he will secure, as he well merits, the continued 
patronage of his old friends, while, at the same time, 
he is rendering " material aid" to our new and prosperous 
undertaking. Who will follow his noble example by do- 
ing- likewise ? 



Another Portrait in September. — Our next number 
will contain a lifelike portrait of that venerable man, Mr. 
Jason Clapp, of Pittsfield, Mass. We have secured the 
services of a competent writer, and an intimate friend of 
the family, to write out the biography ; so we have no 
doubt but it will be copious and truthful to the life. Mr. C. 
is probably the eldest, and one among the most successful 
coach-makers of the present time. His life has been sin- 
gularly eventful, and will ask no aid from fancy to em- 
bellish and render it interesting. The army of young and 
middle-aged men who have served their time with him, 
and who are now, as a general thing, officiating in the ca- 
pacity of foremen in first-class factories, will, no doubt, be 
gratified by this announcement, as will his friends and ac- 
quaintances everywhere. 



JSTWe intend, in our September number, to commence 
a series of articles on the manufacture of wheels, which we 
had originally designed for another publication, but which, 
from unforeseen circumstances, was cut short on the ap- 
pearance of the first article by " trouble in the camp." 
These have been re-written expressly for this Magazine, 
and we think that the series, when completed, will prove 
interesting as well as useful to our patrons. Meanwhile, 
read the letter from our friend, Mr. G. R. Groot, given in 
this number, upon the same subject. 



(Rritcrial Styairittfls* 



An Erudite Mayor. — The Worcester Chronicle gives 
the following as the verbatim copy of a letter from a chief 
magistrate of a certain corporation : " Dear sur, — On Mon- 
day next I am to be made a Mare, and shall be much 
obliged to you if so be as you will send me down by the 
Coatch some provisions fetting for the occasion, and I am 
to ax my brother, the old Mare, and the rest of the Bentch. 
I am, sur," etc. The above was answered by a wag, into 
whose hands it fell, as follows : " Sir, — In obedience to 
your orders, I have sent, per coach, two bushels of the best 
oats ; and, as you are to treat the Old Mare, have added 
some bran to make a mash." 

The Wheel of Fortune. — Punch says it must have 
originally belonged to an omnibus, for it is continually 
" taking up" and " putting down" people. il/m-Fortune, 
we think, must have been another, the off-wheel from the 
same " wehicle," as she not only " takes people in," but is 
continually leading them into trouble, out of which they 
are very fortunate should they escape, as Paddy would say, 
without being; " kilt." 



58 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



August. 



This Fast Age. — A recent publication, treating on the 
subject of telegraphs (or " telegrams," as the elite of our 
would-be modern Solons — language-tinkers as they are — 
have lately baptized the word), gives the length of telegraphic 
communication in America as 41,362 miles; and the expen- 
diture upon it as amounting to 86,671,800. "What a light- 
ning-girdled, canal-environed, and iron-bound nation this 
is becoming ! We now need but a vfeW-subjugated balloon, 
or a ^ro^erZy-constructed "flying machine," to perfect our 
means of transit and communication. When either of these 
desiderata shall have become a fait accompli, we may 
hope to be enabled to mount our aeronautical car in the 
morning, and, by way of arising, make a " flying visit" to 
the Court of St. James, the Tuileries, or St. Petersburg — 
thence " drop in" upon our " brother of the Sun," his 
" Celestial" Highness, and be home in time for early lunch, 
with a sharpened appetite after such aerial flight. Verily, 
we are units of a rising nation, and live in a, fast age ! 

New York Omnibuses — Number, &c. — " Four hundred 
and eighty-nine omnibus licenses were taken out last year, 
instead of 1,000, as there were about the year 1853. The 
489 licenses, at $20 per stage, amount to $9,780. This 
number of stages will require 2,934 horses and 1,000 men, 
exclusive of blacksmiths, harness-makers, stage-builders, 
and painters attached to the establishments. Each stable- 
man is expected to take care of fifteen horses, and extra 
drivers and hands are always found about the stables. 
The cost of an omnibus is $500 — a stage-horse, $100 ; but 
an omnibus and the necessary six horses therefor can be 
bought for $1,000. A stage will make from $8 to $10 per 
day, and it costs $6 to run it." 

" Squibs" wants to know if doctors, by looking at the 
tongue of a wagon, can tell what ails it? Well, now, that 
is rich ! Why, Mr. Squibs, some doctors are so ignorant, 
that they do not even know what is meant by the " tongue" 
of a wagon ! 

The number of vehicles, of all kinds, in Paris, is reported 
to be 32,000; the number of horses, 50,000. 



COACH-CARVING. 

A Second Letter. 

New Haven, July 1st, 185S. 

Messrs. Editors, — It is not my province to teach the 
art of drawing ; but, as I proposed in my introductory let- 
ter, I shall now proceed to explain and illustrate the appli- 
cation of ornamental design to coach-carvino-. 

Ornament, however complicated, is but a combination of 
curves and undulating lines, usually called the line of beau- 
ty, which is comprised in two curves reversed. [See Fig- 
ures 1 and 2.] These are the foundation of all ornament, 




Fig. 2. 



and, however elaborate they may be, they are but a succes- 
sion of these curves. 

Figure 3 is a continuation of Figure 2, and shows the 
principle of combination. The beauty of this ornament 




Fig. 8. 

lies in the various curves running in harmony with the 
contour, general sweep, or starting point. Now, so long as 
this principle is adhered to, the eye will be pleased ; but, if 
disregarded for the sake of novelty or excess of elaboration, 
the reverse will be the result, and, consequently, will cease 
to be ornamental. [See my introductory letter on 
page 37.] 

Figure 4 is a good illustration of the principle I have 
just laid down. Tt is a phaeton side, the panel of which is 




Fig. 4. 

composed of two separate lines, or lines of beauty. The 
panel is equal, and the starting point (a) is drawn and 
rakes with the pitch of the panel in the centre. One end 
of this panel shows the principle in Figure 2, and the op- 
posite in Figure 3. The panel should not be filled entire- 
ly with ornament, but a space should be left all around 
between the bead and carving, which improves the panel 
very much. The correct principle is an equalization of 
ground and ornament. 

Figure 5 is a back-light, composed of unequal curves, 
ornamented with a carved cap instead of a smooth mould- 




ing. This, also, shows the principle in Figures 2 and 3, 
carried out on a back-light and with the most simple fea- 
tures of ornament. 

Coach-carving, in its treatment, is quite different from 
any other kind of art manufacture, and partakes of a charac- 
ter peculiar to itself. As a general rule, it is executed in 
what is usually called bas-relief, and very seldom in middle 
or high relief — that is, it is superficial, and must be, with 
the present style of carving, as the stronger proj ection of a 
beaded panel is half an inch. There may be exceptions to 
this rule, but they will be found very rare. There are two 
ways of distinguishing coach-carving. Carving for plain 
work must be executed more elaborately than work which 



August. 



THE NEW YORK CO AC H - MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



59 



is to be " touched up" by the painter. It is customary, in 
plain work, to cut in all the fibres, members, and details ; 
but, in fancy work, they are left out, to give the painter an 
opportunity to exercise his talents. I shall explain this 
more fully in my next, with diagrams ; also, some new fea- 
tures which will be interesting to your readers. 

Your humble servant, 

James H. Campbell. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

COAT OF ARMS OF THE "UNITED KINGDOM 
SOCIETY OF COACH-MAKERS," IN ENGLAND. 



EY J. G. D., OF N. Y. CITY. 



At the present time, when the idea of founding a simi- 
lar order is becoming so popular among the coach-makers 
in this country, a few remarks, relative to the practical 
workings of the " United Kingdom Society," may not be 
uninteresting to your readers. 




THE UNITED KINGDOM SOCIETY OP COACH-MAKERS ARMS. 

The national order first originated in a local one, whose 
existence in London dates back to a very distant period, 
and which probably originated in a "strike" among the 
workmen after a long period of depression, as their original 
motto — "Surgit post Nubila Phcebus" — signifies, after 
clouds, the sun rises ; in other words, light has come out of 
darkness. As this society increased in numbers, it was 
found inconvenient to meet in a body ; so the original club 
(as it might then have been termed) acted as a "grand 
lodge" in founding subordinate branches. From London it 
spread to other neighboring cities, and, notwithstanding jt 
encountered much opposition, it soon became a national 
movement, and is at the present time vastly popular, among 
both workmen and employers. About the year 1700, a 
coat of arms was awarded to the London Society. The 
shield figures were formed ofnational and mechanical rep- 
resentations, standing upon arabesque scrolls, and support- 
ed on the right and left by richly-caparisoned coursers. 
Beneath is an emblem of the four principal divisions of the 
trade, fraternally joining hands in a ring, and that sur- 
rounded with floral emblems of the good, the beautiful and 
true. The whole is surmounted with a representation of 
Phcebus in his chariot of light. This insignia has since 
been adopted by the " United Kingdom Society," but with 
the motto inserted in the engraving above. 

This society is more radical in its cast than the nature of 
an American trade would permit, or could be desired by 



intelligent American mechanics ; but, with all this, it has 
proved a moral and social benefit to European mechanics 
and employers. Those who once opposed it have since 
been convinced, by a more thorough knowledge of its 
workings, that it is decidedly to their advantage, and 
society men are employed in preference to others. One 
reason for this preference is, that none but men who have 
served out their term of apprenticeship honorably, and can 
make a fair show of reliability and good character, are ad- 
mitted to the society, and this serves as a stimulus to 
workmen, and an ensample to young tradesmen, which 
leads them to build up and sustain an unspotted reputation, 
while it serves as a sort of a recommend in the absence of 
a better acquaintance. In the large cities, the society's 
rooms are always open ; so that strangers and others, wish- 
ing for either employment or information, can always find 
a friend and informant, and if necessary a guide. This ar- 
rangement cuts off the disagreeable necessity of visiting 
factories in search of work, which is alike chilling to work- 
men and annoying to busy-headed employers. When 
workmen desire a situation, they simply register their 
names, and await the visit of help seekers, or the return of 
register bulletins, and society men are ever on the alert to 
obtain workmen for such as desire help. As a precaution- 
ary measure, each member is required to take out a fresh 
card before going abroad, and to have it freshly inclosed 
and re-dated in each city which he passes through, unless it 
is made over to a certain place at the start. By this 
means, a member who stands charged with some offense 
against his own and the society's good name, or who has 
recently been expelled for some disgraceful act, is debarred 
from passing himself off, in some strange city, as a member 
in good standing, and thus not only abuse public confidence 
but hazard the reputation of the society. 

The armorial ensign of the " United Kingdom Society" 
is highly national in its representations, and its use was 
roundly taxed — as are, all aristocratic distinctions — by the 
guardians of royalty. But, in this country, a "coat of 
arms" is but a picture, and a picture is but an exquisite 
appeal to the higher and holier sensibilities of our natures, 
through the ideal pantomime of a skillful delineator. With 
these we may ornament our cards, banners, or even 
coaches, subject to no laws, but those of art, and the intui- 
tive perceptions of the human mind. 

[We give place to the above communication, with the 
hope of eliciting further attention to this subject among 
our readers. Our correspondent, probably, was not aware 
that there have been two organizations of the United King- 
dom Society; the first, somewhere about 1700, the second, 
at a later period. The earlier coat of arms slightly differed 
from the one above given, and the mottoes differed entire- 

ly.— Ed.] 

_«#».•. 

For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

AN EXPERIENCED MAN ON THE SUBJECT OF 

WHEELS. 

Messrs. Editors, — A few practical hints, through the 
medium of the Magazine, by one who has had a long 
experience in the manufacturing of carriages, may be of 
some advantage to those not fully posted up in all the 
essential points, as to the durability and running of car- 
riages. 



60 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



August. 



With your permission, I propose giving your readers, 
in as few words as possible, a brief notice of the principal 
points which belong to a well-constructed carriage. I will 
notice, first, the 

WHEEL. 

The present style requires the wheels of all our light 
vehicles to be not only very light, but high. In con- 
sequence of this prevailing fashion, it becomes necessary to 
have the materials of the choicest quality, and to be per- 
fectly seasoned before making up. Kiln-drying, or season- 
ing very quick, should in all cases be avoided, because sea- 
soning timber by artificial means always makes it brittle; 
stuff thus seasoned will make short shavings. Good gum 
timber is, no doubt, best for light hubs. Next is white- 
elm, which is mostly employed. The best butt-logs only 
should be used. Hubs should be turned or "ruffed" out 
to nearly the size, and a hole bored through the centre 
while green, and placed in a dry room to season moderate- 
ly for six or eight months; at this time they should be 
turned — but not mortised — and again placed in a dry 
place, to finish the seasoning. 

To be sure that the hubs are dry before using them, 
put " false" bands on a few, and place them in a warm, dry 
spot for a few days. The facts will soon be known. Good 
hubs are always tight and heavy grain, whether green or 

dr J\ 

Tight fine grain and heavy hickory are the qualities 

for either spoke or rim, for light wheels. 

If the stuff is well seasoned — that is, seasoned in a way 
not to kill the life of the fibres — and put together by a 
good wheelwright, and in a proper manner, the wheels will 
stand. Wheels are generally spoiled before they are made 
up. The points, then, are — First : to obtain good tough, 
heavy, tight-grained timber, seasoned in such a manner as 
not to cause the destruction of the life of the fibres. 

Second : The stuff must be perfectly dry when made up. 

Third : If put together in the right way, the wheels will 
stand. 

I have omitted many points which could be discussed to 
advantage. The above, however, are the most essential 
qualifications. G. R. G. 

INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

June 8. — Carriage Springs. — David M. Lane, of "West 
Philadelphia, Pa. : I do not claim, broadly, the combining of 
wood and steel in the manufacture of springs for vehicles, for 
this has been previously done. 

But I claim providing the extremities of the plates, A A', 
with sockets, C, to receive the ends of the wooden springs, B B', 
as and for the purposes set forth. 

Brake for Wagon, &c. — Benjamin B. Munroc, of South 
Dansvillc, N. Y. : I claim first, the brake bar, B, when jointed 
in the manner and for the purpose set forth. 

Second, I claim the extension perch, constructed in the man- 
ner specified. 

Additional. — Tightening tiie Tires of Carriaoe 
Wheels.— R. R. Scott, of Philadelphia, Pa. : Patented Mar. 23, 
1858 — additional improvement dated June 8, 1858: Disclaiming 
the exclusive use of two sets of taper keys for drawing together 
the two ends of the tire, I claim the ends, B and C, of the tire, 
with their respective slotted blocks, b and c, the taper keys, and 
the bolt, G, when arranged for joint operation, substantially as 
and for the purpose set forth. 



June 15. — Reducing "Wheel Tires. — Tris Hobson, of Stout's 
Grove, 111. : I claim the slidingcurved anvil formed of one straight 
and two semi-elliptic spring bars, K, L, M, and furnished with 
two holding jaws, 0, in combination with two toothed station- 
ary jaws, o, o, and a vice screw, I, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

Metallic Hubs for Carriage Wheels. — S. J. Russell, of 
Chicago, 111. : I claim the wedge-shaped projections, E and F, 
when employed in connection with the spaces, e e, and hooks, 
S S, for receiving the spokes, and locking the two parts of the 
hub firmly together, substantially as set forth. 

I also claim the use of India-rubber to protect the woody 
fibre of the spokes, as set forth. 

June 22. — Machine for Setting Spokes in Huns. — Andrew 
Hafer and George Wilkinson, of Colon, Mich. : We claim the 
disk, A, having teeth, i, formed on a portion of its periphery, 
and curved grooves, a, made in its inner face, the plate, B, pro- 
vided with slotted arms, in which jaws, C, are placed, the plate 
being provided with a pall, h, and handle, E, and fitted to the 
disk by means of the pin, f, and nut, G, the pin forming the 
axis of the sweep, D, the whole being combined and arranged as 
and for the purpose set forth. 

Metallic "Wheels for Vehicles. — Thomas McConaughy 
and James McCollum, of Burnsville, Ala. : "We claim the com- 
bination of the feathered box, wrought metal bands and system 
of braces, C, with the screw T rods and rim of the wheel, con- 
structed, arranged and operating substantially as and for the 
purpose set forth. 

June 29. — Apparatus for Heating Tires. — J. J. White, 
(assignor to himself and Francis Fox), of Philadelphia, Pa. : I 
claim the casting, B, with its revolving grate and lid, in combi- 
nation with the fire chamber, S, and fan, R, or other equivalent 
blowing apparatus, when the whole are arranged for joint opera- 
tion, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. 

Upsetting Tire. — G. W. Cooper, of Morenci, Mich. : I claim 
the jaws, G, attached to rods, f, which are provided with springs, 
g, and have a vertical movement, as well as a rotating one, and 
the inclined planes, h, in the plate below the jaws, C, the above 
parts being used in connection with the stationary jaws, F, the 
jaws being applied to the ledges, b b, of the plates, B D, and 
arranged as and for the purpose set forth. 

July 6. — Machine for Upsetting Carriage Axles. — Zina 
Doolittle, of Perry, Ga. : I claim, first, the arrangement of the 
centre bar or anvil, A L, pivoted jaws, B B, and eccentric levers, 
D D, in the relation to one another shown, for the purposes set 
forth. 

Second, The combination with the above of eccentric clutches, 
F F, dies, G G, springs, H H, and slides, I I, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

Running Gear of Wagons. — Jonathan Hibbs, of Tullytown, 
Pa. : I claim the method described of operating both the axles 
of a wagon in turning curves, namely, by means of the curved 
rack affixed to each axle, in combination with the connecting 
pinion, in the manner and for the purposes substantially set forth. 

Attaching Carriage Springs. — Luther Otway Rice, of Ber- 
lin, Canada West : I do not claim either section of the springs 
described when separately considered. I claim placing the 
scroll spring, A, divergent to the axle and supporting the same 
on the axle by means of the clip, c, at the end thereof, and the 
raised double clip, D, or equivalent, near the wheel, for the pur- 
poses and substantially as described. 

LATE EUROPEAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

Whether our cousins in Europe have expended their in- 
ventive faculties in plans for laying the Atlantic Telegraph, 
or in the creation of warlike missives for putting down the 
Sepoys, we cannot tell, but certain it is that there is a remark- 
ably slim record of creative genius, as applicable to coach- 
making, to be found in our foreign files for the past month. 
We can give the following only : 

Thomas B. Ayshford, 1 Britannia Road, Walham Green, Ful- 
ham : Certain improvements in the construction of carriages 
called omnibuses. 



PLATE 12. 



VoL 1. 




e 
a, 
s 



j -2 
* I 

■ s 

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Engraved expressly for the New York Coach, Maker's Magazine. 
September, 1858. 




DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER, 1858. 



No. 4=. 



Cjf* tecji-litakflr's portrait (lattery. 

For the N. Y. Coach-maker's Magazine. 

BIOGRAPHY OF JASON CLAPP, ESQ. 
(with portrait.) 

In a previous number of our Journal, we stated the 
design of giving a portrait of Jason Clapp, Esq., of Pitts- 
field, Mass., a cotemporary of James Brewster, Esq., of 
New Haven, Conn., in the coach-making business. We 
have the pleasure now of fulfilling that intention. 

We give some incidents of interest in regard to Mr. 
Clapp. He was born in Northampton, Mass., on the 5th of 
November, 1782. His father was Ebenezer Clapp, a native 
of Northampton. His -mother, whose maiden name was 
Ann Tileston, was a native of Dorchester, Mass. His boy- 
hood was spent in Northampton. He attended a common 
school a portion of the time, until the age of seventeen. 
His educational advantages were. limited, and he has often 
said to his children, while contrasting the superior advan- 
tages for education of the present day, that, in the begin- 
ning of the present century, boys had scarcely any privi- 
leges ; that he " only attended school in the evening, and 
then had no candle !" 

At the age of seventeen, he was apprenticed to the car- 
riage-making business, in the shop of James Dunham.* 
He received as his wages only eight dollars a year, in addi- 
tion to his board, and, on the conclusion of his apprentice- 
ship, was in debt to a relative §60, for necessary clothing, 
which he soon paid. The "go-to-meeting" dress of that 
day many modern apprentices would hardly consider good 
enough to work in at the bench. 

At the age of twenty-one years, he was induced, by the 
late Lemuel Pomeroy, Esq., of Pittsfield, to become the 
foreman of his carriage manufactory, and continued in that 



* It appears, from the above statement, that our information was incorrect 
when we stated in giving the biography of James Brewster, Esq., in our 
June number, that Mr. Clapp and Mr. Brewster both learned their trades in 
the same shop. We, therefore, stand corrected. 

We are under obligations to Mr. E. Dunham, of Pittsfield, for the following 
facts m the history of his father, with whom Mr. Clapp learned his trade, as 
detailed in a private letter to us: "Mr. James Dunham served his time in 
New York, and moved to Northampton, Mass.. aboat the year 1800 In 1807 
he removed to Hoosack (on the Hudson river), New York and afterwards 
again went back to Pittsfield, where he died in Julv. Js5£-76 years old '' 

[Ed. ' 



capacity for the period of six years. On the conclusion of 
his apprenticeship, it was his intention to establish a car- 
riage factory at Utica, New York, but the inducements 
offered by Mr. Pomeroy changed his determination. He 
commenced business for himself, in Pittsfield, in the year 
1810. The description of carriages first made were the 
Boston chaises, now rarely seen in this locality, but still 
much used in the vicinity of Boston and on the coast. 
Phsetons and ribbed wagons were afterwards much used, 
and made by Mr. Clapp. At present, light carriages, bug- 
gies, and the most costly coaches are made at his factory. 
Some, in the highest style of the art, have been sold in the 
New York and Boston markets as high as $1,500 each. 
The carriage presented to President Pierce, by some of 
his friends in Boston, was made by Messrs. Jason Clapp & 
Son (a son of Mr. Clapp being now connected with him in 
business), and has been pronounced by good judges to have 
been equal, if not superior, in fine workmanship, to any car- 
riage ever made in America. His carriages are in use in 
almost every State of the Union, and many have been sold 
to go to Russia, Mexico, and other countries. Twice have 
medals for the best coaches been awarded him by the Mas- 
sachusetts Mechanics' Charitable Association. 

Mr. C. has had about 300 apprentices, most of whom 
have turned out well, and some have become distinguished 
in the art, and found desirable situations. 

Some of his hands have continued steadily in his employ 
for more than forty years, and this remarkable fact has no 
doubt served to secure the reputation, which his work has 
enjoyed. The number of men usually employed has varied 
from 40 to 50. It is also worthy of notice, that no man of 
the hundreds he has employed ever left him feeling that 
the employer had not fulfilled every obligation he entered 
into. 

The marked success of Mr. C. in his business is to be 
attributed to his untiring industry, superior judgment, and 
keen perception, and a rigid adherence to the glorious 
motto, which rarely fails to be attended with success, that 
of doing unto others as he would be done by — amd allowing 
no vxrrk to go from his shop that he did not believe vxis 
superior in workmanship and, vjould give satisfaction to 
purchasers. It was a remark of Mr. Eaton, the head of 
the eminent firm of Eaton & Gilbert, Coach and Car 
Builders of Troy, N. Y., that " the oldest man has never 
known a wheel made by Jason Clapp to wear out !" Such 



02 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



September. 



a compliment as this, from such a source, is a tribute to the 
excellence which characterizes the manufactures of Mr. 
Clapp. 

The reverence of Mr. C. for his parents is shown in the 
commendable fact, that his first earnings, on obtaining his 
majority, were devoted to the canceling of the debts of 
his father, and long and faithfully did he most cheerfully 
attend to the supplying of their wants. 

Mr. C. has uniformly declined honors which his friends 
have wished to bestow, but was twice induced to represent 
the town of Pittsfield in the Legislature of the State. 

His energy and devotion to business are well shown in an 
anecdote which has been often repeated in the village 
where he resides. Many years since, he was taken ill, and 
his physician, the late Dr. Oren Wright, was sent for by 
his wife. He came, and left a prescription, and directed 
that the patient should remain in the house and be quiet. 
On calling the next day to see his patient, he found him in 
his yard, giving directions to his men ; and, on approach- 
ing, Mr. C. remarked, " Doctor, I am busy now ; can't 
attend to you ; you must call another time." 

It is a singular fact, and worthy of mention and imita- 
tion too, that Mr. C, in conducting his business, has never 
asked a bank to discount a note — has never had an en- 
dorser — and has never borrowed a dollar ! He has gone 
on increasing by degrees, as the profits warranted, and to 
this is to be attributed his rare success. Mr. C. has often 
remarked, that the great difficulty at the present day is, 
that " men want to go too fast at first — they want to start 
upon a gallop." 

From 1815 to 1840, Mr. C. was also largely engaged in 
the stage business, and for many years was contractor for 
carrying the great mail between Boston and Albany. A. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE THREE-FOLD NATURE OF MAN. 



BT CHARLES C. KEYS. 



NO. III. 

In our last number, the study of anatomy and physi- 
ology was recommended, in order to acquire a knowledge 
of our physical nature, and we should be no less familiar 
with the laws of mind, and the intellectual faculties, and 
with our character as moral beings, than with the wonder- 
ful and miraculous frame-work of our physical systems. 
The one, though immaterial and not cognizant by the 
senses, is an essential part of our nature as well as the 
other, and, considering man as a complex being, whose 
nature is divided into different departments, the physical 
must be regarded as subordinate to the intellectual and the 
moral ; the former as the servant of the latter, designed to 
minister to its necessities and to fulfill its wishes, and, con- 
sequently, as its inferior both by nature and position. And 
though this order is frequently reversed by us, in the gen- 
eral estimate we form of the two natures, as well as in the 
relative amount of attention and care bestowed upon them, 
it nevertheless stands as the order of God and cannot with 
impunity be ignored. Not only, then, because man has a 
mind and a heart, with intellectual and moral powers, but 
because these constitute his chief excellency, and because 
in these respects he resembles the glorious pattern and 
divine image after which he was made, do we recommend 
the study of that philosophy which would make him 



acquainted with these higher departments of his being. 
Mental and moral science, though undervalued and often 
decried by those who have no love of knowledge and no 
desire for improvement, is, nevertheless, a study suggested 
by the nature we possess, and is a source of the purest 
enjoyment to those who are aiming at the highest forms of 
self-culture — a well-spring from which they may draw 
without fear of exhausting the perennial supply, and the 
largest draughts from which only stimulate the appetite for 
more. I would not recommend to the simple mechanic, or 
the person of small leisure, a study of all the niceties and 
abstractions of metaphysics ; I would not urge such a one 
to seek the bottom of this fathomless sea with laborious 
zeal and breathless toil ; such extended investigations 
should be left to men of greater learning and more ample 
opportunities, but a sufficient knowledge in these depart- 
ments should be acquired to gratify a moderate ambition 
and to answer the common purposes of life. Those who 
have the necessary turn of mind for these pursuits, and suffi- 
cient leisure, may make them a principal study if they 
choose. But every man should know something of him- 
self in these important respects ; something of his mental 
constitution and moral powers ; something of that unseen 
and intangible and spiritual essence which causes him to 
rank so high in the scale of being, which connects him on 
terms of so great intimacy to the great Source of all life, 
and which gives so much importance to his existence. And 
in whatever degree we are advanced in this kind of know- 
ledge, we shall find that to a proportionate extent our 
interest and happiness are promoted thereby. Such know- 
ledge cannot be otherwise than of the utmost importance 
to us. It is essential to the rank we occupy in God's ani- 
mate creation, to the improvement which God designed 
should be realized by the continued culture and right exer- 
cise of our spiritual powers, and to a great variety of most 
important purposes, connected with whatever position we 
may occupy in life. 

Let a man know that he has a mind possessed of great 
powers, and capable of great things, that he has a soul 
formed with the wisest and most gracious designs, and 
equally capable of a wide range of beneficent action, a soul 
possessing almost illimitable capacities, susceptible of im- 
provement almost ad infinitum, and made expressly for the 
purpose of glorifying and enjoying Him who is the chief 
good, and let his general course of life be in harmony 
with the knowledge thus acquired, and he cannot be a loser 
thereby, but, on the contrary, will give evidence, in various 
ways, of the happy effects which this cultivation has pro- 
duced upon him. 

If, then, we would discharge the first duty which we 
owe to ourselves, let us invert the direction in which our 
eyes are wont to turn — for a while lose sight of all that is 
external to ourselves and survey the world within. Let 
us examine ourselves, study the philosophy of mind, and 
the philosophy of our moral feelings. In this manner we 
will come to know our capabilities and our obligations, the 
infinitely varied modes of action proper to our intellectual 
and moral nature, and the responsibilities which cannot be 
disregarded without doing violence to ourselves and to the 
relations in which God has placed us. Thus only can we 
fulfill the purpose of our being, and answer the design of 
our great Creator. 

It is not to be expected that the material mote that 
floats in the sunbeam, or that any one of the constituent 
atoms which form our globe, should be capable of analyz- 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



03 



ing their nature, or improving their condition ; neither can 
the insect or worm — but in a slight degree removed from 
inorganized matter — develop their natures beyond the lim- 
its assigned them, or possess any enlightened and available 
knowledge, either of themselves or the relations in which 
they are held to the material and spiritual world. Unin- 
telligent instinct is the highest law by which they are gov- 
erned, and no reasoning faculties can be exercised, either to 
control their movements, or contribute to their pleasure. 

But with man it is far otherwise. He has been made 
after the intelligent and moral image of God, takes rank 
with the highest orders of the intelligent creation, possess- 
es rare mental powers, and is capable of moral actions for 
which he is responsible to his moral Governor. By proper 
effort he can acquire self-knowledge, a knowledge of God, 
and a knowledge of all the relations he sustains in life, de- 
signed to modify and regulate his conduct, and creating 
those obligations which should uniformly command his 
most profound respect. For him, it is a shame that he 
should forget himself — that he should act out of character 
— that he should be unmindful and forgetful of his high 
dignity, and that he should have no regard to that which 
constitutes his superiority over the material and brute crea- 
tion. And such are the more inexcusable, because of their 
immediate proximity to the field which is to be explored. 
They are under no necessity of ascending up into heaven, 
or descending into the bowels of the death, or winging their 
flight to the extreme parts of the earth, in order to find the 
subject of their investigation. This is near at hand, truly, 
in their heart, and mind, and flesh. And this field invites 
the most diligent exploration. It is a field of surpassing- 
beauty, and of boundless extent. The objects presented to 
the eye are of great number and infinite variety ; and every 
one of these objects is of sufficient interest and importance 
to be made the subject of special and minute inquiry. The 
understanding, the judgment, the imagination, the memo- 
ry, the will, the conscience, and the affections — all go to 
make up the unit — soul, and, as far as may be, should be 
comprehended in their various functions and modes of ope- 
ration, as well as in whatever may be discovered as per- 
taining severally to their specific natures. Having ac- 
quired a knowledge of himself in the different departments 
of his being, there are other duties devolving upon man, 
based upon the knowledge thus acquired. These will form 
the subject of another article. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL 



BY THE JUNIOR EDITOR. 



CHAPTER III. 

" When thou haply seest 
Some rare, note-worthy object in thy travels, 
Make me partaker of thy happiness." — Siiakspeaee. 

Respected Senior: 

Mr last "Notes," sent from Hartford, were soon followed 
to New York by the writer in person, and, were it not for 
a little incident which occurred, I should be tempted to 
pen a glowing description of my passage from New Haven 
on the dancing waters of Long Island Sound ; but I closed 
my eyes soon after taking the boat, and forgot to open 
them again until startled by the outcry of the hackmen at 
the dock in New York. Here the glorious Fourth of July 
was rendered still more glorious by the warm greetings of 
friends, and in seeing the parades and sights of Gotham. 



But time — that first foe, aud last friend of mankind — at 
length began to hang heavily, so I made a hasty trip to 
Newark, where I was welcomed by a host of enterprising 
stock -dealers who are now advertisers in this work ; but, a 
glance at the coach factories assured me that the people of 
Newark were more patriotic than their neighbors, and, be- 
ing informed that it would take a full week for this patriot- 
ism to evaporate, I took my departure in search of some 
town less infected with a desire for spending money. So 
my observations on the manufacturing interests of Newark 
are reserved, to be placed, with other matters of local inter- 
est, in a future chapter. 

The competition between the various railway and steam- 
boat conveyances makes traveling cheap at present with all 
but way passengers — the regular excursion rates to Buffalo 
and the Falls being $5, and to Albany $1. But, when one 
stops to do business by the way, it costs fully three times 
the advertised rates. 

But the Hudson river route being regarded as a proper 
one for canvassing, I concluded to try the iill-iows, experi- 
ment. This being a sleigh-making country, it was thought 
a sufficient guarantee that the workmen were not sufficient- 
ly independent to keep them out of town long. 

So, mounting the " lightning train" (of horse-cars) at the 
Chambers-st. station, I took my leave of New York, to gaze 
once more upon the beautiful towns that nestle among the 
gentle slopes and craggy heights of the Hudson. 

Halting at Tarrytown, I found crowds of fashionables ; 
but, alas for coach-making ! I was encouraged, however, 
by learning that Mr. Huntington, and also a Mr. Wright, 
who had lately come to town, intending to build work for 
the New York market, had hopes of brushing up a smart 
business this fall. 

At Sing Sing, the Acker and Carpenter establishments 
are doing a fine business, and some half a dozen other 
shops are doing something. But Peekskill, a few miles 
above, though a fine town, seems to be doing but little in 
carriage-making. 

Poughkeepsie stands foremost among the towns that line 
the east banks of the river from New York to Albany. At 
this point a club of some twenty-five or thirty subscribers 
was soon formed, and, after paying a visit to the large car- 
riage-band manufactory of Hannah & Storm, I took my 
departure, cheered by the kindness of both workmen and 
employers. 

When I had reached Rhinebeck I chanced to remember 
the kind face of Mr. Hermance, at Kingston, and, for the 
first time in my route, crossed the noble Hudson. Ron- 
dout, on the opposite bank of the river, presents quite a 
business-like appearance. Nearly every house on the 
main street is a whisky shop, and, as we moved slowly up 
the long hill, it was estimated by some of the passengers 
that not less than ninety-seven separate and distinct scents 
greeted our olfactories ! It was evidently no water-mg 
place ; so my inquisitiveness led me to ask a clerical gen- 
tleman, who sat opposite me, who he supposed their patrons 
were ? He happened to be acquainted there, and kindly 
informed me that it was their own families and the " float- 
ing population" — meaning the canal boatmen, I suppose. 
Kingston lies some two miles above Rondout, and a hand- 
somer or more agreeable place to sojourn in is not often 
found. Mr. Hermance, with his usual courtesy, " made me 
at home," and assisted me in taking a club of ten. But the 
afterpiece, which filled in the background of my visit, would 
have been laughable had it not bordered so closely upon 
the tragic. On my, way to the hotel, I dropped into a 



64 



THE NEW YORK C OACH -MAKER' S MAGAZINE. 



September. 



small shop, and, after making known my business, was lite- 
rally " blown up" by the proprietor, who, very Merritt-orv- 
ously, Volunteered to bark not only for himself but for some 
three or four of his workmen, who had (as he claimed) 
" been bitten by taking the last volume of the Western 
work," and since I had been its agent he was bound to 
give me " fits." I had previously come across two or three 
such instances in small country shops ; but I have general- 
ly found coolness and a straightforward explanation of my 
position and responsibility as an agent a sufficient antidote 
to such ravings ; but, in this instance, I saw that there was 
much less desire for understanding my past position and 
present objects than to fulfill a vow — so I was forced to sub- 
stitute the discretion of prudence for that of courtesy. 

At Hudson, I was assisted in taking up a fine club, at the 
establishment of Messrs. Burger & Kidney, by one of the 
proprietors. The other shops in the place were doing but 
little. 

At Albany, that veteran Coach-maker, Mr. Jas. Goold, 
received me very warmly, and permitted his foreman, Mr. 
Perry, to assist in taking a large club ; and Mr. Bush, the 
junior partner, laid the Magazine under many obligations 
for other favors. • 

Messrs. Long & Silsby also very kindly aided me in 
forming a club, as did the Messrs. Guardenier & Selkirk, 
and others. 

In West Troy, I was received and aided by our drafts- 
man, Mr. Richmond. Here I received a club of some 8 
or 9 ; but one of the proprietors felt a little kinkey, having 
(as he said) been . humbugged in 1856, with a similar pub- 
lication. He treated me very well, however, but ventured 
to suggest " that the Magazine might be a good thing (he 
had not looked at it), but that he considered it a money 
making affair." A crumb of consolation for the Senior. 

I mention these little offsets to our usual good luck, that 
the public may know just how the Magazine is received, 
what difficulties it has to encounter, and how different 
minds act upon the same thing. 

At East Troy, Mr. Lown promptly took a club of 11, 
and Mr. Chamberlain made up a proportionably large 
number, although some of his workmen were absent. 

This closed my trip on the Hudson river, and I was sur- 
prised to find business as good as it is, when I consider the 
vast number of sleighs stored away in every town which 
I visited. The panic of last winter and the slow return of 
trade have been sufficient to produce a stagnation of busi- 
ness in all quarters, but here the sleigh-making business is 
a main dependence, and the mild winter, without the 
panic, was of itself sufficient to throw thousands of dollars' 
worth of property back on their hands from the New York 
market, from which they can receive no profit before next 
winter. In the smaller towns, an open winter has done its 
work, but in the larger towns they do not seem to mind it, 
and all appear to be driving along finely. 

A bitter rivalry seems to exist between the business 
interests of Albany and Troy, but the "public crib" seems 
to be the greatest Hector that the Trojans have to encoun- 
ter in their struggle for business supremacy. 

The competition between the New York Central and 
New York and Erie Railroads furnishes a nice little trade 
at Albany, in the buying and selling of second-hand tick- 
ets, as the fare from Buffalo to Albany is considerably 
higher than it is all the way through to New York. Trav- 
elers take through tickets, and then sell thern for what 
they can get, in Albany. These are purchased by " out- 



siders," who furnish them to passengers from Albany to 
New York, at less than the regular rates charged by the 
Company. The free ticket gentlemen of the Albany 
dailies are making a great hue and cry about " ticket 
swindling," and the Company stamp their tickets "Good 
for one day only ;" but their agents dare not dishonor 
those little thrice-punched checks of deposit, though found 
in a third person's hands a month after. It is an ill wind 
that blows luck to no one. 

Traveling up the river, and stopping at intermediate 
points, is very pleasant, but not very profitable, as the 
most of those places are thronged with summer visitors 
from New York, who come armed with the full number of 
trunks used on a like occasion by the heroine of " Noth- 
ing to Wear," and determined, with the aid of fans, bathing- 
robes and ice, to "keep cool," at all hazards. But these 
wet weather hotels must make enough through the sum- 
mer to keep their owners from starving through the win- 
ter, so editors had better take a through ticket. T. 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Some general remarks concerning the construction of Egyptian chariot 
bodies — Hanging of the bow-case — Different branches of workmen employed 
in the manufacture of chariots delineated on the slabs, such as making the 
wheel, pole and other parts, and the trimming — Egyptian wheels lightly made, 
and defective— Why was the felloe bent and the wooden tire '■ worked out?" 
— Chariot binding — The manner in which the Egyptians harnessed their 
horses to a chariot. 



Labor omnia vincit 
Improbus, et duris urgens in rebus egestas ! 

Cicero. 

In our last chapter we were fortunately presented with 
a subject for elucidation which, we trust, has been both pro- 
fitable and instructive to the coach-maker as well as the 
general reader. In pursuing the subject still further, suffer 
us to remark that the chariots of Egypt were built ex- 
tremely light, especially the body, which was a painted 
frame-work, strengthened and ornamented with metal and 
leather binding, like many of those mentioned by Homer ; 
the bottom part rested on the axletree and lower extremity 
of the pole, which was itself inserted into the axle, or a socket 
attached to it ; and some chariots are shown by the monu- 
ments to have been inlaid with silver and gold, others paint- 
ed ; the latter, as might be expected, the most numerous, 
sixty-one of them being mentioned to nine of the former. The 
upper rim of its front was fastened to the pole by a couple 
of straps to steady it, and when the horses were taken out 
the pole was supported on a crutch, or the wooden figure 
of a man, representing a captive, or enemy, who was con- 
sidered fitted for this degrading office. 

The greater portion of the sides and the whole of the 
back were open ; the latter, indeed, entirely so, without 
any frame-work above. The hinder part of the lateral 
frame-work of the body of a chariot commenced nearly in 
a line with the centre of the wheel, and rising perpen- 
dicularly, or very slightly inclining backwards, from the 
base of the car, extended with a curve, at the height of 
about two feet and a half, to the front, serving as well for 
a safeguard to the driver as a support for his quiver and 
bow-case. To strengthen it, three thongs of leather were 
attached to each side, and an upright piece of wood con- 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



65 



nected it with the base of the front part im- 
mediately above the pole, where the straps be- 
fore mentioned were fastened. The bow-case 
was frequently richly ornamented with the 
figure of some animal, or other device, and 
was placed in an inclined position, pointing 
in a forward direction, with its upper edge 
immediately below the flexible frame-work 
of the chariot, so that when the bow was 
drawn out, the leather covering fell down- 
wards, and left the upper part on an uninter- 
rupted level. In battle, this was of course a 
matter of no importance ; but in the city, where the bow-case 
was considered an elegant part of the ornamental hangings 
of a car, and continued to be attached to it, they paid some 
attention to the position and fall of the pendant cover, de- 
prived, as it there was, of its bow ; for the civilized state 
of Egyptian society required the absence of all arms, ex- 
cept when in actual service. The quivers and spear-cases 
were suspended in a contrary direction, pointing backwards; 
sometimes an additional quiver was attached, close to the 
bow-case, with a mace and other arms, and every war-cha- 
riot, containing two men, had the same number of bows. 





BENDING THE TIMBER FOR A WAR-CHARIOT. 



Above we give a representation of the process of manu- 
facturing the different parts of a war-chariot, which is rep- 
resented by the wheels, having six spokes figured therein, 
hanging upon the walls. Also a representation of the man- 
ner of dressing up the stuff, &c. The position taken by 
the man sitting down would subject any journeyman car- 
riage-maker to the liability of immediate discharge in our 
time, and justly, too, as he is the personification of laziness. 




RIMMING A WHEEL, AIDED BY STEAM. 



This "masterly inactivity" is still more evident in the 
next figure, where two men are at work, probably rimming 
a wheel, while on the walls are suspended other parts of 
a chariot, in process of construction. 



MAKING THE POLE AND OTHER PARTS OF THE CHARIOT. 

In this last figure we see a still further illustration of the 
ancient craftsmen at work upon a pole, sawing the timber 
— yokes, &c, hanging up in the shop — and the workmen at 
their labors, which, as in the preceding engravings, serve 
to show that the principal workmen were accustomed to 
perform their labors in a sitting posture. In this latter 
shop they are pleasure-carriagc-makers, which is shown by 
a four-spoked wheel hanging on the wall. Having said 
thus much concerning the body, &c, we may make some 
general reflections regarding the wheels. 

It must be admitted that, 
when compared with the pro- 
ductions of more modern 
times, they were weak and 
inefficient. As in our speci- 
men on page 42, the war- 
chariots of Egypt appear to 
have had six spokes in each 
wheel, but we have observed 
that in the private carriages 
of that same country they 
are represented with only 
four. We account for this 
by supposing that in war, 
where success depended in 
a great measure upon the 
stability of the chariot, a stronger wheel was desirable 
than in a vehicle wholly designed for domestic purposes. 
These spokes, too, appear to have been made dispropor- 
tionably light at the " tang," so that they must necessa- 
rily soon have "given out." This was evidently fore- 
seen, and in order to be, as our friend Windust would say 
— "Nunquam non paratus" — always prepared for an emer- 
gency, precautionary measures are resorted to, to provide 
against the dangers attendant upon an acci- 
dent, and for securing the safety of the king's 
life. For this purpose an extra chariot was 
always taken along when on an expedition, or 
going into battle, so that, should one give 
out, he would have a second at hand, into 
which lie could mount and thus secure his 
personal safety. 

There is one very singular feature about the 
wheel illustrated in our last chapter, and that 
is, that whilst the rim proper appears to have 
been bent, the tire was " worked out" from 
a solid piece of wood. As has been previously 
observed, on account of its scarcity, wood was 
a very valuable article among the ancient Egyptians, and ex- 
cept for some special reason the ancient chariot-maker would 
not have wasted his stock in " working out" his tire instead 
of bending it. This stock had to be all imported, great 



66 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



Septem ber. 



quantities of it from Syria; and rare woods formed a part 
of the tribute imposed upon foreign nations. So highly 
were some descriptions of wood appreciated for ornament- 
al purposes, that painted imitations were made for the 
poorer classes who could not afford the real article, and 
the doors, windows and panels of houses, boxes and 
various kinds of wood-work, were frequently of cheap deal 
or sycamore, stained to resemble the rarest foreign woods. 
In view of these facts, we infer that the Egyptians had 
found from experience that a bent wooden tire was not as 
durable as a worked one, and that the waste in timber was 
more than compensated for, in the advantages gained for 
their wheels. 

The workmanship of the wheel illustrated in our last 
number, although, when contrasted with the productions 
of modern times, rather rude, still was very creditable 
to Egyptian ingenuity, and proves to us that they were 
far in advance of their Asiatic rivals in this particular 
branch of the arts. This will be more plainly manifest 
when we come to consider the Assyrian chariot in a future 
number. 




BINDING OR TRIMMING A CHARIOT BODY. 

In the ornamental trappings, hangings, and binding of 
the frame-work and cases, leather was principally used, 
dyed of various hues, and afterwards adorned with metal 
edges and studs. The Egyptians themselves have not failed 
to point out what parts were the peculiar province' of the 
wood-workman and of the trimmer, and, lest it should not 
be sufficiently evident that the trimmer was engaged in 
cutting and bending the leather for this purpose, the artist 
has distinctly pointed out the nature of the substance em- 
ployed, by representing an entire skin and the soles of a 
pair of shoes or sandals, suspended in the shop ; and we 
find a semi-circular knife used by the Egyptians to cut 
leather, precisely similar to our own, even in the remote 
age of King Amunoph II., who lived fourteen centuries 
before our era. 

The harness of curricles and war-chariots was nearly 
similar ; and the pole in either case was supported on a 
curved yoke fixed to its extremity by a strong pin, and 
bound with straps or thongs of leather. The yoke, resting 
on a small, well-padded saddle, was firmly fitted into a 
groove of metal ; and the saddle, placed upon the horse's 
withers, and furnished with girths and a breast-band, was 
surmounted by an ornamental knob, and in front of it a 
small hook secured the bearing-rein. The other reins 
passed through a thong or ring at the side of the saddle 
and thence over the projecting extremity of the yoke ; and 
the same thong secured the girths, and even appears to 
have been attached to them. 

In the war-chariots, a large ball, placed upon a shaft, 
projected above the saddle, which was either intended to 



give a greater power to the driver, by enabling him to 
draw the reins over a groove in its centre, or was added 
solely for an ornamental purpose, like the fancy head- 
dresses of the horses, and fixed to the yoke immediately 
above the centre of the saddle, or rather to the head of a 
pin which connected the yoke to the pole. 

The traces were single, one only on the inner side of 
each horse, fastened to the lower part of the pole, and thence 
extending to the saddle ; but no exterior trace was considered 
necessary, and no provision was made for attaching it to 
the car. Indeed, the yoke sufficed for all the purposes of 
draught, as well as for backing the chariot; and, being fixed 
to the saddle, it kept the horses at the same distance and in 
the same relative position, and prevented their breaking- 
outwards from the line of draught. 

On important occasions the Egyptian horses were 
dressed out with fancy ornaments ; a rich striped or check- 
ered housing, trimmed with a broad border and large 
pendant tassels, covered the whole body ; and two or more 
feathers inserted in lions' heads, or some other device of 
gold, formed a crest upon the summit of the head-stall. 
But this display was confined to the chariots of the mon- 
arch, or the military chiefs ; and it was thought sufficient 
in the harness of other cars, and in the town curricle, to 
adorn the bridles with rosettes, which resemble those used in 
some countries at the present time. S. 



SOMETHING ABOUT WHEELS — THEORETICAL 
AND PRACTICAL." 

(FIRST ARTICLE.) 

Being somewhat practical in the business of making- 
wheels, and, withal, a close observer of the wear and tear 
of the article in city and country, we feel ourself qualified 
to speak advisedly on this subject. At the outset, we 
premise that although others may differ from us in some 
respects, yet it must be conceded in this, that the first and 
most important thing in manufacturing wheels is to have 
"the stuff" of good quality and well-seasoned. Without 
such stock, we can never reasonably expect to give satis- 
faction to the public. 

We do not expect in this series of articles to do away 
with the instruction the employer engages to give his 
apprentices, nor do we expect to teach every old and prac- 
tical hand the whole art of wheel-making, but, should we 
succeed in throwing such light upon this subject, as shall 
in any way promote the production of a better class of 
wheels, we shall feel very much gratified, for, as has been 
justly said, should the wheels fail, the whole carriage must 
be condemned. The wheels of a vehicle are the parts 
which, if any, should receive the largest share of pains in 
their manufacture, and the material should have at least 
twelve months to season in, before it is worked. We shall 
begin with 

THE SPOKES. 

Not many years since, as every old wheelwright remem- 
bers, every wheel-maker was obliged to get his spokes out 
by hand, and a toilsome and laborious job it was ; a task 
which the workman of the present day scarcely realizes. 
Now they come to us " ready dressed," and we have but 
little labor left to do in preparing them for driving. This 
circumstance, in a measure, will excuse us from unnecessarily 
entering into any further remarks about getting them 
ready, but, as silence upon this point might be construed 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



67 



into a lack of completeness in the treatment of onr sub- 
j >ct, we are induced to be more minute than we otherwise 
;-liould. 

We shall, then — supposing it to be some cold and frosty 
morning in December — take you into "the woods," with 
axe, cross-cut saw, and beetle and wedges, prepared to fell 
tlie stubborn oak, whose now leafless branches have with- 
stood the tempest and the storm for scores of years, and 
might for a century longer, would you only sjjare that tree. 
Into the woods, did I say ? Let me qualify the invitation — 
into that open field where a loamy soil, the free air and 
sunlight influence have contributed to toughen the fibres 
and perfect the growth of the " solitary," whose branches 
have lodged the songsters and shaded the overheated 
cattle of many summers. But why do you speak of oak 
particularly ? Because we are now looking after timber 
for a business or heavy wagon, which demands it, as prefer- 
able to all other. Having found what we want, and felled 
it — with a saw, if possible, as the part nearest the earth is 
the most valuable for our purpose — and cut it up into 
proper lengths, let us go to work and split it into the 
requisite size for our spokes. A little care is necessary at 
this juncture, to avoid getting our spokes out so that they 
come under the term denominated "bastard." To illus- 
trate our meaning, and at the same time to instruct the 
reader, let me present you with the accompanying diagram. 

Fig. a is an end view of 
a section of log laid out to 
be rendered into spokes by 
splitting. 

Fig. b designates a trian- 
gular piece of the above log. 

1, 2, 3, represent pieces 
marked out for three spokes 
respectively. 

4 represents a " bastard" 
laid out spoke, which some 
blockhead, who " knows 
enough without taking our 
Magazine," is supposed to have done. 

The spoke got out in this latter way is very liable 
to split under pressure, when made into'a wheel, and should 
therefore be rejected, and will be by the mechanic who 
understands his business thoroughly. This kind of spoke 
is frequently found among those supplied us by the vender, 
who is a better farmer than mechanic. After these 
" spokes in the rough" are riven, we recommend that they 
be piled — technically," stuck up" — under some shed, open to 
the air, crosswise, until they are well seasoned and fit for use. 

Before we " work" these oak spokes and while they are 
seasoning under our shed yonder, we will visit the merchant 
who deals in the " ready turned," and make an extempore 
speech on spokes in general, and hickory spokes in particu- 
lar. The most popidar timber for wagon and cart spokes 
in America was formerly the oak. Twenty years ago such 
a thing as a hickory spoke was not even thought of. Its 
liability to perish under the weather's influence would have 
been thought a sufficient reason for discarding them al- 
together. And so it would be judged of now, did not 
modern lightness of build require a wood of stiff quality, 
and modern taste and neatness demand a yearly repainting, 
which serves to preserve the spoke from the decay to 
which it would otherwise be liable. 

In our experience we have often found a spoke inclining 
to bend when perhaps its neighbor stood as " stiff as a rail." 




How many times has the smith been blamed for this very 
thing after having hooped the wheels, when, if the truth 
was known, he was " more sinned against than sinning" — 
it being the wheel-maker's fault. Some description of 
hickory is very much inclined, as the stick is bent, to 
retain a crooked position. By proving every spoke, by 
taking it by the ends and resting its centre on the vice 
and pressing your weight thereon, such spokes are readily 
detected and should be condemned as unfit for good wheels. 
By so rejecting them, you avoid the vexation and trouble of 
being obliged to take off the tire, putting in a new spoke 
and resetting the tire, and thereby adding additional costs 
to the manufacturer and probable injury to the wheel. 

To all such as would have good work, we advise pur- 
chasing the " extra" article, as the difference in the costs 
(say half a cent each,) is more than saved in the difference 
between the spokes rejected in the " extra" and " ordinary," 
respectively, in assorting, when you come to use them. 

Having selected the best spokes ready dressed, the next 
thing is to clean them off, and fit the tenon for the mortise 
in the hub. Formerly, when a wheel was considered the 
better the more it dished, it was customary to make these 
tenons very tapering edgewise. Such a form is very prone 
to cause a wheel to " dish" forward. Under a hoop tire it 
would not be tolerated at all, and it would only do under 
a stroke tire, as formerly. Recently, the fault has been in 
that we have not given our tenons as much taper as the 
requirements of durability demanded, so that our wheels, 
made too straight at first, have dished backwards after- 
wards, and no subsequent doctoring has ever served to cure 
the mechanical defects arising therefrom. We think, after 
experimenting many years, that, for all light carriage 
wheels, one-sixteenth (large) of an inch taper is amply 
sufficient for any tenon, and this tenon should be driven 
into a mortise so formed as that the more it is driven the 
harder it presses at the point, edgewise. Spokes that are 
properly driven, and are tightest at the bottom of the 
mortise, will never " work" in the hub, and are conse- 
quently very durable, and satisfactory to a purchaser. We 
are happy to find that the craft are improving in this 
respect, and that our light wheels of this day are found 
answering all the purposes the most particular and nice 
customer can reasonably ask. 

We have never seen used " spokes of chestnut, resem- 
bling the chestnut of France," which, our Parisian cotem- 
porary tells us, our " Oriental" neighbors of New Orleans 
are in the habit of putting in their work, and consequently 
cannot say how they would answer, but leave them to 
refute the slander, if such it be ; for which purpose we offer 
any knight of the quill, who desires a tilt with our Gallic 
friend, the free use of our columns. More anon. S. 



The Saw and the Saucer. — " I come for the saw, sir," 
said an urchin. " What saucer ?" " Why, the saw, sir, 
that you borrowed," replied the urchin. " I borrowed no 
saucer." " Sure you did, sir — borrowed our saw, sir." 
" Be off, I never saw your saucer !" " But you did, sir — 
there's the saw, sir, now, sir." "O, you want the saw /" 

" His Little Failings." — " My James is a very good 
boy," said an old lady, " but he has little failings ; for none 
of us are perfect. He threw the cat in the fire, flung his 
grandfather's wig into the cistern, put his daddy's powder- 
horn in the stove, tied the coffee-pot to Jowler's tail ; but 
these are childish follies — he's an excellent boy, after all." 



68 



THE-NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



September. 



%\z f)mu CirxLe. 



For Ihe New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 
"LOOK BACK!" 



BY MISS LAURA GROSVENOR, OF TERRB HACTE, INDIANA. 



Can the shadow deep, that resteth on thy brow, be flung by care? 
No ! methinks it must have fallen from the dark curls clustering there. 
Fling them back ! Ah, still it lingers ! Now, my happy task shall be 
To dispel the gloom that gathers, ! my sister-friend, o'er thee. 

Thou dost remember the April morn, when leaf and flower-bud swelling, 

And gushing song of bright-hued birds had lured us from our dwelling, 

Within the city's dust and din, and turmoil and confusioD, 

To find upon the wood-crowned hills some hours of sweet seclusion. 

/ had not thought to wander far, but thou, my friend, wast leading, 

So cheerfully I walked with thee— time, distance, all unheeding. 

And thou didst choose the hillside road, where, care-free and light-hearted, 

We two had wandered, hand in hand, full oft in years departed. 

We gathered flowers just where they grew so fair in the olden time, 

And wove beneath familiar shade, not only wreaths, but rhyme; 

Watching a craft come speeding down " The Beautiful River's" tide, 

We said, "O'er Time's fast-flowing stream thus rapidly we glide." 

Forgotten now our simple rhymes — our flowers have lost their glow, 

Just like the beautiful hopes that seemed so bright to us years ago ; 

But those rosy wreaths, like the garlands of Hope, we twined in Life's young day, 

Had each a mission which each fulfilled— then passed in its sweetness away. 

As thou didst lead me then along that old familiar road, 

Beside which, in resistless tide, a thousand memories flowed, 

Didst gather flowers whose perfume sweet refreshed us on our way. 

So /would lead thy steps along that shining track to-day. 

From one hill's high summit gazing, seemed another still more fair , 

Quick we crossed the vale dividing— climbed— and stood in triumph there. 

From the brooklet in the valley rose to us a joyous strain, 

Music we had loved in childhood ! should it call to us in vain ? 

Spoke we then in chorus, " Never shall a voice unheeded be, 

That from out the Past can summon back my early youth to me. 

Even now my cheek is flushing as with childhood's rosy glow" — 

By the brook already standing, to its waters bent we low. 

'Twere a weary task recounting all the winding paths we trod, 

As with light, unwearied footsteps gaily flew we o'er the sod. 

But we saw, upon emerging from the shadow of the wood, 

" Cloudy pillars" in the distance, marking where the city stood; 

Marking where the many thousands toiled in weariness for life, 

And another day would find us busy in that scene of strife. 

Then our hearts within us sickened, faltering grew our steps and slow, 

Path so rough as that seemed to us, may our future lives ne'er show. 

Dark and heavy clouds hung o'er us, boding that a storm was nigh, 

But the hill-tops glowed in sunlight— 'twas, you know, an April sky. 

Spoke one then unto the other, "Though above the storm-cloud lowers, 

Let us not forget that sunshine gladdened all the morning hours ; 

Even now 'tis glancing brightly over all our distant track, 

Lighting up those darkened valleys, sister mine, look back ! look back .'" 

" Sure," we thought, " to mortal vision ne'er was given fairer sight," 

As we stood within the shadow, looking back, upon the light. 

Then with hearts refreshed and cheerful, all our weariness forgot, 

Walked we on beneath the shadow, but its gloom we heeded not. 

And we vowed unto each other, as we homeward bent our way, 

From the Future's light or darkness, to " look back" upon that day. 

There are moments in life when the Future appears 

To offer but sorrow— the Present, but tears. 

Is there one has not proved it so ? happy is he ! 

They have often been ours, and aoain may be. 
! then, let us turn us in gladness away 
From the dark-tinted Future— the clouded To-Day, 
To the picture that gleams from the Past on our sight, 
And, standing in shadow, " look back" on the light. 



Just the Right Age. — Marriageable young women are 
in good demand out West. A Yankee, writing from that 
section to his father, recently, says : " Suppose you get our 
girls some new teeth and send them out." 

After getting the girls read}'", the father writes to his 
son, to let him know that they are coming, and says : 

" With their new teeth, and in their new rigs, you would 
not know them. They appear to be only about eighteen." 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

CHARLES ARCHIBALD HENDERSON; 

OR, 

THE SUCCESSFUL INVENTOR. 



(Concluded from page 50.) 



CHAPTER III. 

" The love of gold, that meanest rage, 
And latest folly of man's sinking age, 
Which, rarely venturing in the van of life, 
While nobler passions wage their heated strife, 
Comes skulking last, with selfishness and fear, 
And dies collecting lumber in the rear." 

Moore. 

The moonlight of midsummer shone peacefully down on 
the dark figure of Henderson, sitting in the deep recessed 
window of Leaf Cottage, and the light one of Nellie, stand- 
ing beside him, her white hand wandering playfully among 
the dark locks of his ebon hair, lifting here and there, and 
pulling out a thread of silver. " In thy hair the almond- 
blossoms whiten." " Yes, Nellie, my hair is gray, but not 
with years," and a deep sigh escaped him. Nellie looked 
at him ; she had never seen him so dejected. " What is it, 
Archie? What makes you so sad to-night ?" "Nothing, 
dearest ; at least, nothing that you could help or I would 
tell you." " Bo tell !" He looked at her innocent face in 
its sweet repose ; he could not bear to disturb its tranquillity 
with his trials, so he only answered, " Hope deferred." 
" The machine ? — cannot you succeed with that ? Do tell 
me," and she looked coaxingly into his eyes. " No, Nellie, 
1 cannot succeed ; for the second time I am disappointed." 
"Why?" He hesitated. Nellie urged. "This time the 
means are wanting." " Could you not borrow, could you 
not obtain them in any way ?" " No, Nellie, I have no 
credit, no friends." " Archie !" was the low, reproachful 
response. He drew her on his knee, gathered her to his 
heart, bent low over her nestling head in silence. When 
he raised his head, tears glistened among the bright curls 
of her chestnut hair. " Mother and I, Archie ! what 
are we, then ?" " You are my other self, your mother and 
mine — for she will be mine — is a widow. But don't dis- 
tress yourself, clearest, I shall only have to work and wait 
longer, that's all. Time, patience and labor are necessary. 
I had hoped to remain here (he felt her start, and a tremor 
went through his own frame,) till I could finish my machine, 
but I paid out my board and doctor's bill to-day, and I 
find that I have little more than enough left to pay my 
fare to a neighboring city, whither I must go and work, 
probably — a — year — (no Nellie ! oh ! do not start from me,) 
before — before I can obtain means for its successful accom- 
plishment. It is the idea of this separation," and he held 
the little form now shaking in his arms closer to him, 
" that presses so heavily upon me, together with the know- 
ledge that I have not yet, in spite of all my efforts, suc- 
ceeded so far with my machine as to warrant the certainty 
of success. I thought I had some time ago, but the part I 
depended on — the completing part — which, though made 
for another, I yet thought would fit this, has not come up 
to my expectations, and I am baffled again. Once, Nellie, 
in my home beyond the sea, where a mother as tender and 
devoted as yours cared for me, I conceived, planned, and, 
with the assistance of another, finished a machine like this 
under way now. That other was false ; he deceived me. 
I knew when I engaged with him that he was neither in- 
ventive nor ingenious, but he was a good workman, and I 
believed him true as a man. He had more means laid up 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



G9 



than I, for he ever strove to make money, hoarding up all 
that I expended for books or for my mother. He pro- 
fessed great friendship for me, even professed to have in- 
herited the old friendship of oar fathers ; so, after long- 
study, deep research, and patient investigation in my ardent 
desire to do something to benefit my kind, when at length 
I struck upon the right track, I took him into partnership. 
But for the angel the subsequent train of events has brought 
to bless me in my loneliness, I should be tempted to curse 
the day I did so. However, let me not anticipate. 

" I planned, arranged, commenced ; he assisted me to 
work out. It took three years of united labor, during the 
intervals of relaxation from a laborious trade, to complete 
that machine. I had no sort of doubt as to its success ; 
its value was intrinsic apart from the pecuniary profit that 
must necessarily accrue from its operation. It needed only 
to be tested to secure a welcome reception everywhere. 
Well, we worked on hopefully till it was finished. The 
night before it was to be taken away to the Patent-office, 
I returned to our little workshop, screwed off a small part 
and carried it home with me, intending to stamp my mo- 
ther's name (who* had gone home to Heaven in the mean 
time,) upon its surface. I did so, and when I went over 
with it early next morning, prepared to start for our jour- 
ney to London, my beautiful machine was gone ! lost to 
me forever ! My companion had absconded secretly in the 
night, taking it away with him. He was to have received 
half the profits in our agreement ; but this did not satisfy 
his sordid soul, he wanted all, as well as the credit of the 
invention. He was foiled, as he deserved to be, not by the 
merest chance, but by what would appear the smallest link 
in God's connecting chain of circumstances. The part left, 
though small, was important. He could not construct its 
counterpart, and upon this depended the movements of the 
mainspring of the machine. He had managed his flight 
with a cunning and precaution that for a time precluded all 
possibility of search. But I found his clue at last and 
traced it. I followed him to this country, to this village, 
but no further. I have lost the track here, and, despairing 
of discovering him, I determined to commence, while yet 
my means lasted, another exactly like it, as I thought; but 
there must be some slight discrepancy, or the part I brought 
with me would have answered. Well, I will not repine. 
But do you wonder that I feel again, at this moment, all 
the old heart-sickness that came over me that morning, 
when I found myself deceived, deserted, robbed ! The 
blow that struck me down then on the very pinnacle of 
success fell heavily, and, oh ! Nellie, I feel its weight now. 
I feel no strength, no life in me to get up and struggle on 
again. The idea of this separation, this long waiting and 
watching for the success that never comes, is terrible. I 
do not complain ; but, oh ! Nellie, the Almighty has 
dealt very bitterly with me." "Archie," interrupted Nellie, 
starting up suddenly, as if struck by a new thought, " there 
is a machine up in our garret, left here by a young man 
who came to us two or three years ago, when mother kept 
boarders, and died here, in the room overhead, of typhoid 
fever. Suppose we go up and look at it. Who knows but 
it might aid you with your machine ; at any rate, it is of no 
earthly use to us. The poor man's other effects were sold, 
and they scarcely realized enough to pay his funeral ex- 
penses ; but this machine was considered useless lumber 
and conveyed away to the garret, where it has remained 
ever since." She led him to the little west room in the 
garret, threw open the door, and, placing the light on the 



window ledge, removed the old strip of green baize that 
covered the machine, and commenced dusting it. Hender- 
son neither spoke nor moved, he stood transfixed before it. 
Nellie looked up inquiringly. How radiant his face ! the 
glad light of sudden joy shining all over it, his deep eyes 
glistening like stars. "My own invention!" broke out 
the deep, rejoicing voice. • " Nellie ! darling, it is my own, 
my very own ! Success, at last, thank God ! Success for 
you, for me, for mankind. Kiss me, dearest, I owe it to 
you, my precious darling; no separation now, forever and 
ever. Oh ! Nellie, this moment atones for all I have suf- 
fered ; my gentle, God-sent angel !" and Nellie was caught 
and strained to the triumphant heart, bounding in his deep 
chest, in an ecstasy of delight. 

CHAP. IV. 

" To tliem, his heart, his love, his griefs, were given ; 
But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven. 
As some tall eliff, that lifts its awful form. 
Swells from the vale and midway leaves the storm. 
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread, 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head." 

Goldsmith. 

I cannot follow Henderson, step by step, in his efforts to 
introduce his new invention. It would be too tedious, and, 
besides, it would make this chapter too long. I only know 
that it has succeeded to a charm, and I know also that, 
unlike a great many other inventors, he is reaping the well- 
earned reward of his success. Without defining, I leave 
my readers to conjecture as to the name of this invention of 
Henderson's, by saying, that his toils, anxieties and fears, 
have ended in bestowing upon the female branch of the 
human family an auxiliary, the value of which time alone 
can duly estimate. 

Our fair countrywomen cherish more real respect and 
admiration in their secret hearts for this one unpretending 
man, than for all the warrior heroes that ever tracked their 
way through Europe in blood and tears. This much, how- 
ever, I will say : in the centre of A stands a handsome 

two-story double house, handsomer by far than any about it, 
with its full length windows and pillared piazzas, standing 
as it does amidst flower-bloom and clustering vines, under 
magnificent maples. Sometimes, as I pass by in the morn- 
ings, I hear sweet young voices waking the stillness of the 
grounds with their innocent mirthfulness, and often in the 
quiet summer evenings, when all is hushed around, a lady's 
exquisite voice, accompanied by the piano, floats out through 
the open windows, ascends among the maples and echoes 
softly over the moonlit lake, and I know that the voice is 
Mrs. Chas. Henderson's, the sweetest voice in all the vil- 
lage — the sweetest, holiest voice, her husband thinks, he 
ever listened to, except the one now tuned to harmony with 
the golden harps of heaven. Chas. Henderson reverences 
the memory of his mother, and through her example he 
reverences women. What he now is he says she made him, 
for she ever taught him to pray to God to be guided in all 
things aright. She early taught him the whole duty of 
man : "To have a conscience void of offense toward God 
and toward man." She moulded his life to a purpose, 
and encouraged him to persevere till he accomplished that 
purpose, and he only regrets, in the depths of his affec- 
tionate heart, that she did not live to realize and enjoy his 
success. God bless the Christian mother ! the only mother 
who can train the young immortal spirit aright. 

But there is another mother in his beautiful home who 
almost worships him. A venerable, silver-haired lady who 
tells you with smiles in her eyes, as she gathers her grand- 



10 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



September. 



children about her, that the void in her heart left by the 
beloved ones gone before is filled up now, that she has no- 
thing more to wish for ; and it is evident that she rejoices 
in her children and grandchildren " with exceeding great 

Poverty could not degrade, neither has prosperity spoil- 
ed Henderson. He is the same tender, truthful, earnest- 
hearted man that walked up the main street one beauti- 
ful April evening more than fifteen years ago. Modest, 
unobtrusive, as when he sought the most obscure corner of 
the church to worship, only happy now, happy in having 
the means to do good. No beggar ever turns unrelieved 
away from his hospitable home, and every child of want, 
in our village, knows something of the good that flows 
freely from his invisible but effectual hand. Content to 
do good in a quiet way, he has constituted himself only 
the Roscoe of our little village, where free-schools, libra- 
ries, and mutual improvement associations have already 
sprung up and become established. Capable of spreading 
good seed broadcast over the land, if he were less diffident, 
he has concentrated his efforts here with us at A , 



shedding the sunshine of his large, liberal and loving spirit 
over us all like a blessing. 

There is only one thing connected with him that the 

people of A— do not like, and that is the most distant 

allusion to the time of the stranger's first appearance among 
them. They have profited by the lesson taught them, and 
are willing to follow, if need be, the example of the good 
old patriarch in the plains of Mamre. The once lonely 
and neglected stranger has become the great man of the 

village, and there is not a man, woman or child in A 

who does not feel honored and exalted by the acknowl- 
edged friendship of Charles Archibald Henderson. 

f m illustrations ti \\t $ rafts. 

THE WOOSTEREE. 
Illustrated on Plate XII. 
Seeing a vehicle of this description always fills our 
mind with reminiscences of the period when the writer, as 
Shakspeare has it, " was a whining schoolboy, with his 
satchel and shining morning face, creeping, like a snail, un- 
willingly to school," (except the unwillingly, to which we 
plead not guilty) trying to learn " how to shoot" — of those 
earlier days, when, among those pleasant hills and pic- 
turesque dales which abound in the " land of steady 
habits," we spent the sunshine of our life. We recollect 
well the sensations we experienced as Squire Tacklethem 
or Deacon Stuckup, or "uncle Joe and aunt Molly" rolled 
past us in "a cheer," on the way to or from "meeting ;" 
and how, with others, we, a poor boy, were left to " go hum" 
on Shanks' mare, wondering in our own mind if we should 
ever be able to keep a carriage. But, 

" Qui fit, ut nemo conlentus vivat f" 

This old, time-honored chaise, anciently called a " cheer," 
which is peculiarly American, unlike many other favorites 
of a former day, although gone into disuse somewhat, is 
still found, with some modifications, in Boston and some 



other towns of that old commonwealth, Massachusetts, and 
among some few of her descendants in the scattered towns 
of other States of this Union, where pill-venders flourish. 
For the purpose of nursing this antiquated respect and love 
for the old vehicle, the article we illustrate has been gotten 
up, it being simply " the old cheer" with a newly-formed 
body, accommodated to the prevailing taste for a light 
style of work. Our draft is taken from " a Woosteree " — 
the propriety of the name with us is questionable — manu- 
factured by Mr. David Daly, Brooklyn, N. Y., by one of 
the editors of this Magazine. 

The light construction of the body is a great improve- 
ment over the old form, which was not only heavy in ap- 
pearance, but was actually so in weight. As our draft is 
about the thing, and this style of carriage not difficult to 
build, we need not go into unnecessary details, further than 
to state, that the "Boston-springs" and the shafts are best 
made from lance-wood. Indeed, we do not consider that 
any other wood is a fit substitute for it. 



the hearse. 

Illustrated on Plate XIII. 

From an original design by Joseph Ikting, Bridgeport, Conn. 

This is an original draft from the pencil of our friend, 
Mr. Joseph Irving — not James, as the compositor made us 
say in our last number — who accompanies his sketch with 
the following remarks : 

"A hearse, above all things, is one of the most unpleasant 
jobs a coach-maker can have anything to do with, since it 
puts one in a very reflective mood when he sits down to 
design and study out a carriage which is to give him his 
last ride, provided he leaves the dimes behind to pay for it, 
on this side of the grave. With feelings of the above 
nature, I give you a hasty sketch of one with a round 
front. Too much carving and ornamental work on a job 
of this kind, I think, is quite inappropriate. The glass 
frames can be put in from the outside, and, if fastened with 
silver-headed screws, it would make a very good finish. 
As the undertaker generally gives the dimensions, as to 
depth, width, and length of the body when he orders one, 
and, as every customer has his peculiar ideas as to taste, 
&c, I need not enter more minutely into details. I could 
get up a much cheaper design, if required." 

We have in our portfolio another fine draft of a hearse, 
designed by our friend, Mr. Bush, of the respectable firm 
of Jas. Goold & Co., of Albany, N. Y., which it will give us 
great pleasure to present to the public in an early num- 
ber of this work. 



For the N. Y. Coach-maker's Magazine. 

CALASH COACH. 

Illustrated on Plate XIV. 

Messrs. Editors — The accompanying design of a Calash 
coach possesses a few original points, in connection with 
the style, which are not very common. The bracket 
front, supported by a carved brake and standard, gives it a 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



71 



very rich appearance. This front-brake is almost indispens- 
able, since it receives the pressure and straining of the 
fifth-wheel, without injury to the bracket-front, which is 
supported by a light stay. For the front seat-irons I would 
suggest the following plan : Get a large, malleable iron 
collar and drill holes to suit the irons ; then screw the 
irons into them tight, and afterwards bend and shape them 
as required. The collars turned and plated would give 
them a very finished look. The scroll work on the top of 
the shutter frames is intended to be open, with glass in 
the side, the object being to lessen the depth of the glass 
in appearance. The body can be made to swell back, above 
the arm scroll. 

Joseph Irving. 
Bridgeport, Conn., Aug. 3d, 1858. 



$ 



%'dtks from tfje %M. 



THE CLIP KING-BOLT. 

We imagine we hear, at least, a baker's dozen ask, in a 
single voice, what do you mean by a clip king-bolt ? Well, 
we mean just what we say; and, to show you what we mean 
by the term, we have, for your gratification, had the thing 
engraved and presented to you for inspectiou. 
It is intended to supply the place of the old- 
fashioned king-bolt in buggies and light work 
generally, for which purpose, as a substitute, it 
answers well, as it does not require a hole 
through the bed or axle, which has always cut 
away and weakened our axles just where the 
greatest strength is required. With this ar- 
rangement no transom-plate is necessary, as the 
lower or clip-end, c, with the clip-yoke, en- 
circles the axle, when the nuts are turned 
up, with great firmness. The bolt at b passes 
through both the head-block and its plate, 
and at a is continued through the central bolt 
of the lower half of the front spring, above which it is secured 
by a nut, as seen in the figure. The whole makes one of 
the neatest couplings for the " cramp," or turning part of 
a vehicle, we have ever seen. Messrs. Stivers & Smith, of 
this city, are the first to adopt this plan, we understand, and 
we are glad to find " that any man is free to use this princi- 
ple" without the danger of being sued for infringement of a 
patent. That which greatly recommends this plan over all 
others is, that it is never liable to rattle, and should it ever 
get loose it could easily be tightened, by screwing up the 
nuts at either end of the clip. Precaution should be 
taken, when the front is coupled, to rivet the end of the 
bolt over this nut above the spring, otherwise the nut 
might possibly work off by continual turning of the car- 
riage. 

JH3T" Should our friends be in want of bituminous coal for 
their forges, they will find the article, at extremely low prices, 
at Messrs. Felter & Bromley's. See their advertisement. 



THE SUSSEX IRONSTONE. 

Among the many strange industrial revolutions which 
have taken place in Great Britain within the last century, 
from the increased development of our coal-fields, and the 
application of machinery to manufactures, none is more 
remarkable — although perhaps less known — than the ex- 
tinction of the iron manufactures of Sussex, which, in the 
16th and lVth centuries, was foremost among the English 
counties producing that metal. 

The strata containing the beds of iron from which the 
ore was raised in that county is the lowest formation of the 
cretaceous system — the " Hastings sands" of geologists. In 
mineral character they are principally siliceous sand- 
stones, with occasional beds of clay and marl : their super- 
ficial extent is enormous, as may be seen by referring to 
any geological map — stretching from Kent across the entire 
length of Sussex into Hampshire. The whole of the east- 
ern half of this track is ferruginous. 

In the sixteenth century the iron-making of this dis- 
trict was at its height. In 1543, the first ordnance ever 
manufactured in England was cast at Buxted by Ralph 
Hogge. The site of his furnace, corrupted into " Huggett's 
furnace," by which name it is yet known, can even now be 
readily traced ; and the following distich is preserved by 
the peasantry : 

" Master Hugget and his man John, 
They did make the first cannon." 

Writing of this County, Camden says, " It is full of iron 
mines everywhere, for the casting of which there are fur- 
naces up and down that country, and abundance of wood 
is yearly spent; many streams are drawn into one channel, 
and a great deal of meadow land is turned into ponds and 
pools for the driving of mills by the flashes ; while beating 
with hammers upon the iron fills the neighborhood round 

about night and day with their noise The 

proprietors of the mines by casting of cannon and other 
things get a great deal of money." Fuller, in his " Worthies 
of Sussex," observes that " it is almost incredible how 
many great guns are made of the iron of this county. 
Count Gondomar (the celebrated Spaniard) well knew their 
goodness, w T hen of King James he so often begged the boon 
to transport them." 

Judging from the remains of the furnaces and forges 
still traceable, the extent of this iron-producing county was 
really immense. It stretches south from near Tunbridge 
Wells to Beckley, within four miles of the sea of Rye, and 
also to within about an equal distance of Hastings ; and 
west from the parish of Goudhurst, in Kent, to the very 
centre of Sussex. In almost every valley throughout this 
large area there are remains of the former iron industry. 
Large heaps of slag — locally called " cinders" — are. every- 
where met with, although of late years their bulk has 
been rapidly decreasing, from their being found to make 
excellent road stuff, which is very scarce in Sussex, the 
roads having to be generally repaired with the " Kentish 
rag." In Mayfield parish, on the road from Bibleham 
forge to the village of Mayfield, the road for some miles is 
made of imperfectly smelted slag; and large masses of 
"cinder," heavy with iron — stones weighing one to two 
hundred weight — are continually seen by the roadside and 
in hedges. In scores of valleys the remains of the old 
ponds and their embankments can be easily traced ; sev- 
eral of these old sites of forges are now being used as corn- 
mills — for instance, the well-known Gloucester furnace, in 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



September. 



the parish of Lamberhurst, near Tunbridge Wells, so 
called from a visit paid it by Queen Anne and the Duke of 
(Gloucester, celebrated for having been the place where the 
iron railing now round St. Paul's Cathedral was cast. I 
have altogether traced the remains of nineteen forges and 
furnaces in various parts of this district ; * and I by no 
means suppose that I have at all succeeded in tracing any- 
thing like the whole of those that originally existed. 

In many of the old social remains fhere are also several 
curious evidences of the former seat of an iron district. 
The tablets in the churches and the gravestones in the 
churchyards are constantly formed of ponderous cast-iron 
masses; and huge iron utensils are often to be observed 
about the old farm-houses. The names of places, too, pre- 
serve the memory of these past works, and often guide us 
in discovering their ancient sites : scarcely a parish in the 
district but has several names made up of "furnace," 
" forge," and " cinder" — as Forge Farm, Furnace Wood, 
Cinder Bottom, &c. 

The stone from which this iron was manufactured seems 
principally to have been a spathose ore, or an altered spa- 
those ore, where the carbonate of iron has been converted 
into a hydrated peroxide. The percentage of thjs class of 
ore seems to be very good, some which I tried producing 
as much as fifty per cent. : a fair average would seem to 
range from twenty-five per cent, to forty per cent. Other 
classes of ores have also probably been used, for clay iron- 
stone is often found, although, as far as I personally ob- 
served, generally poor ; and siliceous ores occur in other 
places. But the spathose ore is certainly that most valu- 
able — indeed, as far as I can judge, it seems the only stone 
existing in sufficiently compact bodies to be worked to 
profit. 

That large bodies of this class of ironstone do exist in 
East Sussex is beyond all doubt ; but whether they can 
be worked to profit is a question not yet ascertained, 
though the probabilities all seem to show that they can. 
The Tunbridge and Hastings branch of the South East- 
ern Railway runs through the heart of the district, con- 
necting it on the north and south with the ports of Whit- 
stable and Rye. The former port seems to offer consider- 
able advantages for forwarding the stone to the iron dis- 
tricts of the north on moderate terms ; inasmuch as colliers 
from these districts annually bring into it about 300,000 
tons of coal for the supply of the counties of Kent and 
Sussex, who have now to return in ballast. Rye and Strood 
also import large quantities of coals from iron-making 
counties, and have no return cargoes. There can conse- 
quently be scarcely a doubt that from either of those ports 
the stone might be shipped to an inexhaustible market, at 
almost nominal freights. 

The- question is certainly one of very great interest, both 
to the land-owners of the county and to the iron-masters. 
The Weald of Sussex is peopled by a large and poor 
population, pressing heavily upon the rates for support 
even at the best of times ; and the opening of such a field 
of industry among them would be an incalculable relief to 
the whole district. It is unnecessary to point out the im- 
portance which the development of such a field for the 
supply of ironstone would be to our iron-makers. — The 
Pick and Gad, an English pub. 



" Industry must prosper," as the man said when hold- 
ing the baby for his wife to chop wood. 



|}aint %m> 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

ON VARNISHING. 

Sugar Branch, [nd., July, 1858. 

Messrs. Editors : — As your columns a#e open to all 
who may feel disposed to contribute, I thought I would 
write a few lines on the subject of varnishing. Although 
a great deal has already been written both on varnish- 
making and varnishing, and although the subject has been 
the study of years, yet there are fully one-fourth of the 
coach-painters to-day who are as careless about the kind of 
varnish they use as if all they cared for was to get a job 
done,- and out of the way, and they get their pay. Now, 
this is all wrong as carriages are things which are more 
exposed to wind and weather than anything else on which 
varnish is put. 

To find out the best mode of making varnishes suitable 
for carriage work has been the theme and study of men's 
lives, therefore, coach-painters should be more particular in 
selecting their varnish, and use none but a good article. 
They should buy it at some respectable manufactory where 
they warrant it, and then, should it not prove as represented, 
they may return it. 

There are a great many coach-painters who are as igno- 
rant of the spreading of varnish as a hog is of glory. If 
their varnish is a little old, or becomes thick from cold, 
they will thin it with turpentine ; this is also wrong. 
Varnish, when it is chilled, should be warmed before it is 
used, and the paint-room should be kept well warmed 
during cold weather, or else it will be impossible to do any- 
thing like a decent job. If your varnish is too thick, from 
age, just add about a spoonful of raw linseed oil to a pint 
of varnish. This will make it work more free, and it will 
not set so quickly as when used without the oil. Now, if 
you are using old coach varnish, No. 2, it will set so 
quick that it will almost pull the bristles out of your brush. 
To remedy this, just add the oil, and you will find the 
difficulty removed and the gloss more brilliant, and, besides, 
it will last longer than if it had not been used at all. 
Having already extended these remarks too far, I will now 
close for the present, and at some future period will give 
you my mode of finishing a body. 

George P. Tinker. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

STRIPING. 

Tube colors should always be used for striping ; the act- 
ual difference in the cost is nothing, when the time spent 
in grinding dry colors is taken into consideration. Use 
sugar of lead for dryer ; you can get it put up in tubes like 
your colors. In striping white, a very little Prussian blue 
or chrome green mixed with it will make it cover much 
better, and, when on, will not materially alter the tint. 
A white stripe, unless well covered and neatly done, looks 
very shabby, more so than any other. Never put white on 
green or brown ! Blue, red, or white, looks well on black, 
orange, purple, or flesh-color, on brown, and for dark 
green, any light tint of the same color, four parts yellow 
and one part blue, for instance. 

In striping carriage parts, try to preserve a uniformity 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



73 



of design on every part. If you do the springs in " squares," 
put squares on the axles and spring-bars, and if you com- 
m 'iice with fancy designs finish in the same manner ; it 
]<> »fes bad to have part of a job covered with " flub-dubs" 
a : I the balance of it plain. Always aim at neatness and 
d -patch ; it is a vitiated taste that admires glaring and 
e iborately twisted striping daubed over the entire surface 
o. a carriage. • 

PUTTS". 

In mixing this very necessary compound, use equal parts 
of white and red lead; the latter is of itself a powerful dry- 
er, consequently, it will not require so much japan to dry 
the putty. It will work easier, is not so apt to swell or 
shrink, and will adhere to the wood with greater tenacity 
than if mixed in the ordinary manner. 

VARNISH BRUSHES. 

Many painters still persist in using the old-fashioned 
round or oval brushes for varnishing bodies ; to all such 
we earnestly recommend a trial of flat ones. With them, 
varnish can be put on more evenly — can be "laid off" 
better and quicker, and with less risk of running. You can 
get them of sizes to suit all kinds of work. For English, 
or any light finishing varnish, that does not set quickly, 
badger hair is preferable; bristles, however, will answer for 
all purposes. 

WORTH KNOWING. 

After sandpapering work preparatory to applying the 
color, it will be found more than worth the trouble to rub 
the surface thoroughly with a handful of curled hair ; it 
removes lead and dust that would otherwise adhere, and 
adds additional smoothness to the surface. Try it ! 

NEATNESS AND ORDER. 

The paint-shop should always be kept as clean as the 
parlor of a tidy house-keeper. Dirt engenders laziness and 
carelessness. Keep a good supply of brooms on hand and 
use them every morning. Have everything in order 
about your bench. Arrange your cups nicely on the 
shelves. See to your stone, pallet knives and paint-mill, 
that they are clean. Attend to your brushes, observe that 
they are submerged in the water sufficiently to keep them 
from getting hard. Have an eye to your pencils, colors, 
varnish, tools, &c; all this care is absolutely necessary, to 
guard against the ignorance or negligence of apprentices — 
not all of them, however, for I have seen those who were 
patterns of neatness and order. 

ORNAMENTING. 

As much light on the subject of ornamenting will, doubt- 
less, be shed through the columns of this Magazine, it may 
be well, by way of preparation, to enumerate, for the 
benefit of beginners, the various tools, colors and utensils, 
used by ornamenters. Every painter is, no doubt, familiar 
with the peculiar shape of the artist's pallet, so we will 
only say that it is necessary to have one, together with two 
small tin cups to fasten on it, as receptacles for oil and tur- 
pentine ; these can be procured at any painters' furnishing 
establishment. The pallet rests on the thumb of the left 
hand, leaving the fingers free to grasp the. rest-stick. The 
next thing in order is the pallet-knife or spatula ; this 
should be of steel or ivory, blade about six inches long 
and one in width. Then come the pencils ! For small 
panel-ornaments camel hair is preferable ; it covers better, 
and is easier to manage than sable. Such is our experience, 



at least ; but it may be, after all, a mere matter of choice. 
A quarter of an inch is long enough for pencils to be used 
on fine work, such as crests, animals, &c. Select those 
having fine points and free from ragged hair ; for the lights 
and the most minute parts of your work, cut them down 
to less than half the original thickness. Have separate 
pencils for every tint employed. Use handles (or holders) 
at least eight inches long, you will have more freedom with 
your wrist than with short ones. When done with your 
work, clean your pencils thoroughly in turpentine, dry them 
with a piece of muslin, and grease the hair with fresh lard 
or tallow, always drawing them to a point between your 
finger and thumb. 

We will now proceed to enumerate the colors usually 
employed in ornamenting ; always get " tube colors," they 
are sold by color-men and druggists generally. These colors 
are fine in quality and well ground ; they are as follows : 



Flake or Crimnitz White 
Chrome Yellow, No. 1. 
Chrome Yellow, No. 2. 
Orange Yellow. 
Indian Red. 
Vermilion. 
Raw Umber. 
Burnt Umber. 
Permanent Blue. 
Ivory Black. 
Vandyke Brown. 
Yellow Ochre. 



King's Yellow. 
Naples Yellow. 
Roman Ochre. 
Chrome Green. 
Emerald Green. 
Distilled Verdigris. 
Raw Sienna. 
Burnt Sienna. 
Prussian Blue. 
Crimson Lake. 
Scarlet Lake. 
Asphaltum. 
Sugar of Lead. 



The last of these is a dryer, and may'be mixed with any 
color. Asphaltum, emerald green and distilled verdigris 
are transparent colors, and are only used for " glazing," that 
is, for imparting additional depth or brilliancy to parts 
where it is needed. Glazing is applied after the colors 
are dry ; being, as before stated, transparent, the lights and 
shades show through, the one with a subdued lustre, and 
the other with increased depth. This process adds much 
to the beauty of a design, as it imparts an artistic finish 
and tone to work that would otherwise look very common. 
A correct knowledge of the laws of light and shade is, how- 
ever, necessary, in order to " glaze" successfully. 

Asphaltum is also used for shading gold-leaf work — it 
makes a rich brownish tint. In using it for this purpose, 
use turpentine to thin with. Gold leaf, when shaded in 
this manner, can be stained a rich crimson, with lake, or 
a brilliant green, with distilled verdigris. Allow the as- 
phaltum to dry before you apply the lake or verdigris. 

Jas. Scott. 



A NEW EDITION OF THE JUNE NUMBER. 

Notwithstanding our expectations, that the fraternity 
would require a large edition of the "New York Coach- 
maker's Magazine" to supply their wants, and that we 
thought we had commenced with enough to meet all re- 
quirements, we found out, very soon, that we mast actually 
reset and print another edition, which labor, at considera- 
ble expense, we have had performed, so that now we are 
able, we trust, to meet any further orders. But, as delays 
may disappoint you in getting a complete set, we advise all 
who intend to have this work to send in their orders imme- 
diately, as we may not ever print a third edition. 



74 



tup: new york coach -maker's magazine. 



September 



Crimmiitj ^loom. 



GEOMETRY of carriage tops. 



M. G. TOUSLEY, OF NEW YORK, CONTRIBUTOR. 



In consequence of the author's more general connection 
with this work, he had hoped to have avoided the labor of 
department writing, for the present, at least, having secured 
the aid of several able contributors to furnish department 
matter alternately; thus giving our readers the benefit of a 
new writer every month. But his absence from the office 
on an extended tour among the craft prevents him from 
arranging contributions, and the impatience of patrons 
for the immediate commencement of the square-rule series, 
has contributed to hasten his appearance as a department 
writer. The same variety of authorship, which has char- 
acterized the preceding numbers, will again be resumed 
upon his return. In the interval, contributors will continue 
to send their department matter to the office without wait- 
ing for a second or even a first invitation, that it may all 
come to hand in time to be arranged and corrected for the 
press at the first opportunity. This scries is intended as 
an accompaniment for the forthcoming lessons on " Geo- 
metry of Carriage Architecture ;" hence the name, " Geo- 
metry of Carriage Tops." 




FOUR FEET RULE (TO HALF-INCH SCALE) FOR MEASURING ROWS, ETC. 

UOTIT WAGON TOPS. 




DIAGRAM FOR SETTING ROWS AND CALCULATING TOP WORK. — SKELE- 
TON NO. 1, THE SQUARE. 

So far as the simple operation of top-setting is concerned, 
the length of bows, &c, can be obtained about as correctly 
from a scale-draft as from one of the full size. But, for 
carrying out the rule on the entire top, a full-sized draft is 
much more convenient. The pupil will then proceed to 
draw a full-sized draft upon the wall or door of the trim- 
ming-room — height of square, three feet nine nches; width, 
say three feet six inches, or the usual width of ordinary 
tops. After the square of the scale is drawn, the next 
move is to lay off the drop of the back and front bow, by 
measuring from the top down, say four and a half or five 
inches. The lines are crossed at the back and front, as 
indicated, which gives the points from which the sweep is 
drawn. 




SKELETON NO. 



-OBTAINING THE SWEEP. 



The sweep of the top is th en drawn from the points in- 
dicated on the first square, by attaching a piece of twine 
at a pivot point sufficiently low to bring the curve inside of 
the square. 




1J1K 1'iMSHED SCALE. 



The curve must then be divided into three or four equal 
spaces, to indicate the points from which to measure in 
taking the length of the bows. A horizontal line is then 
drawn, some five or five and a half inches from the seat 
line, and from six to seven inches in length. This is laid 
off into inches, commencing two inches from the back line, 
and the spaces numbered, commencing with number two 
to indicate the inches. The numbered spaces are intended 
to determine the pitch of the back quarter ; as, by looking 
at the pitch of the rest-back, one can easily determine the 
proper figure to choose. The draft is noxo finished. 

This simple scale will last as long as the wall upon which 
it is drawn remains, and will answer upon which to calcu- 
late any light top, no matter Avhat its shape or proportions 
may be. The pivOt point upon which the bow slats set can 
be located by taking its distance from the seat line, and 
from the back of the arm. rail ; and that once determined, 
by sticking an awl in the ceiling at the proper place, the 
precise measure of each bow can be taken in an instant. 

To alter the shape or size of the top, or to vary it in any 
manner from the proportion of the draft, can be done at 
a glance, by the free hand and a piece of chalk, wdiich will 
rub off without difficulty. 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



APPLICATION OF THE SCALE IN MEASURING BOWS. 

We will suppose that a stick seat is sent to the trim- 
ming room (we hope that it is only a supposition, but some 
trimmers do set bows, and all should understand it, theo- 
retically at least, so we will proceed) ; the first point is, to 
glance at the pitch of the rest-back ; it stands about plumb 
with the rail ; so the least amount of pitch in the back 
quarter will make it stand clear. Three inches will answer. 
If the rest-back had plumbed back of the rail, we should 
have added at the rate of an inch for every one-fourth of 
an inch that it stood back ; commencing, however, at two 
or two and a half inches, did the back stand more straight, 
as on a tight seat. But the law of proportion must be 
regarded, and, on seats which flare back, still more than 
this — four inches — would have been chosen, instead of three. 
The top is, however, a large cne ; at least, of good size — 
three feet six inches — so a half inch may be added on that 
account. 

A glance at the seat has shown that three inches will 
give sufficient pitch to the back quarter to clear the rest- 
back, and accord with the general appearance of the seat; 
a half inch has been given for the size of the top. We will 
now place an awl, at three and a half inches pitch, on the 
scale. 




A CALCULATION OF THE LENGTH OF THE BOWS, ETC. 

The pivot is sixteen inches from the back of the seat ; a 
corresponding dot is made on the scale ; but, upon meas- 
uring from the seat-bottom up, we find that it is seven 
inches. An awl is then stuck at the real pivot point. Each 
bow can now be measured. 




FIVE-BOW TOP. 



The above draft explains itself. The four-bow top has 
been calculated, and all traces of it wiped from the scale on 



the wall, save the hole made by the awl in locating the 
pivot; a new pivot centre has been determined; some 
slight chalk dots made at the top, and a five-bow top 
m easured. 

The next chapter will illustrate a new way of measuring 
bows, by which they can be attached to the slats much 
quicker and more handily than by the ordinary process. 



€\}t fte fork Coarjf-maker'a Hajajine. 

SEPTEMBER 1, 1858. 



E. M. STEATTON & M. G. TOUSLEY, Editors. 



TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

A Special Notice. — Our friends would oblige us very much, 
if, when they send us moneys in payment for club subscriptions^ 
they would forward us a draft, payable to the order of the pub- 
lisher, on some banking-house in this city. We do not feel like 
trusting the cash to thehonesty of a certain description of clerks 
in a department where such carelessness is shown as under our 
present P. 0. arrangements. We have recently lost two large 
sums, and nobody knows where they are gone to. Where the sum 
is merely three dollars, the risk is not so much, as the tempta- 
tion to steal is not so great ; yet even in that case it is better to 
get your letter registered, as that proves that you have remitted 
to us. In such cases we consider ourselves in honor bound to 
furnish the Magazine— not otherwise, should subscriptions be 
lost. 

" S. N., op Mass."— If you want " a good Hub-borer," we can 
recommend that of the Messrs. Dole, Silver & Felch, which we 
can supply at manufacturers' prices. See advertisement. 

" R. A., of Va."— Should you intend to compete for the next 
quarterly ornamental plate in November, you can gather, from an 
inspection of those in plate XL, as to the character of what we 
require. We have several now on hand, sent in by correspond- 
ents, such as enormous lions, eagles, and other fishes, which are 
more suited to the broadside of an omnibus than to the orna- 
menting of pleasure carriages. 

" N. J., of New Haven." — You will find your wishes antici- 
pated, as to scale drafting, in this number. Mr. Irving, we trust, 
will make the matter so plain, that you " will be able to make 
your own drafts, if necessary." We thank you for your dupli- 
cate subscription " to our most worthy Mag." 

"E. H, of Wilmington, Del."— Of course it will be neces- 
sary to reduce your drafts from f to i in. scale, as our deter- 
mination to have ours all uniform is very much like the laws of 
the ancient Medes and Persians — unchangeable. To the ques- 
tion, "if, after my designs are complete, will copies taken off 
on tracing-paper answer ?" we say, yes. 

" F. R., of ." — We do not know. That veracious, but 

dingy-looking, "abortion" has cried itself to death, for all we 
know. A copy cannot be found by us in all these " diggins." 
We judge that it has lost its vitality at the hands of its wet- 
nurse. We know this much, that its " family relations" have 
most of them cut stick. 

_ "J. N. B., of Ala." — We publish no charts for gratuitous 
distribution. The charts we get up are a separate affair ; see 
terms in this number. If you get us up a club, as stated at 
page 17, you will be entitled to that gratuity. 

" F. S., of Ga." — There are a great many like yourself, con- 
stantly writing for the information we only give where corre- 
spondents are regular subscribers to this Magazine. Besides, we 
expect those writing on their own business to enclose a stamped 
envelope. 



16 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



September. 



THE SALE OF PATENTS. 

The patent laws of the United States were, no doubt, 
intended for a good purpose — for the protection of genius, 
and the nourishment of art. But designing men and un- 
principled officials are fast bringing the whole system of 
Governmental protection into disrepute. The original ob- 
ject has been lost sight of, and the term " new" has 
eclipsed the idea of useful. 

The main idea which seems to predominate among the 
sharp-eyed gentlemen of the Patent Office is, to gain funds 
for the General Government, but still to regulate the course 
of such erratic bodies as come within the sphere of their at- 
traction, so as to prevent them from coming in contact with 
each other (as a rule of honor among themselves, and to- 
wards the department) ; but, at the same time, to cut, slash, 
and coufuse outsiders as much as they please. 

So every hair-brained aspirant, who can bring anything 
new to the Patent Office, and accompany the model with 
the thirty pieces of silver, *can have his name enrolled 
upon the Government archives, as a benefactor worthy of 
a place on the same scroll that contains the names of Frank- 
lin, Fulton, Morse, and other men who have benefited 
their race. The smallest hook upon which to hang an 
excuse — the addition of some peculiarly-shaped block, 
pivot, or hinge, or the application of some old principle to 
a new use — the smallest and most insignificant alteration, 
either for better or worse — often constitute "a substantial 
novelty," (?) which is designated by a Government seal ; 
long rigmaroles of explanatory specifications are then made 
out, and the real point upon which the patent rests twisted 
in so skillfully, that, with the aid of a nomenclature (more 
curious than definite), the public are deceived, mystified, 
and humbugged. This evil is becoming worse every day, 
and the community have become sick and tired of such 
annoyances. It is urged, that the General Government 
must float its navies, supply its postal deficits, pay its offi- 
cers, and make its grants ; and that it can only look to the 
sale of public lands, the Patent Office, and its port duties, 
as revenues, for supplying the funds for carrying out its 
objects. 

But, can the Government find no way to meet its de- 
mands, other than by feeding upon the delusions of its 
willing victims, and by sending a hungry pack of unprin- 
cipled men to prey upon community for the license fee of 
a patent entry ? If not, its present course will soon cut 
off that source of profit ; for an outraged public are already 
beginning to regard the very name of a "patent vendor" 
with loathing and disgust. 

There are now in the field no less than from three to 
four hundred patents in the various departments of the car- 
riage-making business ! and, of that number, more than 
two-thirds are not only a curse to their oivners, but a bur- 
lesque upon the intelligence of the age. This class of invent- 



ors are but little better than lunatics, and should be pitied 
and protected, rather than despoiled by Government. 
And every useless novelty, thus issued, tends to render the 
other third unsalable and profitless. But that which ren- 
ders this matter still worse is the cheapness with which 
editorial favors are purchased and sold by unprincipled 
scribblers for the mechanical press. Patent agencies, "big 
strikes," and patent copartnerships are fast becoming iden- 
tified with the publishing of mechanical works. Blowing 
has been so much resorted to that we would suggest the 
appropriateness of a huge pair of bellows as a figure-head 
to the columns of a patent-puffing cotemporary, and a re- 
spectable" silence, or a more perfect study of practical coach- 
making, on the part of the " Scientific American" of 
this city. We have been no less amused than disgusted' 
with its fulsome laudations of various carriage-patents 
which its own descriptions have shown to be worthless. 
Fortunately, however, for the craft, the number of coach- 
makers who have a chance to be either injured or disgust- 
ed by it are comparatively few. 

Perhaps no two things have produced so bad an effect 
upon the confidence of the community as this, coupled with 
the ignorance and lack of qualification among our higher 
officials. Thus, ignorance, stupidity and recklessness are 
fast rendering Governmental protection as worthless as it 
is cheap, and nothing short of a higher standard of judg- 
ment, on the part of the Patent Office, and a higher grade 
of honesty and consideration on the part of the press, can 
save the whole system from being regarded as a nuisance, 
or give to genuine improvements and worthy men that 
influence and respect to which they are entitled. But, in 
the absence of these, the public must double their vigil- 
ance. Specifications should be critically examined, that 
the purchaser may know whether the real point upon 
which the patent rests, when stripped of its superfluous 
claims, is solid or ivorthless. They must also be on their 
guard against " bogus agents." Lord Byron says, " that 
he once had his pockets picked by the civilest looking gen- 
tleman that he ever met." It will also be well for agents, 
not only to arm themselves with proper documents, but pro- 
duce satisfactory evidence, and have their names announced 
through the " Magazine" before starting out to form the 
acquaintance of the craft. In our travels, we meet daily 
with victims who have been swindled by some one whose 
name and whereabouts are of an uncertain character. 

It must also be remembered, that the law, in its protec- 
tion of patents, makes them to cover ridiculously broad 
grounds. The sale of a " shop-right," to simply manufac- 
ture and sell an article, gives the customer, thus purchasing, 
no right to use or convey away the same. So, it is necessa- 
ry to be empowered to convey the right to use, and to trans- 
fer that right with the sale of the article, either upon the 
basis of a territorial or general grant. If this is not done, 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



11 



every man, who unlaiofully uses even an article which is 
lawfully made, lays himself liable to the annoyance of a 
suit for damages, should some other person, holding an 
interest in the same, be disposed to take advantage of 
them. The ruling in this case is, that a carriage is a 
machine — not the production of a patent, but the duplicate 
of a patent model. 

If a man purchase the right to use a labor-saving ma- 
chine, he has no motive for the purchase of territory, unless 
he wishes to monopolize its use in a certain section of coun- 
try ; for the productions of that machine are not different 
in character from the same article elsewhere manufactured ; 
so he may sell of its products to whom and in whatsoever 
section of country he pleases. But the man who has the 
right to manufacture and sell those machines must also be 
able to transfer the right to use them in a certain territory, 
or his customers are liable to a suit for damages. 

A patent, attached to any part of a carriage, comes 
under the same rule ; hence, purchasers should protect 
themselves in these points, and see that it is definitely spe- 
cified, and in a legal manner — that the sale of each model 
shall be understood as also conveying a right to use and 
transfer the same, and, then, let the responsibility of clash- 
ing interests fall back upon the original owner of the 
patent, in the form of suits for fraud or damage. By this 
it will be seen, that no good titles of territory can be made 
further than as a protection against competition in the 
manufacture of articles thus protected, without bringing 
trouble to the original holder of the patent. Hence, all 
dealers in rights to manufacture transferable machines must 
be cautious how they grant exclusive rights to manufacture 
and use within certain restricted limits ; for, when they 
commence to sell in that way, there is no safety in selling 
otherwise in that region ; and a patent thus sold (if legal- 
ly regarded) is but a plague and annoyance to both the pur- 
chaser and his patrons. The only way in which a dealer 
can sell carriage-patents with safety to himself and benefit 
to carriage-makers is, to sell shop or territorial rights to 
manufacture, accompanied with legal authority to transfer 
the right to use the same, to all who may purchase carriages 
thus constructed and manufactured, or caused to be manu- 
factured, by him ; at the same time, limiting the number of 
carriages to be constructed upon that plan per year, or 
otherwise specifying the amount of business to be done. 

Any man, who sells a carriage-patent differently, dam- 
ages, not only his own business, but the interests of car- 
riage-making generally ; and any man who purchases a 
patent-right in any other manner than the one advised — 
if a reader of this work — will do so in the face of our warn- 
ing, and at his own peril. If not a subscriber, he may find, 
to his sorrow, that, in saving a pitiful sum, he has missed 
ten dollars' worth of good, honest, legal advice, which, if 
known in time, would have saved him ten times that 
amount in time and money. 



In the meanwhile, those, who may have patents which 
are really useful, had better get them examined by some 
competent judge — such as the first-class carriage-makers 
may have confidence in — so that they may come before 
the craft in a proper shape. But, those who only have a 
worthless patent had better sneak off with their trash to 
the one-horse wagou-making shops, bordering upon the 
outer verge of civilization, where the " New York Coach- 
maker's Magazine" has not yet penetrated ; but mind, if 
they are caught at such dirty work, they will be visited 
with such an exposure as will bring them to their senses. 



TO DRAFTSMEN. 

It is supposed to be well known that, in different sec- 
tions of this country, the same style of a carriage may 
vary in its width of track from four feet up to five feet 
four inches. This is all wrong, and we intend to say some- 
thing desperate (/) about it, when our editorial indignation 
becomes sufficiently intensified; but, for the present, we 
must treat matters as we find them, and not as they should 
be. The diversity of tracks which afflicts " Uncle Sam's" 
domain not only proves a source of annoyance to manufac- 
turers and dealers, but in many instances (if proper care is 
not taken) affords a rich ground for misunderstandings to 
spring up on, between artists and patrons in a work like 
this. 

When the width of the track and the width of the body, 
at the point where the wheel turns under, are each plainly 
stated, it furnishes a key to the whole draft ; otherwise it 
is left to be guessed at, and generally misunderstood ; for 
there is no way in which a side view can be made to indi- 
cate these points very correctly. Yet we are sorry to say, 
that even our best and most practical designers have thus 
far neglected, when sending in their drafts, to accompany 
them with any important explanations, either as to their 
side sweep, the "set under" of standing pillars, width of 
track, width of front ; or whether the pivot of the platform 
wheel is a central or eccentric one. These are too important 
to be omitted. A work, in order to become standard, must 
finish each part, so as to make the subject complete within 
itself. The more simple details of elementary knowledge 
are, of course, unimportant ; but when an attempt is made 
to delineate shapes and proportions, any superficial or half- 
way work reflects discredit upon both its author and 
patron. 

It is our intention to render this Magazine a standard 
work — a book of working models — and, to do this, no point 
which is necessary to complete the description, in an author- 
like manner, should be omitted. We have conversed with 
some of our artists about this matter, and given all the 
necessary directions, and now we announce it to others, 
that all may understand what is required of them. 

Draftsmen cannot well be too explicit in delineating the 



18 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



September. 



peculiarities of their designs ; for some excellent mechanics, 
in their own way, are very thick-headed in understanding 
the descriptions of others. The cares of business, and a 
thousand local interests, are constantly pressing with weight 
upon the brains of both workmen and employers, warping 
their minds and preventing them from taking a compre- 
hensive view of things. When a draft comes to hand, if it 
pleases their eye, they proceed to copy, and build from the 
scale, without inquiring or caring what width of track, etc., 
is used in the section where it is drafted, unless it is labeled 
almost across the face of the draft; and should the appli- 
cation of a different scale of proportions vary the " turn 
under" of the wheel, or the location of the step, the draft 
is set down as unscientific in its delineation, and the Maga- 
zine as an unsafe guide to follow. Others (who ought to 
know better) show off their " scientific knowledge of draft- 
ing" by testing drafts, and showing the lesser satellites of 
the shop how such and such ones would bring the wheel 
into contact with the step, or strike too far back, in 



turning. 



We received a letter a few days since from an expe- 
rienced scale draftsman, gravely informing us that a certain 
draft was wrong; that "the top was too high ; that the 
joints did not shut down below the line ; that the wear- 
iron was too far back, and that the step would interfere 
with the front wheel." The top was correct to scale, but, 
showing no ground plan, it looked too high in the picture. 
The joints, it is true, did not shut down below the line — 
that, however, was a small matter ; but the two last objec- 
tions were correct or incorrect, according to the track that 
was applied. 

Will our artists co-operate with us in placing their pro- 
ductions before the public in such a manner as to avoid 
even the smallest criticism, and make them to command 
respect, by accompanying them with such explanations as 
are necessary to meet the last quibble, and force their tech- 
nical merit to be acknowledged and understood by all ? If 
so, let them study minuteness of execution, and completeness 
of explanation, in even the minor points. 

Our work has, even at the present time, a very general 
circulation in all sections of the United States and Canadas, 
and a limited circulation in Europe. Everything which 
appears on its plates of design is critically examined by the 
best masters in the New and the Old World, and but few 
of that vast multitude can know or calculate upon local 
differences, further than what they can see in the book 
itself. 

Our draftsmen will, therefore, please bear the following 
rules in mind, when drafting for this Magazine. In the 
first place, we would suggest that the use of a specified 
width of track by all draftsmen would do much towards 
the adoption of a uniform width throughout the country ; 
and believing, also, that narrow tracks are but the relics of 
days gone by, we would further suggest the propriety of 



adopting a liberal width — say four feet eight inches, or five 
feet ; but, in all cases, state the width of both track and 
body; also the depth of the side sweep; the "set under" 
of the standing pillar; the style of the pivot wheel ; if a 
heavy job, whether central or eccentric; if the latter, how 
far it couples back or forward, and accompany it with a 
draft for the department, if no similar platform arrangement 
has been illustrated, which can be referred to ; if a light 
wagon, either allude to, or illustrate the style of its car- 
riage-part and fifth-wheel arrangement, if necessarv. In 
some instances, the sweeps of the body might be placed 
below the base line on which the wheels rest. But we 
should be pleased to receive a regular draft of each heavy 
job, with geometrical sweeps applied, for inserting, with 
the explanations, in our " Pen Illustrations of the Drafts." 

Our artists will also please to remember that we have 
mechanical departments, which are intended for the explana- 
tion of the plates, as well as for the suggestion of incidental 
facts and instructions. If any part of the ironing, painting, 
or trimming' is worthy of remark, or in any manner pecu- 
liar, either draft or explain it, that we may place it in its 
proper department, as explanatory matter, numbered the 
same as the draft. 

We hope that our draftsmen will heed the above direc- 
tions; for, should they fail to do so, it will put us to the 
trouble of writing a letter of inquiry, and, perhaps, result 
in the return of the draft. We do this, both for your good 
and our own. 



We find that after leaving out several important 
Editorials, still the crow T ded state of our columns obliges 
us to defer Mr. Groot's second article on Wheels, and Mr. 
Campbell's third letter on Coach Carving, designed for this 
number, until our next issue. 

» -*> ♦ m » 

For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

ON SCALE DRAFTING, AS APPLICABLE TO 
CARRIAGES. 



BY JOSEPH IRVING, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In announcing a series of articles on scale drafting, I wish 
to make a few remarks on a similar course, undertaken in 
the March No. of the Western Magazine for 1857. The 
preparatory instructions there given were necessary for 
beginners, and I was in hope to see it continued ; but it 
died out in the July issue with the 4th No., for reasons 
best known to the publisher and author, whereby hangs a 
tale which I think I could unfold, because caught in a 
similar dilemma myself, along with others who had the 
misfortune to be led away by that " tall editor's" promises. 
But I am digressing, and I ask forgiveness for my allusions 
to the fellow in this respectable work. 

I do not presume to write for, or to offer instructions to 
those who have been as long at the business as myself — 
these have had equal privileges ; but if I can succeed in 
conveying my ideas in writing, sufficiently clear and intelli- 
gible to those commencing the trade, so that they may 
master the art, my object will be gained. 



September. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



79 



I know that there are many disadvantages in trying to 
learn by this method, but then perseverance will overcome 
every difficulty, and the cheapness of the method is an 
object now-a-days. I shall have to be extremely plain and 
commonplace in all my instructions, avoiding all learned 
phrases, as we must not and cannot call it a science, nor 
can we with propriety avoid all unintelligible technicali- 
ties. Should there be a similarity in the commencement 
of mine to those commenced in a former publication, you 
must not accuse me of plagiarism, as I despise such, ad- 
mitting that that was correct, as far as it went. I would 
also state here that anything not made sufficiently plain, so 
as to be readily understood, by asking me through the post 
for the desired information, I will reply in the next issue 
of this Magazine, in its columns of answers to corre- 
spondents. 

I must first prepare you, by letting you know what is 
required in the shape of tools. You will need a drawing- 
board of f- whitewood, or pine, about sixteen inches square, 
and raised behind, like a desk, about two inches; a T 
square, long enough to cross the board ; a sheet of Bristol 
board drawing-paper, cut into pieces — 7 by 4^ inches is 
large enough for | inch scale drafting — four drawing pins 
to secure the paper to the board ; a No. 3 Faber pencil — 
[artists in New York use No. 4. — Ed.] — a cake of india 
ink; a small piece of india rubber; a number of small 
sweeps and curves, of all shapes and patterns, which you 
can make yourself. I do not approve of the curves which 
are sold at the shops; they are notsuited to carriage drafting. 
The best way will be to get a fine-grained piece of rose- 
wood veneer of the proper thickness — that is, very 
thin — and cut out a variety of crooks, curves, and ogees, of 
different sizes, and rub the edges smooth with fine sand- 
paper, and be sure and rub off the corners, else you will be 
troubled when you come to use your pen, as the corners 
are apt to draw the ink and blot your paper. 

THE INSTRUMENTS. 

It is quite unnecessary to have a large case of mathema- 
tical instruments. Sometimes they can be had in cases to 
suit. You will want 

First : Avery essential thing, a proper scale-rule, which 
yoa must be very particular to see is marked twelve 
inches to the foot, i.e., the standard half-inch divided into 
twelve equal parts, as they are often divided into tenths 
for French measurements. This can be had separately for 
from SO cts. up to $1 — the choice between box-wood and 
ivory. 

Secmdly : A parallel rule, costing, as above, from 50 cts. 
to#L 

Thirdly : A drawing pen, worth from 38 cts. to $1.25, 
aecordiaag to the quality. 

Fourthly : A compass with pen, pencil, and lengthening 
rod, worth from 88 cts. to $1.75, according to the length. 

Fifthly : A compass for small circles, costing from |1 
up to $2. 

Sixthly : A pair of hair dividers, costing $2. 

All the above articles will be purchased by the publisher 
of this Magazine, separately or together, and sent as di- 
rected, either by express or mail, or as otherwise instructed, 
when the order is accompanied by the cash. It will be the 
cheapest m the end to get good instruments — a complete 
set will cost, say $10. I shall commence the first lesson 
in the next issue. 



MORE OF WHAT THE PRESS SAYS OF OUR 
MAGAZINE. 

From The Printer for July. 

CoAcn-MAKEK's Magazine. — We have received the second 
number (for July,) of a monthly periodical devoted to the in- 
terests of coach and carriage builders, published in this city by 
E. M. Stratton. It is in quarto form, containing twenty pages 
besides the cover, and is well filled with useful and interesting 
matter appropriate to the main objects of the magazine. It is 
illustrated with numerous fine engravings. The present num- 
ber contains two styles of Jump-seat Buggy, a French (Boguet) 
Buggy, a new Rochelle or Jagger Wagon, a Dog-cart, and a 
Calash Coach. The whole magazine is very neatly got up, and 
in that respect approaches nearer to our own Printer than any- 
thing we have seen for some time. The price is three dollars a 
year. 

From Porter's Spirit of the Times, of July 31st. 

The New York Coach-Maker's Magazine is a journal de- 
voted to the mechanical, literary, and social interests of the 
craft. The engravings, of all descriptions of vehicles, drawn 
to a perfect scale, are invaluable to carriage-makers ; while the 
literary matter is of the most commendable description. The 
articles on "The Three-fold Nature of Man" and " Coach-mak- 
ing Historically Considered" are excellent ; and both informa- 
tion and amusement are contained in this unpretending, clever 
speciality. 

The above are but a few of the voluntary commendations 
which our Magazine has received from our brother editors. The 
warm hearts and generous approval with which the craft have 
greeted our humble efforts, on all sides, shall stimulate us to 
greater exertion in endeavors to merit their continued smiles 
and patronage. 

INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO 
COACH-MAKING AT HOME. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

July 13. — Attaching Sleigh Runners. — Wm. W. St. John, 
of Lima, N. Y. : I do not claim allowing motion to the hind 
runner at the bolsters, said runner being drawn along by a 
connection at its forward end. 

But I claim the combination of the T-formcd slide, 5, cap, 3, 
and joint, 4, for attaching the hind runner of sleighs to the body, 
when said runner is drawn by a connection to its forward end, 
substantially as and for the purposes specified. 

Metallic Hub for Carriage Wheels. — Nathaniel T. Edson, 
of New Orleans, La. : I claim, first, the cone, H, when made 
and applied in the manner substantially as specified. 

Second, The oil chamber, 5, in combination with one or more 
orifices, 4, when formed on the outside of the box by means of 
a nut, substantially as represented. 

Third, The combination of the oil cup, B, with the cone, H, 
for the purposes specified. 

Fourth, I claim the chamber, 5, substantially as described, in 
combination with the outer cup, B, for the purposes specified. 

Spoke-Shave. — Leonard Bailey, of Winchester, Mass. : I 
claim the improved spoke-shave, as constructed with its bearing 
surface in front of its cutter, applied to the stock by means of a 
lever having an adjusting screw, or its equivalent, or a screw 
and a spring applied to it, so as to enable the said bearing sur- 
face to be moved with respect to the cutter, and the bearing 
surface in rear thereof, substantially in manner as described. 

I also claim the arrangement and application of a protecting 
cavity or chamber within the lever, and to the spring thereof, 
in manner and for the purposes set forth. 

July 20. — Wheelwrights' Machine. — Wm. Hinds, of Ot- 
sego, N. Y. : My claims, to the improvements embodied and 
combined in this machine over others for the same uses, are, 
that it is constructed in a stronger, more compact, and in a more 
durable manner, and less liable to get out of repair. That the 
machine, in all its parts, is in a form to render its construction 
simple and cheap, and can be more speedily shifted and adapted 
to the different kinds of work to be performed. That it is more 



80 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



September. 



simple, easy, and expeditious to use, and works with a precision 
as exact as man can think or desire. 

I claim, first, Combining regular perpendicular ways, both in 
the mandrel carriage and in the head blocks, to operate con- 
jointly in adjusting the augers to different positions for boring. 

Second, I claim the method of adjusting the hubs for boring 
by suspending and revolving them on gudgeons in a carriage 
that vibrates the other way on a pin, and is set and controlled 
by thumbscrews at d d, the revolving motion of the hub being 
set and controlled by index wheels and the latch, at f. 

Third, I claim the entire construction of the spoke-holder and 
carriage, embodied therewith, together with the catch or hook 
for controlling its motion. 

Fourth, I claim the wheel carriage and plates to be used on 
the ends of the hub, to confine the motion of the wheel to the 
axis of the hub and axle. 

Omnibus Register. — Louis Brauer, of Washington, D. C. : I 
do not claim moving the indicator of a register by pressure upon 
the steps. 

But I claim the employment of an elastic step, by means of 
the movable rods, K K, for operating the register plate and bell, 
in the manner set forth. 

Re-issue. — Casting Skeins for Wagons. — Andrew Leonard, 
of Kenosha, Wis., dated Feb. 24, 1857: I do not claim to have 
been the first to make thimble skeins as such. 

But I claim the combination of a whole thimble skein pattern, 
b, with a loose collar pattern, 1, substantially as specified and 
as shown in Fig. 1, for the purpose specified. 

I claim, also, the vertical position of green sand cores for 
thimble skeins, when molded and combined at their base with 
the mold, substantially in the manner specified; in combination 
with the adjusting top of the cores at (s) by the hand, after the 
mold is completed, except the casse, whether core bars or their 
equivalents for the purpose are used, substantially as described 
and shown. 

Axle Boxes, &c. — David Cumming, of Sorrel Horse, Pa. : I 
claim, first, The peculiar form of the outer end of the axle, c, 
and tapering hole, e, in box, F, when the said axle and box are 
arranged relatively to each other as described, for the purpose 
set forth. 

Second, The combination of the two inner portions, E and 
E', of the box with the clasp, C, as and for the purposes 
described. 

Hanging Carriages for Children. — Gilbert Maynard, of 
Greenfield, Mass. : I am aware that spiral springs have been ap- 
plied to vehicles, and arranged in various ways, both singly and 
combined with other forms of springs : I therefore do not claim 
broadly and in the abstract the employment and use of spiral 
springs in children's vehicles. 

But I claim forming the springs of the chaise, and the axle or 
bearings of the wheels, C, of the same, by means of a single 
rod, B, bent and applied to the device, as shown and described. 

July 27. — Safety Whiffletree. — George F. Oulten, of Nor- 
folk county, Va. : I claim the hooks, D, constructed with two 
different angles, and which allow the traces to commence 
detaching as soon as they commence revolving, and are released 
entirely at one-fourth of a revolution, operating as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

Hubs for Carriage Wheels. — Norman Piatt, of Jackson, 
Miss. : I know that metallic hubs are not new, nor are clips to 
secure the spokes, perhaps, a novelty ; nor is cast boxing, as 
such, the subject of a patent, while the peculiar construction 
and the mode of securing the one I have described may be, still, 

I claim the combination of a flanged metallic hub for carriage, 
wagon, and buggy wheels, with clips to stay and strengthen the 
spokes, together with a metallic boxing for said hub, secured by 
a swelled head screw and tap, substantially as described. 

Omnibus Fare Box. — I. S. Reeves (assignor to J. B. Slawson), 
of New Orleans, La., dated Feb. 23, 1858; I claim, first, The 
glass plates, i and f, as arranged in connection with the apron, 
m, in the manner substantially as and for the purposes set 
forth. 

Second, Closing the passage to the drawer below from the 
chamber above, by means of an apron, operated by a spring, S, 
in the manner substantially as set forth. 



Clje fjiimorists' Cotmiul 



"A little nonsense, now and then, 
Is relished by the best of men." 

The Welsh Cobbler's Sign. — "Pryce Dyas, cobbler, 
dealer in 'bacco shag and pig-tale, bacon and gingerbread, 
egs laid every morning by me, and very good paradise, in 
the summer, gentleman and lady can have good tae and 
crumpets and strawberry with scim milk, because I can't 
get no cream. 

N. B. Shuse and boots mended very well here !" 

A lady, the other day, asked a young gentleman : "Sir, 
is your wife as pretty as you are ?" Not caring to be 
complimented at the expense of his wife, he, by way of 
gentle reproof, blushingly replied : "I cannot say about that, 
miss ; but she has pretty manners." The lady quietly va- 
mosed — no further interrogatories propounded. 

" Shon," said a Dutchman, " you may say what you 
please 'bout bad neighbors ; I had te vorst neighbors as 
never was. Mine pigs and mine hens come home mit der 
ears split, and todder day two of dem come home miss- 
ing. 

Tall toasts are in great demand in America. At a late 
public meeting, the following " dry " toast was given 
(the author of which got " buttered" when he reached 
home): "The press — the pulpit — and petticoats — the 
three ruling powers of the day. The first spreads knowl- 
edge, the second spreads morals, and the last spreads con- 
siderably." 

A tender-hearted widower fainted at the funeral 
of his third beloved. " What shall we do with him ?" 
asked a friend of his. " Let him alone," said a waggish 
by-stander, "he'll soon ve-wive." 

Very bad spelling is sometimes the best, as in the case 
of the English beer-vender, who wrote over his shop door : 
" Bear sold here." 

Tom Hood, who saw it, said that it was spelled right, 
because the fluid he sold was his own bruin. 

Hard Bargains. — The wretched old bachelor says, that 
a man, marrying now-a-days, marries a great deal more 
than he bargained for ; he not only weds himself to a wo- 
man, but a laboratory of prepared chalk, a quintal of whale- 
bone, eight coffee-bags, four baskets of novels, one poodle 
dog, and a system of weak nerves. 

A maiden lady answers, that a woman marrying now-a- 
days must wed a dozen pair of rejected pants, a box of but- 
tonless shirts, six bottles of hair-oil, a little chest of patent 
medicines, with the labels in the French language, a mass 
of unpaid tailors' bills, a broken constitution, with a brain 
which considers business a ridiculous as well as a vulgar 
way of spending life. 

" As I was going," said an Irishman, " over Westminster 
Bridge, the other day, I met Pat Hewings. Says I, ' How 
are you ?' ' Pretty well, I thank you, Dooley,' says he. 
Says I, ' That's not my name.' ' Faith, no more is mine 
Hewings,' says he. So we looked at each other, and, faith, 
it turned out to be neither of us !" 

The ugliest of trades have their moments of pleasure. 
Now, if I were a grave-digger, or even a hangman, there 
are some people I could work for with great enjoyment. 
— Douglas Jerrold. 

Sorrows grow less and less every time they are told, 
just like the age of a woman. 



PLATE 15 



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STITCHING PLATE B FOR OCTOBER. 





DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 1858. 



No. 5. 



i&ttllaitflros fteato. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE BEST TIME TO CUT TIMBER. 

" "When Autumn comes and leaves are dry, 

And rustle on the ground, 
And chilling winds go whistling by, 

With moaning, pensive sound: 
Cut timber, then, for posts and beams, and rails, 
For tongues and thills, for whipple-trees and stales." 

To know when to cut timber, so as to secure its greatest 
durability, firmness and elasticity, is an inquiry of no small 
moment to every one who makes use of timber, which it is 
very desirable to have durable, when exposed to the influ- 
ence of the weather ; or firm and elastic when worked into 
implements, tools and vehicles. Carriage-makers are, or 
ought to be, particularly interested in this subject; because 
it is not only an act of honesty to make carriages of the 
most durable and firm materials, but of dishonesty and 
detriment to the craft to put timber into vehicles which 
would have been very much better if it had been cut at a 
different season of the year. It is a fact which cannot be 
denied, that there is a period when, if a tree be cut down 
for timber, or for anything else, it will be far more durable 
and firm and elastic — which are three very indispensable 
qualities in timber for carriages — than if it were cut at any 
other season of the year. Both reason and experiment 
teach us that this period is the latter part of Autumn. We 
know that some writers on this subject have advocated, 
with much plausibility, that Winter, others that Spring, 
and others again that Mid-summer is the best time. 

The reason why different writers have come to conclu- 
sions differing so widely must be, because their observa- 
tions have been very limited, or their experiments have 
been very unfairly and imperfectly conducted. Every 
one, who has had any considerable experience in the man- 
agement of timber, knows too well that the treatment 
which timber receives, immediately after it has been cut 
down, affects, very much, not only its durability, but its 
firmness and tenacity. If, for example, a tree of white oak 
or ash, or any other kind of hard wood, be allowed to 
remain in the log after it has been felled, until any ferment- 
ation of the juices takes place, that timber will most 
certainly be injured to a certain degree ; and no after treat- 



ment will render it as durable, tenacious and firm as it 
would have been had it been split out and placed in a situ* 
ation where it could season gradually, before any fermenta- 
tion took place. Any one who will investigate the subject 
candidly and fairly, and not be influenced by some inveter- 
ate prejudice, or moonshine theory, cannot fail to perceive 
that Autumn is the best time to cut timber, where dura- 
bility and toughness are the great desiderata. When the 
leaves of a tree have fallen, the new wood has arrived at 
perfect maturity ; and at no other period in the year is 
there less sap in a tree than late in Autumn. Hence, at 
this season, albumen, which is the chief cause of fermenta- 
tion, is less abundant than at any other time. Timber that 
has been cut late in Autumn, and immediately hewn, sawed, 
or split out, and placed where it can season (it matters not 
what kind of timber it may be), will be more durable, te- 
nacious and firm, than if that same timber had been cut at 
any other period, even if the treatment were alike in both 
instances. And, besides this, timber cut at this time, and 
treated in this manner, will never " powder-post," nor be 
affected Avith dry rot, unless it were placed in a situation 
where it could not become thoroughly seasoned. When 
timber has been cut at the time already specified, and placed 
where it can season, the seasoning process is very gradual 
for several months, during which time the grain settles 
together before hot weather comes on, and the pores of the 
wood become more contracted, and*, consequently, there 
will be less space for water to enter ; and, more than all 
besides, if such timber ever possessed any durability, tena- 
city or firmness, these desirable qualities will all be retained. 
On the contrary, if the same timber were cut in Mid-sum- 
mer, and treated the same, the consequence often is — and 
with many kinds of timber always is — that it seasons so 
rapidly it is rendered brash and non-elastic, and is destitute 
of that firmness which is desirable in timber designed for 
vehicles or tools of any kind. 

Those who have had much experience in cutting timber, 
at different seasons of the year, know that hickory, sugar 
maple, white-ash. and some other kinds, when cut at a cer- 
tain time, will " powder-post," even after it has been worked 
up, in making tools or anything else. Wc have often seen 
the rungs of chairs, rake-teeth, and rake-stales, wagon- 
spokes and fellies, and handles of many kinds of tools, 
completely powder-posted, in consequence of having been 



82 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



cut at the wrong season of the year; and we have often 
seen white-ash and white-oak plank very much injured by 
the worms, because the timber had been felled in the lat- 
ter part of Winter, or in Spring. And it is a very com- 
mon thing to see the beams and posts of buildings, which 
were felled in Winter, or early in the Spring, often rendered 
almost worthless from this cause. 

It is not always the case that timber becomes injured 
by powder-posting, in consequence of having been felled in 
Winter or Spring; but nearly all kinds of hard timber are 
very liable to be thus injured, and no ordinary after treat- 
ment in seasoning will prevent it. Kyanizing, steaming, or 
impregnating it with chemical substances, will prevent it ; 
but a most certain remedy is to fell it late in the Fall, and 
split it out, and allow it to season gradually during the 
Winter. S. Edwards Todd. 

Lake Ridge, Tompkins Co., N. T. 



Translated from the Mercure Universel for the N. Y. Coach-maker's Magazine. 

GOOD AND BAD WORK IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF CARRIAGES— CAUSES WHICH PROP UP 
BAD WORK. 

There is an old proverb which says, that " when every 
one sticks to his trade, the cows are better cared for." 
This saying comprises everything, and, therefore, if none 
but coach-builders Avere engaged in the manufacture of 
carriages, we would generally have better built carriages ; 
this is a fact easily understood, and well known by those 
who are judges, both in Paris and elsewhere. 

But as everybody is not a judge in this matter, we shall 
here analyze the business and state the means to be em- 
ployed to guard against that display of inferior articles 
with which several establishments would overrun France. 

We know, and our readers know as well as we do, the 
establishments of which we speak, but which we will not 
name, because, although the managers, or those who fur- 
nish the capital, are not workmen (artists) in the trade, 
that fact does not prevent them from being honorable and 
industrious men, who furnish articles of inferior workman- 
ship, corresponding to the price at which they are sold. 
But that is not the point in question : our object is to 
prove to our readers that, in order to have good work done 
in white [unpainted], it is necessary to apply to men broken 
[initiatedj into the trade, who are morally responsible for 
their work, and whose capacity is already established. 
While from the others, that is to say, those who, established 
on a large scale, exhibit monstrous work-shops and machi- 
nery, which runs only for show, what can be expected 
from them but slop work, which, once out of their hands, 
can neither reflect credit nor profit to them. It is only in 
cases of an urgent demand to be satisfied that promptitude 
is an equivalent for good work, but such cases occur at 
rare intervals ; and, therefore, we conclude that it is better 
to apply to the natural producer, and not be deceived, than 
to those who are but mere speculators in the business. In 
spite of what these wholesale dealers may say, they never 
will have fine workmen in their shops ; and, even should 
there happen to be such in their employ, they will have 
but the men, and not their skill, for the skillful workman 
has always had, and always will have, an antipathy for 
those who order him in his business, and who have not the 
necessary knowledge to do so. 

To distinguish good work from bad, three things are re- 



quired : a little knowledge and taste, a previous examina- 
tion of the axle-trees and springs ; the last named should 
be black, instead of being nearly polished ; the axle-trees 
should be of private manufacture, with caps rather red 
than yellow ; and lastly, the price should be a standard 
price, that is, neither too high nor too low, for example : 
the reasonable price of a coupe, unpainted, is 1,400 francs 
($238) ; but we know of establishments that furnish them 
for 1,000 ($170), and those establishments, having the ap- 
pearance of doing the work in their own shops, do the 
same thing which the commission houses do, that is, they 
run about in search of needy workmen, to obtain from 
them cheap work. Is it possible that these workmen 
should furnish them good work ? It is evident they will 
not ; and, is it advantageous for the seller, and more especi- 
ally for the buyer, to buy a carriage that will fail him 
from the first day, and perhaps ' at the very moment when 
he most requires it ? That is the time when he regrets 
having paid too cheap for his bargain, and when he may 
say, " we can never obtain anything good without paying for 

u'r 



THE HORSE-TAMER'S SECRET UNFOLDED. 

Although much has been written and said about the 
wonderful discoveries of John S. Rarey, who, for some 
time back, has astonished the London " big-bugs" and 
cockneys, yet, as far back as the time of Alexander, who 
accomplished so great a feat as to tame the wild Buce- 
phalus, something of the art may fairly be presumed to 
have been known. The experiment our countryman has 
performed with the English horse, Cruiser, may, after all, 
be but a more noised-abroad practice, under the patronage 
of Royalty, of the Macedonian success. By permission of 
our friends Messrs. Greeley & Co., of the N. Y. Tribune, 
we are enabled to present our readers with the whole art 
of taming horses, zebras, jackasses (in which we include 
bipeds as well), and other " critters," from a wild to a state 
altogether unnatural. With this preamble, we " dash" 
into the secret at once. 

The one principle which you must establish firmly in 
your mind, and which is so essential in horse-taming that 
it is almost the corner-stone of the theory, is the law of 
kindness. Next to kindness you must have patience, and, 
next to patience, indomitable perseverance. With these 
qualities in us, and not possessing fear or anger, we under- 
take to tame horses with perfect assurance of success, if we 
use the proper means. The horse receives instruction in, 
and by the use of, four of his senses — namely, seeing, hear- 
ing, smelling and feeling. You must remember that the 
horse is a dumb brute, has not the faculty of reasoning on 
experiments that you make on him, but is governed by 
instinct. In a natural state he is afraid of man, and never, 
until you teach him that you do not intend to hurt him, 
will that fear cease — we mean that wild natural fear — for 
you must have him fear you as well as love you, before 
you can absorb his attention as much as is necessary to 
break him to your liking. It is a principle in the nature 
of a horse not to offer resistance to our wishes, if made in 
a way that he understands, and in accordance with the laws 
of his nature. 



October. 



THE NEW YORK COACH -MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



83 



In subjugating the horse, we must make a powerful 
appeal to his intelligence ; this can only be done by a physic- 
al operation. It is au undisputed fact that the battles of 
all animals (except such as are garnished with horns) are 
fought by seizing each other by the throat. A dog, that 
has been thus held by his antagonist for a few minutes, on 
being released, is often so thoroughly cowed that no human 
artifice can induce him to again resume the unequal con- 
test. This is the principle upon which horse-taming is 
founded. 

Choking a horse is 
the first process in 
taming, and is but the 
beginning: of his edu- 
cation. By its opera- 
tion a horse becomes 
docile, and will there- 
after receive an instruc- 
tion which he can be 
made to understand. 
Teaching the animal 
to lie down at our bid- 
ding tends to keep him 
permanently cured, as 
it is a perpetual re- 
minder of his subdued condition. 

It requires a good deal of practice to tame a horse suc- 
cessfully ; also a nice judgment to know when he is choked 
sufficiently, as there is a bare possibility that he might get 
more than would be good for him. We advise persons not 
perfectly familiar with a horse to resort rather to the strap- 
ping and throwing down process (unless he is very vicious) 
described below ; this, in ordinary cases, will prove success- 
ful. It is the fault of most people who have owned a horse 
to imagine that they are experts in his management ; while, 
on the contrary, many professional horsemen are the very 
worst parties to attempt his subjugation. Unless a man 
have a good disposition he need not attempt horse-taming. 





In practicing the method exhibited in the above engrav- 
ing, retire with the animal to be operated upon into a close 
stable, with plenty of litter upon the floor (tan-bark or saw- 
dust is preferable). In the first place fasten up the left 
fore-leg with the arm strap, in such a manner that it will 
be permanently secured. Then take a broad strap and 
buckle and pass it around the neck, just back of the jaw- 
bone. Draw the strap as tight as possible, so tight as to 
almost arrest the horse's breathing. The strap must not be 
buckled, but held in this position to prevent slipping back. 
The animal will struggle for a few minutes, when he will 



become perfectly quiet, overpowered by a sense of suffoca- 
tion : the veins in his head will swell ; his eyes lose their 
fire ; his knees totter and become weak ; a slight vertigo 
will ensue, and growing gradually exhausted, by backing 
him around the stable, he will come down on his knees, in 
which position it is an easy matter to push him on his side, 
when his throat should be released. Now pat and rub him 
gently for about twenty minutes, when, in most instances, 
he will be subdued. It is only in extreme cases necessary 
to repeat the operation of choking. The next lesson is to 
teach him to lie down, which is described below in the ac- 
count of the second method of taming. No horse can 
effectually resist the terrible effects of being choked. 

It must be constantly borne in mind that the operator 
must not be boisterous or violent, and that the greatest 
possible degree of kindness is absolutely essential. When 
the horse is prostrate, he should be soothed until his eyes 
show that he has become perfectly tranquil. 

ANOTHER METHOD. 

Secure the 
horse with a stout 
halter to the man- 
ger. If extremely 
unruly, muzzle 
him. Soothe him 
with the hands for 
a few minutes un- 
til he becomes 
somewhat paci- 
fied. Then seize 
him by the throat, 
close to the jaw- 
bone, with the 
right hand, and 
by the mane with the left. Now forcibly compress his wind- 
pipe, until he becomes so exhausted that, by lightly kick- 
ing him on the fore legs, he will lie down, after which 
he should be treated as previously described. This process 
requires courage in the operator, and also great muscular 
strength. 





ANOTHER METHOD OF TAMING A HORSE, ALSO, TO TEACH 
HIM TO LIE DOWN. 

The plan described in the above engraving is very sim- 
ple, though not as expeditious as the previous one. Buckle 
or draw a strap tight around the neck, lift a fore leg and 
fasten around it the opposite end of the strap, the shorter 
the better. In the engraving, for the sake of clearness, the 
strap is represented too long. It will be seen that in this 
plan the horse is made the instrument by which the punish- 



84 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



October. 



merit is inflicted. When he attempts to put his foot down, 
his head goes with it, and thus he chokes himself; care 
should be taken that he does not pitch on his head, and 
thus endanger his neck. 

TAMING A HORSE WITHOUT RESORT TO STRAPS. 

The horse to be operated upon should be led into a close 
stable. The operator should be previously provided with a 
stout leather halter ; a looped strap to slip over the animal's 
knee ; a strong surcingle, and a long and short strap — the 
first to fasten round the fore foot, which is at liberty, and 
the second to permanently secure the leg which is looped 
up. The application of the straps will be better under- 
stood by reference to the engraving. 

In the first place, if the horse be a biter, muzzle him ; 
then lift and bend his left foreleg, and slip a loop over it. 
The leg which is looped up must be secured by applying 
the short strap, buckling it around the pastern joint and 
fore-arm ; next put on the surcingle, and fasten the long 
strap around the right fore foot, and pass the end through 
a loop attached to the surcingle ; after which fasten on a 
couple of thick leather knee-pads — these can be put on in 
the first place if convenient. The pads are necessary, as 
some horses in their struggles come violently on their knees, 
abrading them badly. Now take a short hold of the long 
strap with your Tight hand ; stand on the left side of the 
horse, grasp the bit in your left hand ; while in this posi- 
tion back him gently about the stable until he becomes so 
exhausted as to exhibit a desire to lie down, which desire 
should be gratified with as little violence as possible ; bear 
your weight firmly against the shoulder of the horse, and 
pull steadily on the strap with your right hand; this will 
force him to raise his foot, which should be immediately 
pulled from under him. This is the critical moment; cling 
to the horse, and after a few struggles he will lie down. In 
bearing against the animal do not desist from pulling and 
pushing until you have him on his side. Prevent him from 
attempting to rise by pulling his head towards his shoulder. 
As soon as he is done struggling, caress his face and neck ; 
also, handle every part of his body, and render yourself as 
familiar as possible. After he has lain quietly for twenty 
minutes let him rise, and immediately repeat the operation, 
removing the straps as soon as he is down ; and if his head 
is pulled toward his shoulder it is impossible for him to get 
up. After throwing him from two to five times, the animal 
will become as submissive and abject as a well-trained dog, 
and you need not be afraid to indulge in any liberties with 
him. A young horse is subdued much quicker than an old 
one, as his habits are not confirmed. An incorrigible horse 
should have two lessons a day ; about the fourth lesson he 
will be permanently conquered. If the operation is re- 
peated several times, he can be made to lie down by simply 
lifting up his foreleg and repeating the words, "Lie down, 
Sir," which he must be previously made familiar with. 

The following rules will serve as a guide to the amateur 
operator, and should be strictly observed : First : The horse 
must not be forced down by violence, but must be tired out 
till he has a strong desire to lie down. Secondly : He 
must be kept quiet on the ground until the expression of 
the eye shows that he is tranquilized, which invariably 
takes place by patiently waiting and gently patting the 
horse. Thirdly : Care must be taken not throw the horse 
upon his neck when bent, as it may easily be broken. 
Fourthly : In backing him, no violence must be used, or he 
may be forced on his haunches and his back broken. 



Fifthly ; The halter and off-rein are held in the left hand, 
so as to keep the head away from the latter ; while, if the 
horse attempts to plunge, the halter is drawn tight, when, 
the off-leg being raised, the animal is brought on his knees, 
and rendered powerless for offensive purposes. 

The operations of teaching a horse to follow a man, and 
also to cure him of kicking and balking, should be pre- 
ceded by the throwing-dosvn process, and in bad cases by 
the choking operation, as the animal is thus rendered gen- 
tle, tractable, and officiously obedient to whatever he can 
be taught to comprehend. This subsequent educational 
course is necessary in order to render the reformation per- 
manent. 

(To bo continued.) 



SOMETHING ABOUT WHEELS— THEORETICAL 
AND PRACTICAL. 

(second article.) 

If we take a retrospective glance at wheel-making as 
practiced in former times, and fully understand the changes 
made in the minds of more modern mechanics, both theo- 
retically and practically, the subject will assume a tone of 
the deepest interest to every carriage-maker. We see, in 
imagination, the old strong-nerved and strong-armed man, 
with his sleeves rolled up and overalls on, swinging a pon- 
derous hatchet, reducing to a proper size the stick which 
has been furnished him for a spoke by some woodland 
possessor. In this particular, time has wrought a won- 
derful change. The hard labor imposed upon the work- 
man in getting out spokes has been taken away by the aid 
of machinery — how much to the benefit of that workman 
is a question we shall not undertake to decide here. Suf- 
fice it to say, that a history of the spoke, as applicable to 
carriages, alone would afford a subject for a longer article 
than we can afford to devote to the whole wheel. Our 
next selection for our wheel will be 

THE HUB. 

An old writer gravely informs us, that all " hubs should 
be thickest at the place where the spokes are inserted, and 
the holes in which the spokes are placed should not be 
bored quite through, as the grease upon the axle-tree 
would insinuate itself between the spoke and the nave, and 
prevent that close adhesion which is necessary to the 
strength of the wheel." The same writer says, " the stock 
or nave of a wheel is commonly formed of elm wood. To 
produce their sound, conical form, they are turned in a lathe, 
and many small projections and mouldings are left, to give 
them greater neatness when painted and finished." But 
we are getting on a little too fast. 

The hub is admitted to be the most important part in 
the whole wheel. Although, as we have seen in our 
Egyptian specimen, at page 42, that a hub, in an early day, 
fourteen and a-half inches long, was thought to be short 
enough — in which opinion our grandfathers seem to have 
nearly coincided — yet, it "has grown smaller by degrees 
and beautifully shorter" until it has become only six inches 
long, and proportionally small in diameter. To obviate 
and lessen the clumsy appearance, which a long hub pre- 
sented to the eye, our ancestors turned down the front end 
of their hubs to a small circumference, which, without 
much reflection, when it became fashionable to have a 
short hub, was continued, until the front part of the hub 
immediately in front of the spoke was found splitting out, 
caused by the pressure of the spoke-tenon edgewise. To 



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obviate this defect, we now make our hubs larger at the 
ends than formerly, disregarding our old author's instruc- 
tions to make them "thickest at the place where the spokes 
are inserted" altogether. This is as it should be ; and, the 
practice continued, we shall hereafter hear less complaint 
about the hubs splitting all around at the band than here- 
tofore. 

Care should be taken in the selection of the timber for 
hubs. In this respect, manufacturers themselves are too 
remiss. They get a poor material, and yet, because it has 
cost them something, they think they must sell it again to 
somebody — a poor policy, did they understand their true 
interests. For our part, we never allow a party to cheat us 
a second time. "Whether locust, elm, or gum is the best 
for hubs is still a mooted question among our best mechan- 
ics. Every one appears to have his prejudices as well as 
preferences. Probably, when the right kind of gum is 
found, it makes the best light hubs of any tree found in 
America; but, for general purposes, we think the close- 
grained and better sort of elm will be found to answer well. 
For cart-wheels, oak still maintains it supremacy, as expo- 
sure to the weather affects all other wood to a greater or less 
degree, which soon destroys its firmness. Locust, although 
it stands the weather well, is so hard that most workmen 
are ready to discard it at once, and, because of this quali- 
ty, find it extremely difficult to make the spoke remain 
firm in the hub. 

The same objection has always applied to iron hubs, 
which, under different forms, have been offered to the pub- 
lic for the past twenty years. These iron hubs have been 
succeeded by "the metallic hub," whose inventors have 
dreamed that their productions would soon drive from the 
market " the old wood hub, on account of its liability to 
check, allowing the boxes and spokes to work loose," etc. 
Some, with a little show of modesty, confess that there 
have been several efforts made at different times to substi- 
tute metallic hubs in the place of wood ; but, up to the 
time of the latest production, all others have failed, from 
some serious objection, which has prevented their adop- 
tion. 

For heavy carts, which we do not wish to consider here, 
they may answer all the purposes which the inventors 
may claim for them; but, for light work, we "opine they 
will never be generally adopted. For the convenience of 
criticism, we will repeat the sentence in which one of these 
"most important and useful inventions of the age" is 
heralded : 

" This improvement (the metallic hub) is in the mor- 
tises being straight, and all being of an exact size, leaving 
an open space between their ends and the inside box, and 
also in compressing the ends of the spokes. The advantages 
of these improvements are, that, by compressing the ends 
of the spokes, they can be driven easily, and, after having 
been driven a short time, the pores of the wood open [and 
what then ?], the tenons swell out again, thereby forming a 
dovetail inside the open space, making it utterly impossi- 
ble for the spokes to work, or ever draw out." A wonderful 
triumph — if true ! 

Now, these philosophers ignore some of the principles 
held by our best mechanics. It need not be men- 
tioned, that spokes, set straight in a hub all around, are far 
less durable than where set zig-zag, particularly in light 
wheels. That by " compressing the ends of a spoke" will 
improve it, is another improvement too great for our dis- 
cernment, and, when discovered, will mark an era the pre- 



sent generation will never live to see. But that " dovetail 
inside the open space" is only equaled in absurdity by the 
idea of the inventor ! 

We need not enter any further into the subject, as 
regards either iron or metallic hubs ; they will not do the 
labor claimed for them, which too many have already 
learned in that dear school — experience — where oidy fools 
are said to learn. S. 



PUBLIC CARRIAGES IN PARIS. 

The number of public hacks in Paris is now nearly 4,000, 
all owned by one consolidated company, who are guaran- 
teed in their monopoly by the city, but upon such terms 
as renders the enterprise an advantage to- the public. 

According to the old law, now extinct, the average price 
of carriages was 25 cents the course and 35 cents the hour. 
The price was stuck up in the inside of every carriage, and 
to cheat a man who could read was impossible. But the 
great extent of the city rendered the charge for the " course" 
too onerous for the company, and they demanded of the 
authorities a change of price. The authorities, once en- 
gaged on the subject, determined to change the whole 
system of charges. (You will remark that it is the city 
that fixes the prices, because where they grant a monopoly 
they reserve this right.) 

The following is the tariff, according to the new law : 

Within the fortifications of Paris, from 6 o'clock in the morning 
to 12-J- at night. 

CARRIAGES, 

Of two seats. Of four seats. Of five seats. 

For 15 minutes 15 cents, 18 cents, 20 cents. 

For 20 minutes 20 cents, 24 cents, 25 cents. 

For 25 minutes 25 cents, 28 cents, 30 cents. 

For 30 minutes 30 cents, 30 cents, 35 cents. 

For 35 minutes 31 cents, 31 cents, 38 cents. 

For 40 minutes 32 cents, 32 cents, 40 cents. 

For 45 minutes 33 cents, 33 cents, 42 cents. 

For 50 minutes 34 cents, 34 cents, 44 cents. 

For 55 minutes 35 cents, 35 cents, 46 cents. 

For 60 minutes 36 cents, 36 cents, 48 cents. 

Ad'l h'rs (per five min.) 3 cents, 3 cents, 4 cents. 

After 12£ o'clock at night till 6 o'clock in the morning, 
these prices are considerably augmented. A similar scale 
fixes the regular gradations. For fifteen minutes the price 
is 20 cents, for a half-hour 36 cents, and for an hour 60 
cents. Additional hours, five cents every five minutes. 
After 12^, all carriages are rated the same, no matter what 
may be the number of seats. 

Carriages taken before 12^-, but arriving at their desti- 
nation after that hour, are only paid the day tariff. On the 
contrary, carriages taken before six in the morning, and ar- 
riving after that hour, are paid the night tariff. If kept 
several hours, the tariff must change after the first hour. 

The prices for going to the environs are nearly the same 
as above. But when a carriage is taken to the environs 
and sent back empty, the traveler must pay the tariff back. 

Carriages have a right to demand four sous each for 
trunks or boxes, but nothing for small packages, such as 
may be carried in the hand. But, above two boxes, they 
can only take ten cents, no matter how many there may 
be. Coachmen are bound to load and unload packages. 

Every carriage must contain in its interior a counter (a 
new invention) in a place indicated by the authorities. 
(This counter, which marks correctly the time and the 
sums to be paid opposite, is not yet ready to be placed in 



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THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



the carriages ; but, in the mean time, all coachmen will be 
bound to hand to every person entering his carriage a card 
which shows the number of his carriage, the tariff of prices, 
and the calculations ready made, by which there can be no 
mistake. A watch will be fixed up in every carriage until 
the counters are obtained.) The counter will be fixed at 
the moment of starting by the coachman. 

When a coachman is called and retained for a certain 
time without finally being used, he will have the right to 
reclaim pay according to the tariff. 

No coachman is allowed to demand a pour-boire — an 
extra fee for himself. 

They shall be held to travel at the rate of 10 kilometres 
per hour. He must follow the route indicated to him by 
the traveler, but if stopped by any obstruction on the route, 
independent of the driver's control, the voyager must pay 
the detention. 

When they conduct people to theatres, balls 
or railroads, coachmen must demand their pay 
before they arrive, so as to avoid a crowd at the 
door. In like manner, when they allow a voy- 
ager to descend for a visit at a place where he 
could escape, as, for instance, at a house opening 
on two streets, coachmen have a right, if they 
have no confidence in the good faith of their 
employer, to demand payment for the time 
elapsed. 

These regulations do not apply to hire by the 
day, which will continue to be paid on the terms 
agreed on between the parties beforehand. 

Thus it will be seen that, according to the 
terms of this law, there can be no contestations 
and no cheating, except as to the velocity of the 
carriage, and this difficulty will be remedied 
when the counters are placed. 

The manner in which the Company guards 
against cheating, on the part of their coachmen, 
is this : Every carnage is numbered. At each station there 
is a clerk, who notes the times such a number leaves, and 
when another arrives. Every coachman, after discharging 
his load, is obliged to stop at the nearest station, and the 
stations are very close together. No coachman is allowed 
to pass a station empty. 

To conclude, the reader will recollect that all these laws 
are inexorably executed, that all infringements are severely 
punished, and that in consequence infringements are very 
rare. If people are cheated with impunity, it is their own 
fault. 



at a celebration, yet it was not so exclusively employed. 
It had its domestic uses under various modifications ; for 
pleasure, for religious worship, and for funeral occasions. 

The most fashionable hour at which to visit appears to 
have been at noon,* at which time the invited guests 
arrived successively in chariots, in curricles, in palanquins, 
or on foot. The chariots of kings and princes were fre- 
quently furnished with a large kind of parasol ; and the 
flabella, which belonged to royalty exclusively, when borne 
behind the king, answered the same purpose. When a 
visitor came in a curricle, or car, he was attended by a 
number of servants, one of whom carried a stool to assist 
him in alighting, others his writing tablet, or other articles 
wanted during the visit, and another, as we have seen illus- 
trated, stands ready to take the reins from the hands of the 
rider, and to attend to the care of the horses. 




AN EGYPTIAN HUNTING CHARIOT. 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER V. 



Chariots at dinner-parties — Their employment on hunting expeditions — 
Four-wheeled carriages used in religious ceremonies — The Arabian Plaus- 
trum — Chariots of Egyptian contemporary nations — The numerous canals, 
with which Sesostris intersected Egypt, a detriment to pleasure-seekers — The 
Egyptian hearse — A speculative opinion as to its continued use subsequent 
to the invention of wheeled-carriages — Carts, a support for the tails of sheep 
among the Arabians — The value of chariots and horses in the time of Solomon. 



Although the chariot was the vehicle, and the most 
important one in Egypt, since its use was indispensable in 
an expedition of war, and was the most prominent object 



The Egyptians likewise employed a car, which served 
for the same purpose for which the dog-cart, illustrated on 
plate 5 of this volume, was designed. They frequently 
hunted in the open plains for game, the chasseur following 
in his chariot, and the huntsmen on foot. Sometimes he 
only drove to cover in his car, and, having alighted, as 
sisted in searching for the game ; but the more usual prac- 
tice was, for him to remain in his chariot, and, when the 
dogs followed the game in an extensive plain, for him to urge 
his horses at full speed, and, intercepting it as it doubled, 
to discharge his well-directed arrow with deadly effect. 

Four-wheeled vehicles appear to have been very rarely 
employed, and were probably confined to religious occa- 
sions. A singular example of this kind has been found on 
a mummy bandage, belonging to S. d'Athanasi. History 
informs us that, at Papremis, having placed the image of a 
god in a small wooden temple, gilded all over, it was after- 
wards placed in a four-wheeled carriage, and drawn by the 
worshipers in procession to the sacred temple. Herodotus 
tells a ridiculous story in connection with this four-wheeled 
vehicle, which it is unnecessary to repeat here. 

The Plaustrum, or traveling carriage, was very much 
like the traveling chariot, and drawn by two oxen. It 
also had two wheels, and, as in the war-chariot, with six 

* The student of the Bible will remember that Joseph said to his servants, 
respecting his brethren, on their visit to him in Egypt, " These men shall 
dine with mo at noon." — Gen. 43, 16. 



OCTOBKR. 



THE NEAV YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



■ 87 




THE PLAUSTRUM. 

spokes in each, and a pole and harness of the same descrip- 
tion. An umbrella was sometimes fixed over this when it 
was occupied by females. The king's chariot also, in the 
absence of a cover, as all chariots were, had a similar um- 
brella spread over it ; and the bow case of the Plaustrum, 
as seen above, with the bow in it, shows that it was neces- 
sary, in traveling, to carry arms for protection against ene- 
mies. The vehicle here given is supposed to be an Ethio- 
pian one, in which is mounted a princess, on her way to 
pay a visit to the King of Egypt. 

The chariots of contemporary nations, with whom the 
Egyptians were at war, were similar in form, and in the 
mode of harnessing their horses (even if they differed in 
the number of persons they contained, having usually three 
instead of the two in Egyptian and Greek cars), as may be 
seen in an example, where two unyoked horses are brought 
as a present to an Egyptian monarch by the conquered 
people of Rot-ii-n, and another found in Egypt, and still 
preserved in the Museum at Florence. Instead of horses, 
the Egyptians sometimes employed mules in their chariots, 
when used in towns or in the country, evidence of which 
may be gathered from a painting now in the British 
Museum. 

Besides the vehicles we have noticed for carrying the 
living, the Egyptians had a sledge-hearse for taking them 
to their last resting-place when dead. Several kinds of 
these have been bequeathed to us in monumental illustra- 
tions, one of which we give in this connection. 

Its progress to the place of sepulture was attended by great 
pomp and ceremony. Large sums were expended on these 




AN EGYPTIAN SLEDGE HEARSE. 



occasions, which at this remote day may be thought 
extravagant, but which custom appears to have made 
obligatory on friends, as due to the memory of the dead. 
It forms no part of our design to enter into any particu- 
lar account of the manner by which the Egyptians have 
labored to confer immortality upon their dead, in the 
process of embalming. This may be read by the in- 
quirer in the pages of Rollin, as given on the authority 
of Herodotus, Diodorus, and others ; but to omit to 
mention the hearse, so prominent in the funeral pro- 
cession, would be unpardonable, besides leaving our 
subject incomplete. 

The hearse was of more than one form, and placed 
upon a consecrated boat, upon a sledge, as shown, and 
drawn by four oxen and seven men, under the general 
superintendence of an individual who regulated the 
march of the procession. In this boat were placed 
several females, among whom was the widow, mourn- 
ing and lamenting for the defunct with unrestrained 
license. Following the hearse was a long retinue of 
attendants, among whom the most conspicuous was a priestly 
functionary. One description of the hearse, such as we 
have here illustrated, from an Egyptian tomb, is curious, 
from its showing that grease or some other liquid was some- 
times poured upon the ground or platform upon which the 
hearse moved, for the purpose of facilitating its progress, as 
was done in many instances where the sledge was employed 
in moving great weight. In another form of the hearse 
which has come down to us, may be seen alternately paint- 
ed, on the sides of the panel, the emblems of Stability and 
Security, two by two (as on the sacred arks or shrines), 
upon separate panels, one of which was sometimes taken 
out, that the head of the mummy, borne within, might be 
exposed to view. There is something very singular in the 
fact that, on funeral occasions, this singular people should 
employ a sledge instead of a wheeled vehicle, for which we 
can only give a reason on the supposition that, from long 
custom in the use of that which in an earlier chapter we 
have assumed to be the first invention for the removal of 
any burden — the sledge — the religious or superstitious pre- 
judices of the people were adverse to any change. All his- 
tory has shown that in the conveyance of the body of man 
to its final resting-place — the grave — where any carriage 
has been used, such has been of a form peculiar to the occa- 
sion, and different from those employed in the common oc- 
cupations of life. 

Herodotus, who had visited Egypt and wrote from infor- 
mation derived from the priests, as well as from observations 
of his own, tells a cart story, that appears to be incredi- 
ble to us. He says that among the Arabians there was a 
breed of sheep possessed of such large 
tails, and which were not less than three 
cubits (4 ft. 6 in.) long, that they would 
drag on the ground, to the great danger 
of ulcerating, had not every shepherd for- 
tunately known enough of the carpenter's 
art to prevent this, for they [did] make 
little carts and fasten them under their 
tails, binding the tail of each separate 
sheep to a separate cart. — Thallia, 113. 
Where so many shepherd-mechanics 
understood and practiced " the carpenter's 
art," so as to be able to build carts for 
their long tails, surely the public may be 
supposed to have been well supplied with 



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THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



vehicles, and this very multiplicity tend to cheapen the 
vehicle, and reduce the price below that demanded in Egypt, 
where, as previously noticed, the material — chiefly wood — 
was very costly. This may have formed one link in the 
chain of circumstances which led to the adoption of wheeled 
vehicles among other nations, for it is an undoubted fact 
that all our pleasure carriages are but an extended improve- 
ment upon a necessity, to which, originally, business gave 
birth. 

At a later period (1 Kings, 10, 29), Solomon — although 
the use of chariots was forbidden by the Jewish Law — had 
horses and chariots imported from Egypt, the daughter of 
whose king he had married, respecting which Scripture 
says : "The king's merchants received these chariots at a 
price ; and a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for 
600 shekels" — or about $300 of our currency — the ordinary 
price of a chariot at that time, as 150 shekels ($72) was 
the price of a horse. The best chariots and horses at that 
time were still found in Egypt. "With these Solomon's 
stables were supplied with the horses required for his four- 
teen hundred chariots and horsemen, which horses were 
so skillfully trained in Egypt, that they were made to per- 
form very important services — (1 Kings, 10,20). S. 



ftjp Dome CirrU. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 
THE YOUNG WIFE'S DREAM 



BT MRS. B. A. TOUSLEY, OF ILL. 



"The Young Wife's Dream!" — Ah! who may dare 

The mystic veil to raise, 
And read the mysteries hidden there, 

Or on their beauties gaze ? 

Fond, love-born hopes! how bright they glow! 

Embalmed in sweetuess now — 
The fragrance of the orange wreath, 

That lingers round her brow. 

Fair, white-winged seraphs gently stoop, 

With folded pinions, near — 
Breathing sweet thoughts of love and joy 

Into her dreaming ear. 

Down the dim future's distant flight, 

What pleasing vistas shine! ' 
Bathed in the soft and roseate light 

Of love almost divine. 

With joyous heart she seems to tread 

Each life-path, all untried — 
Leaning with trusting heart upon 

The loved one by ber side ; 

And, like the vine whose tendrils clasp 

The strong oak's giant form, 
Supported by his love she dares 

To meet life's wildest storm. 

Fair sleeper, may thy life-stream How 

Through fields of fairest flowers, 
And brighter than thy happiest dream 

Be all thy waking hours. 



KATHARINE PENFOLD; 



A GLANCE AT VILLAGE LIFE. 



A most intricate lane is Bower Lane, branching out into 
a multitude of bridleways, and (so to speak) lanelets, lead- 
ing to isolated farms, cavernous gravel pits, and reedy pools 
— a rugged tortuous lane winding through orchard grounds, 
and hop gardens, and slopes of pasture land — now dipping 
into sombre hollows roofed by the meeting boughs of over- 
hanging trees, now climbing to the top of pleasant knolls, 
from which you catch a glimpse of glistening waters creep- 
ing through the valley at your feet, and then piercing the 
very centre of the Farleigh woods, and leading you among 
the richest sylvan scenes, so wild, so seemingly remote 
from every sound of human life, that one almost looks to 
meet within its leafy precincts the fauns and nymphs and 
hamadryads of antique song. 

Midway between the woods and L , niched in a lordly 

group of elms, that, sweeping in a semicircle round the 
rear, form a glorious framework for the cottage and its 
sloping plot of garden ground, stands Bower Court, the 
fragmentary relic of a noble house. Fragmentary indeed it 
is, as though the architect had been a " snapper up of un- 
considered trifles," gathering from the wreck of a majestic- 
al old mansion a picturesque and motley salvage; now 
laying hands upon a portion of the cloistered colonnade, and 
now appropriating entire a very jewel of a porch, nor scru- 
pling for a moment to avail himself of quaint old gable 
ends, carved window frames, fantastic coigns, and such other 
waifs and strays as fell within his reach. And when he 
had combined all these, and when "boon nature" had bene- 
ficently hung a tapestry of shining ivy-leaves above the 
jutting porch, and gentle hands had trained some flowering 
parasites to weave a lavish net-work for the southern front ; 
and when the summer sunshine shone upon its walls, and 
birds were caroling in the elms behind, and bees were 
humming in and out of the garden flowers, and " the mur- 
mur of a hidden brook," stealing along beneath dense hedge- 
rows, made happy music to the ear, you may believe that, 
to the eyes of such poor book-worms as ourselves, the Court 
appeared the very hermitage a literary eremite would 
choose to wear away his summer hours in. 

Swallows delight to make it their abode, and never do 
we pass it by but these exquisite lines recur to mind : 

" The temple-haunting martlet does approve, 
By his loved mansionry, that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here ; no jutty, frieze, 
Buttress, nor coign of vantage, but this bird 
Hath made his pendent bed and procreant cradle. 
Where they most breed and haunt, I have observed 
The air is delicate." 

For many a year the Court enjoyed the reputation of 
a haunted house. Children would speak of it with 'bated 
breath; and elder folks, belated in their evening walk, would 
hurry past it with averted eyes, and tremble if they heard 
the ivy rustle round the porch. And haunted most assur- 
edly it is, (though happily, in the popular belief, the sprites 
have long ago been laid to rest,) by a spirit delicate as 
Ariel, gentle as the "lady wedded to the Moor," and more 
than this, imbued with all the earnest love and filial ten- 
derness of a Cordelia. A warm eulogium, and yet not 







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THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



89 



undeserved ; as you yourself would honestly confess, upon 
acquaintance -with its object. Knowing her, you could not 
fail to love her ; and, loving her, you would be sure to 
superadd a feeling almost reverential for her devoted affec- 
tion to the blind old man, her father, who depends for his 
support in part on her exertions as a daily governess, in 
part upon the slender stipend he receives as organist at 

L . 

In the whole range of our acquaintance, we do not know 
of two such delightful associates as our organist and his 
pretty daughter. The old man so full of anecdote ; so 
sprightly in his wit; so copious and withal so justly dis- 
criminating, in his criticisms upon our literature, with 
whose riches Katharine's reading has familiarized him ; so 
shrewd, and oftentimes so happy, in his judgment of indi- 
vidual character — a judgment built upon no better basis 
than the inflexions of the voice ; so cheerful in the depriva- 
tion of his sight ; so enthusiastic in his passion for "solemn 
sounds, sweet airs," and " old, old songs, the native music 
of the hills ;" and so eager and thankful a listener to the 
comments of others upon the fine arts — painting and sta- 
tuary more especially — and the beauty of the visible world, 
to him, alas ! " banned and barred, forbidden fare." And 
Kate — silver-tongued and soft-eyed Kate — Kate with the 
lyric voice and cunning hand — where should we look to 
find so pleasant a companion for the winter fire-side, or the 
summer ramble, as the fair daughter of our blind old 
organist ? Yet Katharine Penfold, with all her manifest 
and manifold attractions and accomplishments, is a con- 
firmed and steadfast spinster. Offers she has had by the 
dozen, and, unexceptionable as many of them have been, she 
has uniformly met them with a courteous but prompt 
denial. " She has no wish for change — no thought of 
abandoning her pleasant home — no room for other love 
within her heart than that she cherishes towards her 
father," and, blushing as she diffidently stammers forth her 
thanks, our village beauty, by the very sooth and gentle 
character of her denial, invariably augments the passion 
she has so unwittingly inspired. Nothing, it seems, can 
win her from her celibate, or tempt her to exchange the 
arduous duties of her daily life for the ease and competence 
which the prosperous circumstances of some of her suitors 
would certainly insure her. He would be a proud and 
happy man who should confer his name on Katharine Pen- 
fold, for he would be, indeed, 

" Most richly blest 
In the calm meekness of her woman's breast, 

Where that sweet depth of still contentment lies ; 
And for her household love, which clings 
Unto all ancient and familiar things, 

Weaving from each some link for home's dear charities." 

Twice in the week Kate's homeward path lies through 

L , and during all the pleasant summer months, at the 

coming on of twilight, her father meets her at the church, 
and tarries there till nightfall, filling that old and echoing 
pile with the throbbing music of the solemn organ — im- 
provising voluntaries — weaving together fragments of 
masses, requiems, and symphonies, or reveling in the jubi- 
lant notes of some high soaring anthem song, in which the 
quivering voice of Katharine blends with the organ's 
tremulous swell — floats along the vibrating and dusky 
air — startles the sleeping echoes — murmurs high up among 
the massive rafters of the roof — rings audibly against the 
window panes — and, wandering outward through the porch, 
arrests the footsteps of the passer by, constraining him to 



pause and listen to the music of the blind old organist, and 
the carol, the clear exulting carol of his daughter's voice. 
And, when the gratherme darkness warns Katharine and 
her father to depart, it is a chance if there be not some 
young and loving loiterer in the aisle below, waiting to 
proffer, with an eager importunity, his services as an escort 
home. And, if the offer be accepted, what a heavenly 
beauty is there in that tranquil summer night, to the buoy- 
ant fancy of the happy escort ! with what a rare consum- 
mate charm are even ordinary and familiar objects invested 
for the nonce ! Think you that, to his ears, music was 
ever so divine as the sound of Katharine's voice mino-lin<r 
in the conversation which beguiles their walk ? Think 
you that ever distance seemed so brief as that which inter- 
venes between the village, and the "Court?" — that ever 
walk appeared so long, so wearisome, as the subsequent 
solitary retracing of his steps? Think you that, to the eye 
of shipwrecked mariner, ever star shone forth so brightly 
as shines the twinkling light from Katharine's casement, to 
which so often his averted glance is turned ? or that the 
pitchy darkness of a winter's night seemed ever so profound 
as that which settles down when intermediate trees obscure 
the gleam of that far-shining light ? And think j*ou that, 
with so many "shaping their services to her behests," 
Kate's resolute adhesion to a single life will still remain 
unshaken? We must confess we entertain a half mistrust- 
ful feeling on this score. But, most assuredly, if ever so 
important an event as Katharine Penfold's marriage should 
take place, we will not fail to duly notify the occurrence, 
with ample details of the ceremony, to the readers of our 
Village Annals. 



%m Illustration & t|e |jra&; 

lyon's barouche. 
Illustrated on Plate XV. 

We are indebted for this fine draft to Mr. Chas. T. Lyon, 
foreman in the carriage manufactory of our friend, J. L. 
Smith, Esq., in Twenty-ninth street, New York city. It, 
as may be seen by the draft placed on the block by the 
designer himself, possesses many original features of interest, 
and is drawn, with critical exactness, to the half-inch scale, 
the track of which is that of the State of New York, 4 feet 
8 inches outside to outside.. The draft, to which our en- 
graver has done ample justice, tells its own story so well, 
that any lengthy details, in this instance, would seem to be 
entirely superfluous. To tell a coach-maker how to paint a 
job and with what to trim it, looks very much like under- 
taking to teach a learned man his alphabet— a thankless 
task. We will only add, that the body is technically " a 
paneled" one, and that the spokes, artistically shown, 
differ from any we have ever seen drawn before, and from 
which we hope our draftsmen will get " a new wrinkle." 



THE DALZELL CRANE-NECK PHOTON. 
Illustrated on Plate XVI. 

Our readers are favored this month with this fine draft 
of a crane-neck phseton, through the kindness of Mr. David 



90 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



October. 



Dalzell, of South Egremont, Mass., from a drawing made 
by Lis son, who, should he continue to exercise his talent, 
will, some day, make an artist in this line equal to the best. 
Contrasted with the crane-neck phaeton in our August No., 
this will be found to present some varied and interesting 
features, and will, on comparison, we think, increase the 
reader's stock of ideas, which may be said to constitute the 
chief design of this publication. "We have still another 
carriage of this description sent us from Albany, which we 
will give soon. 



LIGHT R0C3JAWAY. 

Illustrated on Plate XVII. 

Our artist, Mr. Britton, has this month furnished our 
plate department with a very neat and tasty Rockaway. 
Although, when completed, it presents no new features, 
yet it may prove of interest to some of our subscribers. 
We merely give it for the sake of variety and to gratify the 
desires of a number of our correspondents, who are calling 
for " more light Rockaways." We trust that in future, in- 
stead of calling for, some of our ingenious friends will be 
" so kind, so condescending and so liberal" as to send us 
something in this line which will be really new. Here is 
a fine field for the exercise of dormant talent, and earning 
our prize offered in the June No. 

The back-quarter panel of the draft under consideration 
may be either made with a panel or with a solid side, and 
moulded off as seen in the draft. The space back of the 
door — supplied with a leather curtain in this instance — 
may be filled with a panel in which an oval window may 
be put, making a very handsome carriage of it. A dark 
green or blue cloth lining, faced with patent leather, 
stitched, instead of lace, will make a nice finish, for the in- 
side linings, for those who prefer cloth to leather. Track 
4 feet 8 inches. 



FAMILY PHAETON. 
Illustrated on Plate XVIII. 
This draft has been sent us by Mr. C. F. Richmond, of 
West Troy, N. York. We cannot say we exactly like it, 
still we are told that when constructed the vehicle makes 
a very fine appearance, and that this kind of carriage has 
found a ready sale in that vicinity. We think that it will 
furnish a subject for study, and therefore not be without its 
usefulness. Track, 4 ft. 8 in. 



§ 



priw from \\i %M. 



* ^ *^~ 



Porter's Spirit of the Times. — This interesting week- 
ly, published at 346 Broadway, at $3 a year, comes to us 
regularly, and pleases us very much. The rich vein of 
humor, in which its more pretentious articles are written, 
is very useful in removing the rough edges which the cares 
of business are apt to leave in one's mind in the pathway of 
life. Among all our exchanges, there is none we receive 
more interesting than this. 



EXPERIMENT WITH THE DOUBLE-PERCH AND 
ITS RESULT. 

The credit of first using the double-perch in light 
vehicles is claimed by Mr. D. J. Dusenbury, carriage- 
maker, New York city. During a lengthy conversation 
with that gentleman the other day, we learned some facts 
from the school of experience which may prove suggestive 
as well as valuable to our readers. 

The inceptive idea of adopting a double-perch, in coup- 
ling the axletrees of buggies, appears to have been sug- 
gested by its employment in a country farm wagon, in 
which, and other business wagons, it had figured some 
years previously. Having experimented for one entire 
year, our friend gained much valuable knowledge of its 
practical advantages over the old single-perch, which 
knowledge it is our intention to impart to the reader in 
the following detail. 

Suppose, for instance, the man, who is in the daily use 
of a very light trotting buggy, could, whilst his buggy was 
being driven rapidly over the ground, place his hand under 
the central part of the back-axle where the single-perch is 
coupled, he would experience such a tingling sensation in 
his fingers' ends as would soon convince him, were he a 
man of reflection, that that point was a very improper 
place at which to couple the perch, arising from the fact 
of its being the point equi-distant from each wheel, and 
where the greatest vibration or tremor, imparted to the 
axle by the two rotating wheels, is concentrated. At this 
stage, a studious mechanic would naturally conclude that, 
in view of the fact, it was a very improper point at which 
to couple his perch to the axletree, and begin to look about 
for a remedy. If, like our friend, he is a deep thinker, the 
thought would soon suggest itself, that, were the perch re- 
moved from the centre, out, nearer the wheel, and a dupli- 
cate one put on the opposite side, this trembling motion 
would be greatly lessened, since it requires but little argu- 
ment to convince a person, of even little discernment, 
that the nearer the perch is coupled to the wheels the 
less vibration in the axle will be imparted to it, conse- 
quently the " carriage" must be stiffer. 

Before proceeding further, it will 
be proper that we illustrate the dif- 
ferent modes in which the double- 
perch is coupled to a back-axle, 
and that, too, in chronological order. 

In figure 1, it is intended to be shown as dove-tailed into 
the axle-bed from the under side, which, when " ironed off," 
is bound — the perch plate being continued along and bent 
to fit under the back-axle, by a plate-clip passing over the 
" bed" and through a hole in the end of the perch plate — 
thus securing it firmly with a nut, as may be seen in the 




rig- 1. 



October. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



91 





Fig. 3. 



diagram. Experiment soon demonstrated that a dove- 
tailed perch-end possessed a weakness far from perfection, 
as it was liable to break even when well ironed. 

In the second experiment 
the perch was made to ex- 
tend under the axle, as in 
figure 2, and was coupled 
with a clip, as illustrated in the diagram. This was found 
to answer a good purpose, but presented to the eye such 
an undeniable clumsiness as to unfit it for a very light job. 
This mode, however, is still employed by some of our best 
manufacturers. 

In order to improve its ap- 
pearance, a third plan was adopt- 
ed, in which the back-end of the 
perch butted up against the iron 
axletree. To secure this properly required some ingenuity. 
Should the reader closely examine the illustration, figure 3, 
he will discover a plate, indicated by a dark line, extending 
downward, through to the under side of the perch, where, 
as may be seen, it is secured by nuts, as in the usual way. 
This not only forms the neater, but the most approved 
coupling for a double-perch yet adopted. 

On the visit referred to, we were shown a buggy that, 
after three years of hard usage, to all appearance was as 
firm as it was on the day when first it went upon the road, 
coupled in this last manner. 

There is one great advantage gained in using a double- 
perch. This is, that should your horse still retain a little 
too much of the wild nature, which Rarey's art promises 
wholly to eradicate, running away and spilling you out, 
whereby the risks on your life policy would, if before 
known, be increased seventy-five per cent., in that case, 
even, you would be safe. Another advantage is, that should 
your wagon upset, the two " off" or near wheels, as the case 
may be, would both go over together, pitching you out 
scientifically, the stiffness imparted to the double-perch 
having saved your life, and a large sum of money in 
repairs to the craft ; whereas, had there been only a single 
perch, its weakness would have sent the front wheel off 
the ground first, leaving the hind one to follow after, the 
weight of which would have broken the perch and been 
followed by the immediate destruction of the whole vehicle, 
and, perhaps, given a job to some undertaker, with so little 
sorrow on his part that he would have chuckled over your 
death. 

To prove the theory put forth in this article, let any one 
take two buggies in a repository : the one with a double- 
perch, the other with a single one, and, seizing the hind 
wheel of the double-perched vehicle at the top, give it a 
shaking, when it will be seen that both wheels — the front 
and back of the same side — in fact, all four, oscillate together, 
or evenly ; taking the single-perch buggy in the same way, 



it will be found that whilst the back wheel oscillates out- 
wards and towards you, the front wheel is oscillating 
in the opposite direction, or inwards. It will thus be 
proven that, compared with the double,' the single-perch is 
very weak, and that, in upsetting, a vehicle with two perches 
is less liable to break in turning over than the sino-le one, 
where the single perch is sure to be twisted in two pieces, 
caused by the weight of the front-wheel being at a certain 
point, and that of the back one at another, at the same 
time. 

As a further experiment, harness a horse to a wagon, 
drive off, turn the wagon suddenly around ; if your wagon 
has only one perch, the chances are that it will either up- 
set, or the sliding of the hind wheels has prevented such a 
catastrophe ; whereas, in the other case — the double-perch 
— the back wheels will follow the front ones in regular sue- 
cession in turning over, the passenger coming out " right 
side up, with care," escaping such disastrous results as are 
sure to follow where a wagon overturns. Try it and see. 
S. 

Iron Manufacture in Scotland. — During 1857 there 
were 128 blast furnaces in operation in Scotland. The 
production of iron for that year considerably exceeded that 
of any previous year, and the stock of metal on hand is at 
present about 190,000 tons — 33,500 tons of this quantity 
being in store, while the rest is in the makers' hands. The 
amount shipped to other parts of the world during the 
year exceeds that of the last by 20,000 tons ; but the 
home consumption has lamentably fallen off for the last 
two or three months. 

A vert fine quality of iron is obtained from the ore of 
Lake Superior mines. As the ore is plentiful in that re- 
gion, a great increase in the manufacture of the metal is 
anticipated. 



faint Utooiiu 



For the New York Coaeh-maker'a Magazine. 

PRIMING. 



BY JAMES SCOTT. 



When about to erect a house, a careful builder will be 
very particular in laying the foundation, to secure, as far as 
possible, strength and permanency — particularly as to the 
materials employed, and the manner of using them. I cite 
this fact as affording a useful lesson to carriage-painters of the 
" pitch in and drag out kind" — the fast men of the craft — 
the " three coats a day and stripe it" fellows, and to those 
young chaps who are undergoing the delectable initiatory 
process of learning the trade. In painting, the priming 
is the foundation, and, as in the case of building a house, 
great care should be exercised in preparing it, otherwise, 
the work is liable to crack or peel off, in which case the 
purchaser of the job uses strong language to the "boss," 
who, in turn, is not scrupulously polite in calling your 
attention to the subject : you, probably, apostrophize the 



9 2 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



varnish, in terms not very complimentary to the skill of 
the manufacturer, and so you have it ad lib., when, if 
the priming had been properly attended to, you might be 
enjoying unruffled serenity of temper, and a consequent 
good appetite and improved digestion. Use no paint to 
prime with unless it is mixed for that purpose expressly. 
Don't, when you need it, seize the first lead color you find 
on the bench, or take the drippings of half a dozen 
cups and mix them together; but take keg lead, a little 
lamp-black, if you choose, thin it down with oil — boiled, if 
you have it, if not, put in a small quantity of dryer — mix 
very thin and apply a light coat. If the work is not in a 
hurry, use no dryer, as it is better without it. Turpentine 
should not be used in priming — remember that ! 

DRAWING, AS CONNECTED WITH PAINTING. 

To every painter who has no practical knowledge of the 
art of drawing, and who does not consider himself too old 
to learn, I would recommend the study of this very im- 
portant acquirement — important to you, because of its inti- 
mate and absolutely necessary connection with your trade ; 
at least, the ornamental part of it. Many of you, I am well 
aware, consider it of little consequence, so long as you can 
procure patterns from the work of others ; while some who 
are employed in large factories, where one man does it all, 
very seldom have any ornamenting to do, and, therefore, 
have no desire to learn. Now, suppose, for example, you 
should take a notion to go South or YVest, for the purpose of 
bettering your fortunes. You can't ornament, but otherwise 
you are a first-class painter. Well, sir ! let me tell you that 
unless employed in a large shop in some city, where you 
will find wages no better than in New York, you would 
actually find it difficult to procure a situation ; and, if you 
did, you would find men who could not paint as good a 
" surface" as you, but, being able to put on an ornament, 
were getting three to five dollars per week more than you 
could command. This is not a mere assertion, but a fact, 
which the writer of this — an Eastern man — who has travel- 
ed extensively through the West and South, has learned 
by bitter experience. In the States of Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois, I do not know of a single shop where any job, 
which has panels large enough, is not ornamented, and, in 
a great number of instances, most splendidly is the work 
executed. How can it be otherwise, where so much 
of it is done ! The practice of striping is also carried to 
great perfection ; indeed, Western and Southern painters are 
unexcelled in this delicate art, anywhere. I have seen 
" carriage-parts" literally covered with striping and fine 
scroll work, and yet, so neatly done, and with such just re- 
gard to harmony of colors, that the most refined taste could 
find no cause of complaint. It has been ascertained by 
experiment that this style of work is strictly in accordance 
with the popular taste, as is evinced in the fact that a 
prominent manufacturer in the capitol of Ohio, who tried 
to introduce the fashion of painting light-work a plain, 
unrelieved black, was compelled to. take the work from 
the repository back to the shop, and have it striped, as it 
would not sell without it. 

So you see that, unless you can stripe well and paint 
a good ornament, the West or South is no place for you. 
Even in the Eastern States, where, comparatively speaking, 
little of it is done, it is a great advantage to a painter, pecu- 
niarily and otherwise, to know how, and I contend that a 
knowledge of drawing is necessary in order to do it well. 
If you can design your own ornaments, they can be painted 



in half the time required to paint the design of another. 
As you don't have to consult the pattern for every light 
and shade, there is no hesitancy — no uncertainty — you 
know where to put every touch ; besides, it is a vast deal of 
satisfaction to feel conscious that the work is the creation 
of your own genius. There is no danger of the taste for 
ornamentation ever going out of fashion. It is steadily on 
the increase, not only in carriage-making, but in manufac- 
turing of all kinds, where it can be applied. 

LAYING GOLD LEAF. 

English varnish makes a very good and very convenient 
sizing for gold leaf. Mix sufficient white or yellow with it, 
to enable you to see the design when put on the panel. 
Add japan enough to dry it to suit you as to time. It re- 
quires to be but very slightly " tacky" when you apply the 
leaf, otherwise the surface will be rough and rago-ed. ■ As 
several ot the ornamental designs in the August number 
are to be done in gold, this item may beof service to those 
who need the information it contains. In this connection, 
read the last paragraph of the " Paint Room" for Septem- 
ber. 



Crimmmj ^oom. 



A NEW STITCHING HORSE. 




Pontotoc, Miss., Aug. 21, 1858. 

Messrs. Editors — Sirs : — Inclosed please find a draft 
for a new Stitching Horse for trimmers. It is one of my 
own getting up, and I have worked with it for some time, 
and think it one of the best for a trimmer that I have 
ever seen. The two large joints were taken from an old 
folding-step, and the small one is a stump joint; so you 
can see that the time and expense in making are no more 
than the costs of the common strap-horse. If you think 
it worth M'hile, you can put it in the Magazine. I think 
you can get a few subscribers in this place, and with them 
I will send you the subscription due you. The first num- 
ber did not take here, because S * * * * * * does not send 
his Magazine to us now, and they are afraid you will do 
the same, but I have received yours all right so far, and we 



October. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



93 



are beginning to think it is all O. K., and you can put me 
down for a Magazine as long as you print them. 
Yours, respectfully, 

Leavis J. Heist. 



A Great Cry and a Little — Hair. — Among the latest 
" kicks" in England is an attempt to substitute the short 
tan, or hide hair, for the usual curled hair, for carriage 
cushions, by purifying, stiffening and dyeing it. It is puri- 
fied by boiling in a solution of soda of commerce, quick- 
silver and water. Before the purifying process is attempted, 
that stiffness may be imparted to the hair and add to its 
bulk, the hair is immersed in a glutinous solution, by boil- 
ing down fleshing in water, or dissolved glue. When this 
is prepared, pig hair is mixed with the tail hair of cows 
and the mane hair of horses, and used as a stiffening for 
cushion seats, beds, &c. 

VALUABLE RECIPES. 

recipe for making a leather black. 

Trimmers often find that copperas, iron filings mixed 

with vinegar, &c, when applied, leave the pared edges of 

the leather used as on valances, &c, of a gray color. A 

superior article for the purpose is found by taking 

1 oz. of the extract of Logwood, costing 15 cts. 

i " Bichromate of Potash., " 6 " 

1-J- " of Copperas, " 4 " 

The whole costs 25 " 
Dissolve the above ingredients in two quarts of hot water, 
when it will be ready for use. 



recipe for making leather varnish. 

Take 1 quart of alcohol, fa pound gum shellac, 1 ounce 
of rosin, and £ an ounce of camphor ; set these ingre- 
dients in a warm place, and stir them up frequently until 
they are all dissolved, then add 2 ounces of lampblack, 
mixed with a little alcohol ; it is then ready for use. If 
too thick, thin it with alcohol. 

In addition to the above, we have purchased, at some 
expense, the secret for making a reviving polish for patent 
leather, from the English discoverer, who is now on a visit 
to New York. Several of the coach-makers here have 
bought the secret, which is one of the finest articles, for the 
purpose, ever discovered. We would like to have unfolded 
this also in our Magazine, had not the discoverer interdicted 
us ; but, the best we could do was, to have the permission 
to sell the recipe to our individual customers as they apply 
to us. This we will forward by mail on the receipt of $1, 
which is less than half the price charged by the inventor. 
We pledge our word, that the secret is worth to you a 
great deal, and will do more than you anticipate, which is 
to make leather look almost (not to say quite) equal to 
new, and will reimburse you on the first old job that comes 
to your shop. Address the publisher of this Magazine, 
100 Elizabeth street, New York city. 



EXPLANATION OF STITCHING PLATE B. 

DRAWN FROM DESIGNS BY H. DEAN, NEWARK, N. J. 

Nos. 1 and 5 are half figures of patterns for the cen- 
ters of boot sides. 
" 2, 3 " 6 are figures for dash corners and boots ; 

No. 3 beino- a half fio-ure. 
" 4 is the half figure for a pattern for cushion 
facings. 

Clje |to fort C0ac|-maiur s Utajajiiu . 

OCTOBER 1, 1858. 

B. M. STKATTON & M. G. TOUSLET, Editors. 

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

" 0. G. E., of 0." — You are right ; let those who wish to read 
our Magazine subscribe and pay for it. That Western Magazine 
has not " come out" since the publication of the June number, 
and its " eld friends" are very uneasy in consequence. There 
are too many, we fear, who did not heed Mr. Tousley's timely 
warning. 

" 0. R., of N. Y." — The gentleman you allude to had nothing 
whatever to do with our ornamental designs for August, and 
we are happy to find your opinion as to their merits original, 
and confined to Mr. 0. R. 

" T. P." — It would be a hard task to find out your whereabouts, 
as your letter did not give, and the post mark failed to show, in 
what State you reside. You and others, who have fallen into the 
same error, are informed that no show chart is given in with the 
Magazine as a part thereof. See notice in the June number. 

" G. A. B.," of Berlin, Germany.— Your letter, "all in Dutch" 
to us, at a cost of 32 cents, an answer to which would cost us the 
like sum, asking us to get a foreman's situation in some estab- 
lishment for you, is received, but as you did not comply with 
our conditions we cannot with your requests. 

" T. H. M., of Ga." — Suppose you were to draw one of our 
ornaments on a panel with paint or varnish, and before it gets 
too dry give it a coat of bronze, or other metallic substance. 
You would then have " a metallic ground" on which to lay the 
scroll work of the shield, or to paint in relief. 

"H. & N, T. H. AND OTHERS, IN WESTERN N. Y. AND 0." 

The reason your numbers for Sept. were not mailed is owing 
to our agent being taken sick before he could make out and 
send in his list of names to the office. It is very much to be 
regretted on our part, but as, under the circumstances, it was 
unavoidable, you will please take our explanation as satisfac- 
tory, coupled with which we promise to send them regularly 
hereafter. 

"R. M., of N. J." — The geometry of carriage architecture, by 
some termed, erroneously, " the French Rule," will be com- 
menced in the next No. It is given by a " Practical Body- 
maker," whose name, for certain reasons, we suppress. It has 
been simplified to the simplest capacity. 

" Lua Delinn." — " Abgarus" will appear in our November 
issue. Many thanks for your fine production. 

« j. S."— The " Red Mustache" is filed for our next No. It 
came too late for this. All articles intended for the literary 
department of any certain No. should reach us previous to, or 
on the 10th day of the month preceding its date, when the 
first form goes to press. 

" A Wheelwright." — " Fuller on Wheel Carriages" is said 
to be a very fine work. We have never seen it. It was pub- 
lished in England for subscribers only, and is now very scarce. 
We believe there are but a very few copies to be found in this 
country. 



94 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



THE ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH CABLE. 

Although the present article has but little connection 
with coach-making, yet, ours being a journal of progress as 
well as one of improvement, we should incur the charge of 
being behind the age, were we to remain silent on a subject 
which has monopolized the thought and diverted the atten- 
tion of a vast majority of the population of our free 
Republic for a few weeks past. Such has been the excite- 
ment that, carried away with the idea, we expect soon to 
hear of some genius having hatched out a cable style of 
trimming for carriages, and even the absurdity of naming 
something new " a cable buggy" is not improbable in this 
nervous age. Where this " cable" fever will stop is a 
mystery Avhich the future only can unravel. We are 
already bored with cable canes, cable chains, cable charms 
aud cable other humbugs, heralded to the gullible public 
by the smart tradesmen of this "town," who expect by 
the notion to gather in the " tin" to their own pockets. 
temjjora ! mores ! 

Although we have witnessed a great many public cele- 
brations in New York city, that of September 1st, in honor 
of laying the cable, has taken all former transactions in that 
line down, and probably it will be a long time before we 
have another equal to it. That, after all, was a lucky cir- 
cumstance — the failure of the first and even second attempt 
to lay the " string" — as most people had come to consider 
the project as virtually abandoned, so that, when the work 
had really been accomplished and it was heralded through 
the country, " the cable is laid," scarcely any would credit 
the report — we say it was lucky, for the excitement upon 
which the public live was far greater than it would other- 
wise have been, from the fact that nobody expected it. 
Coming like a thunderbolt, the public were amazed and 
astonished when they found it a fait accompli, and too 
good to be true. With what avidity the newspapers, 
where everybody looks for facts now-a-days, were read the 
next morning. The very countenances of our citizens told 
that something " was out ;" in them could be read that 
some important event had transpired. 

In plain fact, the number of days previously required to 
get news from England had already narrowed down to a 
few minutes, and old uncle John Bull and his nephew 
Brother Jonathan were shaking hands, and " the peoples" 
were discussing the improbabilities of there ever being any 
more fallings out between them, although, but a few days 
previous, " the war dogs" of all Yankeedom were barking at 
the old Bull, for interfering, with our " vested rights" on an 
element where the " critter" had often before been ring, 
bolted. There was only one thing which lessened our 
pleasure on that occasion. We had imbibed in babyhood 
so much of the amor patria spirit that we were not willing 
that Afrs. Victoria should have her say first through the 
" string," but, since our bachelor President has at last 
surrendered to "the hoops," we, as loyal " high private," 



must follow suit. As a record of history, we are sure our 
readers will pardon, we give the two messages of the 
Queen and our President in full. 

THE QUEEN'S MESSAGE. 
To the President of the United States, Washington. 

The Queen desires to congratulate the President upon the suc- 
cessful completion of this great international work, in which the 
Queen has taken the deepest interest. 

The Queen is convinced that the President will join with her in 
fervently hoping that the electric cable, which now connects Great 
Britain with the United States, will prove an additional link between 
the nations, whose friendship is founded upon their common interest 
and reciprocal esteem. 

The Queen has much pleasure in thus communicating with the 
President, and renewing to him her wishes for the prosperity of the 
United States. 



THE PRESIDENT'S EEPLY. 

Washington City, August 16, 185S. 
To Her Majesty, Victoria, Queen of Great Britain. 

The President cordially reciprocates the congratulations of Her 
Majesty, the Queen, on the success of the great international enter- 
prise accomplished by the science, skill, and indomitable energy of 
the two countries. 

It is a triumph more glorious, because far more useful to mankind, 
than was ever won by conqueror on the field of battle. 

May the Atlantic Telegraph, under the blessing of Heaven, prove 
to be a bond of perpetual peace and friendship between the kindred 
nations, and an instrument destined by Divine Providence to diffuse 
religion, civilization, liberty, and law throughout the world. 

In this view, will not all nations of Christendom spontaneously 
unite in the declaration that it shall be forever neutral, and that 
its communications shall be held sacred in passing to their places of 
destination, even in the midst of hostilities. James Buchanan. 

There are some persons who anticipate that the " cable" 
will be a great benefit to the public, the majority of whom 
are far from being wealthy. We hope it may, but we 
think that, in the hands of a few rich capitalists, the benefit 
will be all one-sided, as they could afford to pay the high 
tariff, monopolize the speculations in some descriptions of 
merchandise and make us pay their own prices. We, in 
such a case, can easily imagine where the benefit will be. 
But we hope for better things. We were sorry to find 
that our fraternity were not represented on the occasion 
we have spoken of, although many mechanical operators 
lent interest to the procession. But our noble craft will 
never appear in a proper light before the public, we fear, 
unless some master-spirit takes the matter in hand and 
organizes a society in New York, with branches elsewhere, 
with the end in view of benefiting the employer and the 
employed, which we think is much needed, as the almanacs 
say, " about these days." 



« ^ ♦ » » 



SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE— ITS ADVANTAGES. 

" We divide human knowledge into two great branches — the 
science which deals with abstract truths, and the science which 
treats of real existence." — Lord Brougham. 

The cultivation of the intellectual faculties is one of the 
most noble and praiseworthy employments of the human 
mind. It has been well remarked by a celebrated writer, 
that the Creator has placed within us the germ of all the 
arts, and placed them there, too, for the most noble pur- 



October. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



95 



poses. This principle, which we designate as art, requires 
a scientific application, that is, practice, to develop its beau- 
ties the more perfectly. This scientific knowledge can only 
be learned advantageously in the school of practice. To 
this school, every man, woman and child has been invited 
by the Great Architect himself. We say, then, to every man, 
the young man especially, who is coming on to the stage 
of life, you should not be satisfied with taking second- 
hand theories of perhaps some erroneous speculator, with- 
out a personal investigation into the principles involved, 
aud the reasons why such and such mechanical results are 
brought about. Even should you, like an ancient painter, 
stumble upon a successful accomplishment in a fit of de- 
spair — never mind, a long and persevering pursuit in a 
straightforward directi#n must finally accomplish a victory. 
Viewing this subject as we do, whenever we find a youth, 
or those of more matured age, of a studious and industrious 
turn of mind, we are led to value and respect its possessor. 

To paint the advantages to be derived from scientific 
knowledge, we may relate the story told of Archimedes. 
One day, as the Kiug of Syracuse, Hiero, was in conversa- 
tion with the man of investigation, the latter explained 
to him the wonderful effects of the power of motion, and 
proceeded to demonstrate " that with a certain given power 
any weight whatever might be moved." To test his scien- 
tific accomplishments, he selected a galley in the port of 
Syracuse, and caused it to be drawn on shore, with great 
labor, by a great number of men. Afterwards he ordered 
the same galley to be heavily laden with merchandise and 
men, and placing himself at some distance, and sitting at 
his ease, without trouble, or exerting his strength in the 
least, by the simple turning of a machine, which he had 
provided with cords and pulleys, he brought the galley to 
him upon the land with as much ease, and as steadily, as 
if it had floated upon the water. Had Archimedes been 
as inactive as have been many since, he might never have 
been heard of after his death. Think of this, ye who are 
longing after a deathless fame, and let not the magazine of 
useful knowledge — crude though it may be — planted with- 
in you, perish in obscurity. 

As Rollin has observed, it is true that all mere geomet- 
rical or algebraical speculations do not relate to useful 
things ; but it is also as true, that most of those which 
have not that relation conduct or refer to those that have. 
The mixed mathematics, which descend to matter and con- 
sider the motion of the stars, the perfect knowledge of na- 
vigation, the view of objects by the assistance of telescopes, 
the increase of motion, the nice exactitude of the balance, 
and other similiar objects become more easy of access, and 
in a manner familiar with the generality of mankind. 
Archimedes labored long, doubtless in obscurity, but it 
was the certain fruit of his labor which brought knowledge 
to light, previously hidden in obscurity, and inspired the 
Romans with astonishment and despair when afterwards 



they besieged Syracuse. It is very true that the discoveries 
in modern science have, in a measure, eclipsed the produc- 
tions of earlier inventors, but let it never be forgotten that 
Archimedes, with his powerful machines, postponed the 
fate of a weaker nation, in spite of the army of Marcellus, 
backed by the Roman Republic, for many years. 

Galileo, Newton and Harvey, and others in this same 
beaten track, have investigated and experimented, and 
though often without success, yet finally they have tri- 
umphed. By this triumph they have founded for them- 
selves monuments more lasting than even the pyramids, 
and as enduring as time itself. 

In conclusion, we admit that it is a melancholy truth, 
that men of genius have, as a general rule, never much 
benefited themselves pecuniarily ; continual experiment 
has absorbed the small income of their lives, and in the 
end, as we have painfully seen, some one, whose skull has 
been too thick for even one original idea to escape from, 
has yet covered a brain sufficiently knavish to rob the un- 
suspecting genius, at the moment when he had hoped to 
have secured the reward due to a life of labor. Under 
these circumstances, the consciousness of having performed 
one's duty must be received as a compensation for years of 
study. 

M » H 

THE VILLAGE BLACKSMITH. 

Who has not heard of the village blacksmith, that ubi- 
quitous mechanic, whose character has proved a fertile 
theme both for the painter's pencil and the poet's pen ? 
Their likenesses of him have been as different as the ca- 
prices of his delineators have varied, but they seem to agree 
in one trait — that he is a good-natured and clever sort of a 
fellow, and always pays his debts, which is more than can 
truly be said of some men of greater pretensions, totally 
ignoring Captain Rumsey's assertion, that " to call a man 
clever is in effect calling him a rascal." His idea was, 
that a clever man is a goose for the public to pluck, and, 
consequently, must always be poor. But let us hear 
Longfellow's description. 

" The smith a mighty man is he, 

With large and sinewy hands ; 
And the muscles of his sinewy arms 

Are strong as iron bands. 

His hair is crisp and black and long, 

His face is like the tan ; 
His brow is wet with honest sweat, 

He earns whate'er he can, 
And looks the whole world in the face, 

For he owes not any man." 

The village smith is " an institution," no doubt, in many 

country places, but instead of — as Longfellow has it — his 

" Going on Sunday to the church, 
And sitting among his boys," 

we fear that too frequently he may be found, about that 

hour, lounging in some country tavern, spending his 

money for that which ruins his character, beggars his 



96 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October. 



family, and ends in his premature death. The remark is 
too near the truth, that "wherever you find a blacksmith's 
shop in a village, close by will always be found a rum 
hole." This, of course, will not apply to coachsmiths — 
they are supposed to be " all right." But we are digress- 
ing. 

We intended to say that, by invitation from Messrs. 
Williams, Stevens, Williams & Co., of 353 Broadway, we, 
in company with our brother editors, the other day, took "a 
private view" of the English painter's (Herring's) "Village 
Blacksmith," which, as the exhibitors declare, " challenges 
the severest criticism." The artist has painted the horse 
to perfection, each muscle marked in its lines and precise 
in its conformations, the skin, with exquisite texture, seems 
life itself, and the posture and general expression are true to 
the smithy. The smith is painted at the moment of re- 
moving a worn-out shoe from the horse's hoof, the animal 
looking around upon his tormentor with more complacency 
than is natural to most of his kind. His "gude wife" is 
seen entering the smithy with her husband's lunch — in 
which is included a bottle, another substitute for Pandora's 
box — with a smiling look presumed to be unusual in any 
American lady called to perform the same service. The 
hound — what use has the smith for abound? — in the fore- 
ground seems to partake of the pleasant feeling pervading 
the entire group. 

In criticising — not "severely" — we must say the general 
appearance is a little too much in the parlor order for our 
taste, and the horse-shoes hanging upon the walls are not in 
a manner consistent with American ideas and practices in 
such cases, and the " exquisite bit of landscape seen through 
a window" is far from natural, being altogether of a 
" whitey green" cast. But, " severe criticism" is not all 
the exhibitors wish from us — they wish us to say that, for 
artist's proofs before letters, the subscribers to the engrav- 
ings to be printed can have a picture, 24X30, for $30, 
India proofs for $20, and plain proofs for $10, by calling at 
the office above named, which, considering the character of 
the two works (the painting and the engraving), is very 
reasonable. 

4 * ♦- am > 

A HINT TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. 

We translate from the " Mercurc Universel," published 
in Paris, an article headed, "A Word on the subject of 
Good and Bad Work in the Manufacture of Carriages" 
which we insert in our present number, because we 
consider it applicable to our business in this country. 
Cheap ! cheap ! ! is the word with many of our customers, 
forgetting that what are called cheap cannot be good arti- 
cles, and that therefore cheap carriages cannot be good car- 
riages, and that the so-called cheap articles are always the 
dearest. It is not our intention to Avrite a long article on 
this subject, and we will therefore close these few remarks 



with the concluding lines of our translation — "We can 
never obtain a good article without paying for it." A hint 
to the Avise is sufficient. 



THE EFFECTS OF— WHAT ? 

With sorrow we learn, from letters recently received at 
this office, from the " west of the Alleghanies," that " our 
old friend" did, with the publication of the June No., 
abandon his " me and my cause" " Pioneer," and by the 
act prove himself a " traitor" to that portion of the craft who 
have paid him for a year's subscription, commencing with 
his January issue, without even so much as intimating such 
a thing. A man who so loudly professes to " part with 
everybody on the square" is expected to do better things'. 

Perhaps, however, " our old friend" forgot that part of 
his duty, and anxiety for his reputation would lead us to 
give him the benefit of any extenuation, even though it be 
merely superficial. Whether "our friend Kidder," or "our 
other friend, Aeby," is cognizant of how the matter stands, 
we have not learned, but such disinterested benevolence as 
they have put forth, heretofore, as " busy-bodies in other 
men's matters," demands that they come forward, now, 
and tell the public all they know about it. 

Last October the " Pioneer" told his " thousands of true 
friends" (?) that if he did not "defeat our [purely imagin- 
ary] designs it would be because he had no perseverance, 
and his Magazine no friends." In view of his former asser- 
tions and his subsequent action, we leave the public to 
draw their own inferences. 

As a crumb of consolation, to such as may be interested, 
we would state that, a few days since, " our old friend" was 
" 'way down South," "driving our own buggy," peddling 
patents, as he says, having "realized $40,000 by the sale of 
rights in various parts of the country." For the benefit 
of " our old friends," we hope it is true. 



TO THE COACH-MAKING PUBLIC. 

We are now prepared to receive orders for charts, illus- 
trated with any number of coaches, rockaways, buggies, 
gigs, sulkies, wagons, etc., and of any size, with your card 
in the centre. You can have a sheet twenty-eight by thir- 
ty-eight inches. For 

100 copies the price will be . . $15 00 
500 " " ... 65 00 

1,000 " " ... 100 00 

Charts to be forwarded by express when ready, accom- 
panied by the bill, and payable on delivery. Where the 
money is sent in advance — that is, with the order — five per 
cent, deduction will be made from the above prices. 
Address E. M. Stratton, 

New York City. 



OCTOBEB. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



97 



ON SCALE 



For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

DRAFTING, AS APPLICABLE 
CARRIAGES. 



TO 



EY JOSEPH IRVING, OF BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



(Continued from page 79.) 



LESSON FIRST. 

Before I proceed, I had better here state to the unini- 
tiated, that scale drafting and the so-called French or 
square rule are two separate and distinct things, as some 
have an idea that, if they learn to draw to a scale, they are, 
at the same time, learning the square rule. I have known 
very fine draftsmen that understood nothing at all of the 
square rule, or even of its existence. Scale drafting is the 
art of condensing a large and practical view of a carriage, 
or anything in the mechanical line, into a small compass, 
at the same time retaining all its various proportions, for 
the convenience of booking, or transportation, &c. 

The square rule is necessary for the body-maker to work 
by, and he cannot be a correct workman unless he possesses 
a thorough knowledge of it. By its means the side-swell 
is obtained correctly, and the thickness of the timber 
required for framing is ascertained, the short turns, &c, 
with accuracy, thus obviating the cut-and-try system that 
kills so much time. 



£ 



4 Fe 



inches 
. ■ ' i i I i ,) 



I will commence on a plain, square buggy, as it is the 
simplest job we require to begin with, and will gradually 
bring you into the crooked drafting, and wind up with a 
coach. 

In the commencement of each, place your paper in the 
centre of your board, and secure it with your drawing pins.- 
If you want to make a finished draft, commence and com- 
plete your drawing first with the black lead pencil, using a 
straight-edge for your straight lines. When you have 
crooked lines to make, dot off the lines, as illustrated, until 
you get them to suit the eye, rubbing out with your rubber 
all the previous marks, and leave them in that condition 
until you are ready for inking, which we shall come at in 
the next lesson. 




Now we will commence our pencil sketch. Place your 
T square upon the right hand side of the board and draw 
the bottom line, A, four feet from the bottom edge, then 
set your pencil compass 4 ft. 2 in., by your scale-rule, for 
the length of the body, and draw two perpendicular lines 
for the front and back ends, with your T square, from the 
bottom of the board ; in drawing all your perpendicular 
lines, use your T square from the bottom of the board, and 
for the horizontal lines use the right-hand side of the board. 
Next get the depth of the body. We call this 6 inches, 
which we mark from line A, and draw line B ; you next mark 
line C, six inches higher still for the full depth of the side 
and bottom line of seat ; next you mark the height of your 
seat rail, D ; then, from the dash-line, you mark with your 
compass 2 ft. to the front of the seat ; next mark the seat 
16 inches wide ; from this point to the top of the back end 
is the bevel line, F, of the boot. Let the bevel be the same 
in front of the seat. Next, mark the top of the dash 8 
inches above the seat-line ; then dot off the point of the 
seat-rail, as represented, until it suits. Give the back of the 
seat an angle of 50 degrees. You will find the degrees 
mai'ked in your scale-rule, if it is a correct one. Some 
draftsmen use a semicircle protractor, which answers the 
same purpose. 

Now the body we left is in a state ready for moulding, 
and we will divide the body off into panels, and mould off 
the boot in a similar manner, with a centre ornament. 
To complete the penciling of the body, next mark off 
the seat sticks, six on a side, equally divided, top and 
bottom alike, as the seats look better when the sticks 
are all the same slant. Now we will put the running gear 
under our body. Put a mark for the top of the spring-bar, 
3 inches above the bottom of the body and 2\ inches from 
it, and draw a perpendicular line; then calculate \\ inch 
deep for spring-bars, 11 in. deep for springs, and 3 in. for 
axle-bed to the centre of the axle, making in all 15-J inches 
from the body-loop, or top of the spring-bar, to the centre 
of the hind wheel. Now set your pencil-compass 2 feet 1 
inch, and draw the tire line of a 4 feet 2 inch wheel ; then 
you can draw the base or ground line. From the ground 
line we must calculate for the front wheel, Avhich we will 
call 3 feet 10 inches. Set your compass 23 inches, which 
is half its height, and sweep your front wheel. Now you 
have 2 inches more room in front, from the spring-bar to 
the centre of axle, than you have be- 
hind, and you will just want it for your 
head-block and fifth wheel. Now draw 
two parallel lines, front and back, 1^ 
inch apart, for the width of the steel 
springs. Next draw a horizontal line, 
E, \ inch below the springs, from the 
front to the hind wheel, for the reach. 
We will next complete this fig. 1st, 
by dotting off the steps, shafts, loops, 
&c. It will not be necessary to repeat 
a great many of these instructions in 
each lesson ; so, to 'facilitate matters, 
retention is necessary. Before you 
commence inking, it will be necessary 
to practice a little with your pen, in 
which I will here instruct you. 

See that your pen is sharp and that 
the points are even, but not so sharp as 
to cut ; then get your pallet — the bot- 



98 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



October. 



?v 



J) 



torn of a plate or saucer would answer the same purpose — 
then dip your Indian ink in clear water, and rub or grind it on 
your pallet, and use your camel-hair pencil to thin it to the 
consistence of common ink. Afterwards, fill your pencil 
with the fluid, and rub it into your pen. The coarseness 
of the line required is governed by the screw in your pen. 
Don't screw it so close as to hinder the ink from flowing. 
When your ink gets thick and clotty in the pen, dip it in 
water, and clean it out with a piece of chamois-leather, 
which you will keep by you for that purpose. 

\ Having all these preliminary 

arrangements completed, try 
your pen, and draw lines like 
those you did when you first be- 
gan to write — only in this case 
you have to use a straight-edge, 
or patterns — then dot off a vari- 
ety of curves and sweeps with 
your lead pencil, as you see illus- 
trated in the drawing, then match 
your patterns to them, and trace 
them with the pen. It is not ex- 
pected that you will have pat- 
terns for every sweep complete ; 
but use one pattern as far as it 
will go, then shift it and try another. A little practice will 
perfect you in this matter. Afterwards, replace your pen, 
for the pencil, in the compass, and practice at drawing cir- 
cles with ink, using your small compass-pen for small cir- 
cles. You will have occasion to draw circles from 1 inch 
diameter to 4 ft., and upwards. 



/„>• 



-3 




For tho New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

AN EXPERIENCED MAN ON THE SUBJECT OF 

WHEELS. 



(Continued from page 60.) 



Messrs. Editors, — Having given a few hints in regard 
to the seasoning of the timber and making up of wheels, 
I now propose to say a word about the iron-work. 

Hooping the wheels is first in order. All light wheels 
should be open on the inside 1-16 of an inch, and a little 
more on the outside. Shave off, with a very "flat gouge," 
a little of the end of the spoke, to give the shoulder a solid 
bearing under the rim. Be sure and have the " tread" of 
the rim square with the face of the wheel. This is to pre- 
vent the wheel from dishing too much, or, as is sometimes 
the case, dishing back. This latter difficulty is always 
caused by the tread being too low on the front edge. 

The tire should be cold when measured. One-sixteenth 
of an inch draft for a light wheel is enough, and even less 
on very light wheels. The smith must, of course, be 
governed by circumstances. 

It matters but little what kind of axles are used, pro- 
vided they are well fitted to the box, and of good iron. 
Case-hardened axles are to be prefered, and the arms 
should not be gathered. It is a great error to " gather " 
the axles. No carriage will run easy with the wheels 
inclined to crowd against the shoulder. Most blacksmiths 
will gather the wheels, notwithstanding it is contrary to 
all true principles and practical demonstrations. If the 



wheels stand perfectly true, the carriage will run easy. This 
is all the secret there is about it. 

One principle in iron-work, as well as wood, should be 
to make the substance strong near the greatest strain, viz. : 
an axle in the centre, a T plate at the junction, a stay at the 
shoulder and at the first bolt-hole. Never shoulder dowu 
iron square with a " swedge," but use a " fuller," particu- 
larly in making T irons, no matter where they are used ; 
always use a fuller in the corner. Iron-work can be made 
one-third lighter by a free use of the " fuller." There is no 
principle more neglected by smiths than this. Any one 
who has any experience in repairing old work can testify 
that shaft-irons and perch-plates are continually breaking 
at the weld. If the corners had been formed with a fuller, 
no breakage would have occurred. These may be consid- 
ered small matters, but there is no escape from the fact 
that good stock, and often otherwise fine workmanship, is 
thrown away for the want of a few essential points gener- 
ally overlooked by workmen. G. R. G. 

[We differ from our correspondent in one particular ; in 
reference to the "gouge" practice on "the end of the 
spokes to give the shoulder a solid bearing under the rim." 
We should want the gouge as " flat" as a chisel, and used 
very carefully. We have experimented, and found that in 
light work, where it is difficult to get much shoulder at the 
"tang," it is far better, after your wheels have become 
seasoned (after being put together), to carefully cut off the 
ends of such spokes as protrude outside the rim, with a 
drawing-knife, perfectly level. We have gouged out the 
ends of spokes, and obtained as our reward the pleasure of 
seeing our rims splitting at each side of the tenon in a 
short time, caused by the spokes sinking into them at the 
shoulder from the pressure of the tire and use, and the 
fun of giving our customer a new set of rims, in addition to 
which we have had to stand and take a " blowing-up," which 
has had the tendency to shatter our nervous system con- 
siderably. Perhaps, however, our friend has more particu- 
lar reference to heavy wheels in his recommendation, where 
the effects which he notices are not so injurious. We trust 
our correspondent will pardon us in thus " speaking our 
mind," as the great object of the Editors of his Magazine 
is to elicit the opinions of different members of the craft 
for the mutual benefit of all, and not to criticise our gen- 
erous correspondents, whose opinions we respect although 
we may differ. — Ed.] 



The Fair of the American Institute at the Crystal 
Palace, was advertised to be opened on the 1 5th of Sep- 
tember ; but was afterwards postponed until the 21st, owing 
to the dilatoriness of exhibitors. Upon the whole, the 
prospects of a good Fair are said to be flattering. As the 
Coach-makers are never behind-hand in these matters, we 
anticipate a good representation on this occasion. We 
shall endeavor to be on hand and give our readers the 
benefit of anything that may be useful or interesting in the 
exhibition, in a future number. 



October. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



99 



COACH-C AR VING. 

A Third Letter. 

New Haven, August 7th, 185S. 

Messrs. Editors, — In my last communication I pro- 
posed to explain and illustrate the difference of treatment 
in carving, for plain and fancy styles, but I shall be com- 
pelled to postpone that part until my next, as I am anxious 
to more fully explain the simple lines and curves of geo- 
metrical ornament. 

In-my second letter I explained and illustrated the first 
line in ornament. I intend to continue and extend this 
principle a little, but still in simple and plain ornament. 




Fig. C 



Figure 6 is a straight front-block, which can be made to 
any length or breadth. This design is intended for lightness, 
and no additional elaboration can improve it. It will be 
seen that in this design I have endeavored to extend and 
explain the principle laid down in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, and all 
combined in Fig. 3, page 58. 




Fig. T. 

Figure 1 is the same design applied to a crane-neck 
coach. 




Fig. 8. 



Figure 8 is a perforated door and front-quarter cap, 
which is carved on both sides of the door frames ; the 
glass passing over the carving. This cap is much in YOgue 
in New Haven and has a fine effect. This also shows the 
orinciple in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, combined in Fig. 3. 




Fig. 9. 



Figure 9, my Sultana opera-board, is also a good ex- 
ample. This board is suitable for either plain or fancy 
jobs. In this design you will notice a combination of foli- 
ated ornaments, scrolls, mouldings and panel, Avith a fret 
centre, which has a dashing effect when finished. 

Geometrical ornament is a combination of straight lines, 
and curves, so combined as to form general outlines to panels, 
spandrells and other ornamental figures, and is equally 
appropriate, either to coach work or architectural diagrams. 




Fig. 10. 



Figure 10 is a plain example of this principle. It is a 
plain opera-board, designed for plain jobs, with a raised 
bead-panel, carved top and grooved moulding on the edge. 




Fig. 11. 

Figure 11 is a new design for a crane-neck coach, which 
I have named the Hiawatha. There is room for novelty 
as well as beauty in this design. It is a very fair example 



100 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



October 



of the manipulation of curies and straight lines. You will 
notice that I have introduced a carved stretcher in place 
of the front-block, which makes a strong contrast and 
would make a good finish. I have made this design, not 
only to illustrate the combination of straight lines with 
curves, but also to show that ornament should appear as 
though it was a part of the work, and you will notice that 
what little carving there is, it has a purpose in finishing 
other points that would be too plain without some em- 
bellishment. A new feature in this design is the counter- 
sunk panel, giving it a nicer play of light and shade. This 
design is in what is now termed renaissance, a French term 
for the mixture of the different styles. Variety is the spice 
of life and of ornament also, and the more diversity the 
artist can get, the more pleasing it will be to the eye. But 
care should be taken that novelty does not predominate 
over beauty. Novelty is always admirable in ornament, 
when introduced to contrast and relieve its sameness ; but 
great care should be taken to keep up the connection, or 
style of the design. [See figures 1, 5 and 6.] 

This will complete all I have to say about the first 
principles in coach-carving, and in my next I will enter 
more fully into the treatment of plain and fancy work. 

Your humble servant, 

James H. Campbell. 



OUR BRIDGEPORT CORRESPONDENCE. 

Bridgepoi-.t, Conn., Sep. 9tb, 1S58. 

Messrs. Editors : — "With deep regret I have to chroni- 
cle the melancholy accident which resulted in the death of 
one of the oldest members of the craft in the country — 
Mr. Goodwin, painter, father of Mr. Goodwin who works in 
Mr. Wood's carriage factory. 

The railroad bridge here formerly had a path for foot 
passengers, but the company saw fit lately to pull it away, 
which left it a rather risky business to cross it, csj:>ecially 
when a train was due, as there is only a plank about nine 
inches wide in the centre between tracks to walk on. The 
poor old man, thinking all safe, and taking the bridge as a 
short-cut home, was about in the centre, when the train 
puffed and whistled at the end of the bridge, and, without 
slacking speed, dashed ahead to the poor man's destruction. 
A young man might possibly have escaped by getting 
down among the timbers of the bridge, but an old man of 
seventy is not active enough for such a feat. 

Trade keeps improving in this section. We are in hopes 
soon to sec our worthy bosses come forward with that ten 
and fifteen per cent, which was taken off last year, and put 
on the present list of prices. I do assure you it would be 
very acceptable after the hard times, and Ave will call him 
a jolly good fellow that first sets the example. I would 
be inclined to bet a trifle that Bridgeport will be the first 
place you will hear from that first led the van. 

I beg to make a short remark respecting No. 3 and 4 
pencil, alluded to in scale-drafting. When you are going 
to ink your drawing, No. 3 pencil rubs out easier, being 
the softer, consequently is preferable ; but where you want 
a pencil sketch, No. 4 leaves a harder and more durable 
mark. 

Joseph Irving. 



INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

Augusts!. — Upsetting Carriage Tike. — E. J. Dodge, of 
Port Washington, Wis. : I claim arranging the anvil blocks or 
supports, to rock on a centre in the manner specified, in com- 
bination with the arranging of the jaws of the intermediate 
guide or support, to be adjusted separately or both together, up 
and down, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

Machine for Bending Felloes. — John L. Mann, of Raven- 
na, Ohio: I claim the arrangement of the mounted forming 
block, and the system of tracks, D E F G, operating as describ- 
ed, when used in combination with the apparatus described, 
operating in the manner and for the purpose set forth. 

Children's Carriage. — William P. McKinstry, of New 
York City : I claim the use of three draft bars or handles, A 
A 2 and B, attached to a child's carriage, and operated substan- 
tially as described and shown in the drawings. 

Fare Boxes for Omnibuses, &c.' — I. B. Slawson, of New 
Orleans, La. : I claim, first, the arrangement of an opening in 
the top of the fare box, through which outside passengers can 
deposit their fare, when such opening communicates with a 
chamber in which the fare first falls and is temporarily arrest- 
ed, previous to being deposited in the receiving drawer beneath 
for the purposes set forth. 

Second, I claim the arrangement of the passage block, D, and 
cover, E, over the opening in the top of the fare box, for the 
purposes described. 

Attaching the Props of Carriage Bows. — D. B. Wright 
and L. Sawyer, of South Amesburg, Mass. : We do not claim 
the employment of a movable shoulder-piece which screws 
upon the prop, as in C. Thomas' patent. But we claim, as an 
improved article of manufacture, a carriage prop, in which the 
prop, C, is rendered independent of its plate, B, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

Sept. 7. Convertible Carriage Shafts. — Amos K. Hoff- 
meier, of Lancaster, Pa. : I claim first, the combination of the 
pole hook with its eyes, Q, and points, R, as they fit into the 
front ends of the shafts which form the pole. 

I also claim the arrangement and combination of the shafts, 
operating on joints, that when closed together form the pole, 
substantially as described. 

Machine for Turning Hubs. — Alexander Rickart, of Scho- 
harie, N. Y. : I claim rotating the mandrel, K, of the carriage, 
D, from the cutter shaft, B, through the medium of the worm- 
wheel and screw-gearing, f h i n, as described, it being understood 
that I do not claim broadly, and in the abstract, the well-known 
mechanical device of a worm-wheel and screw-gearing, but the 
parts above named, when arranged with the cutter shaft, B, and 
mandrel, K, of the carriage, D, so that the mandrel, K, will be 
connected with the shaft, B, and disconnected therefrom at the 
proper time, by the movement of the carriage, D, for the pur- 
pose described. 



RECENT EUROPEAN PATENTED INVENTIONS, 

Marcus Davis, 5 Lyon's Inn — improvements in carriage wheels 
and in means of retarding their motions. 

John Castle, Grantham, Lincolnshire — certain improvements 
in brakes used for retarding the motion of carriages on ordinary 
roads. 

John Oxley, carriage-builder, Beverly, Yorkshire — certain 
improvements in the doors and sashes of carriages. 

William Cowan, Edinburgh — improvements in machinery or 
apparatus for disengaging horses from carriages in case of 
accident. 

John B. Thornbcr, Halifax, Yorkshire — improvements in car- 
riages for children, called "perambulators," which improve- 
ments are also applicable to invalid and other carriages. 



\ 



PLATE 19. 



Vol. 1. 




3 

a, 
§ 



J" 
I 



o 
< 
o 
o 

Q 

H 

P3 

0? 

I 

o 

P3 
o 

05 



PLATE 20. 



Vol 1. 




CHILD'S CARRIAGE. — scale uncertain. 

Engraved for the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine, from an 

Ambrotype furnished by Mr. Kalpu Smith, New'IIaven, 

Conn. — Explained on page 111. 



PLATE 21 



VoLL 




ALBANY CUTTER. 




ALBANY TWO-SEATED SLEIGH. 




ALBANY PONY SLEIGH. 



See remarks on page 111, 
Nov., 1858. 



PLATE 22 



Vol. 1. 




No. 1. 




No. 2. No. 8. 

ORIGINAL ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 
Explained on page 113. 




DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, NOVEMBER, 1858. 



No. 6. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE RED MUSTACHE— AN ADVENTURE. 

BY JAMES SCOTT. 

Foppert is not one of my failings. The most bitter of 
my enemies would hardly be such a numskull as to accuse 
me of being vain ; no one who knew, or even saw me, would 
for a moment credit the validity of the charge. I despise 
a dandy, and regard with unmitigated contempt a person 
who puts on airs. I am, from principle, opposed to foreign 
fashions of every description, and yet, strange as it may 
appear, 7" wore a mustache/ Ay! and was proud of it. 
Perhaps it was a weakness in me ; but then it was such 
a glorious one ; so luxuriant in growth — so distingue in pro- 
portions — so unique in color (a bright sorrel), and, in short, 
it was the ne plus ultra of mustaches. Never did nose 
surmount its equal, not even in the ranks of those hirsute 
heroes, Napoleon's Old Guard. Men envied me its posses- 
sion ; I have heard them admire it, and wish that its dupli- 
cate graced their upper lips. Little boys thought me a 
showman (I didn't like that much), and women — well, no 
matter what they said ; 'tis enough that it attracted uni- 
versal attention, and I liked it (liked is rather a moderate 
term, perhaps, but I will not change it). Much more could 
I say in praise of that paragon of hairy ornamentation ; 
indeed, I might wax eloquent on the subject, but I forbear, 
though it costs me a pang to do so, as I must now come to 
the melancholy part of its history. 

Like many other carriage-makers, the adamantine (hard 
is too common) times, by reducing my " boss" to a state of 
collapse, deprived me of a job, and the anti-plethoric con- 
dition of my pocket-book advised me of the necessity of 
emigrating to some locality where my services would be in 
demand, and where money was a reality. Procuring a 
ticket, I embarked my anatomy on one of the Western rail- 
roads, and about dusk in the evening arrived at the thriving 

city of C •, a place containing five or six thousand 

inhabitants, and situated about a mile from the depot. I 
determined to leave my trunk in the baggage-room until I 
ascertained if I could get a job, as I intended going farther, 
if unsuccessful. While attending to this, the omnibus 
which conveyed passengers to the city had departed, so I 
concluded to walk. When about to start, I made the very 
important discovery that I was out of tobacco, a luxury of 



which I am very fond, so I stepped into a restaurant at- 
tached to the depot to procure a supply. On approaching 
the counter I noticed a short, thick-set, bilious-looking man 
seated at a table, engaged in the interesting occupation of 
gorging a huge chunk of ginger-bread, the passage of which 
down his gullet was accelerated by liberal swallows of what 
I took to be ale, or lager-beer. When within a few feet of 
this individual, his eye wandered from the compound of 
flour and molasses on which he was engaged, and fell upon 
me. Had he been shocked by a galvanic battery the effect 
would have been similar ; he started as if the writer hereof 
had been a stray grizzly bear, or Dan Rice's famed rhino- 
ceros. I thought he was intoxicated, and so took no notice 
of his strange conduct at the time, but proceeded to get my 
"weed." I was detained a few minutes while making my 
purchase, in order to get a bill changed, and during that 
time I felt strangely conscious that the devourer of ginger- 
bread was watching me closely. On turning to leave, I 
found this to be the case ; his masticatory labors were sus- 
pended, and his protruding eyes were fastened upon me 
with an intensity anything but agreeahle. I wondered at 
this, and, on gaining the road, involuntary glanced through 
the window to get another look at him. He was gazing 
at the door as if some horrid spectre, clad in the mouldy 
habiliments of the grave, had just made its exit. What 
could it mean ? I felt annoyed, puzzled, and slightly indig- 
nant; I even thought of going back and inquiring what 
he could mean by staring at me in that insolent man- 
ner. Had I done this, he would have saved me at least 
half the distance, for I had not proceeded more than five 
hundred yards, before, hearing footsteps, I turned, and, as 
the moon was shining brightly, beheld my tormentor coming 
after me at a rapid pace. The affair was now becoming 
interesting. Thoughts of garroters, robbers and highway- 
men, suggested themselves in alarming succession, and, as 
self-preservation is the first law of nature, my first impulse 
was to run — but for what ? Perhaps he had no intention 
of overtaking me — he might very naturally be going the 
same way — I would try him. I quickened my pace — he 
did ditto for a few seconds, then broke into a swinging run, 
making the gravel fly missile-saeonsly. Now, I am not a 
very passionate man — am not easily provoked, but, to use 
a rural phrase, 'twas a huckleberry or two more than I could 
swallow, being dogged in this manner, so I resolved to face 
my pursuer and demand an explanation. As I stopped, a 



102 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



November. 



single glance showed me that, in case the fellow entertained 
sinister motives towards me, 1 had chosen a very unfavor- 
able locality, as there was no house 'within hearing distance. 
I again, in spite of my rising anger, thought of running, 
but it was too late, he was close at hand. Turning my back 
to the moonlight — a decided advantage in case of a per- 
sonal encounter — I awaited him. 

" Well, sir !" said I, when he had halted, puffing and 
blowing, within a few feet of me, "what do you mean by 
following me in this manner? Do you want to rob me ?" 

"Rob !" exclaimed he, "reckon not, Mister Hunter, only 
of your liberty. You are my prisoner." Attempting to 
collar me as he spoke. 

" Hands off!" 1 cried, starting back a pace or two. " My 
name is not Hunter, and you know it well. You can't 
come any such game as that over me. If you want my 
money you will have to work for it, so look out for squalls!" 

I had fully made up my mind that the fellow wanted to 
rob me, and that the arresting part of the business was 
merely a ruse to throw me off my guard. His personal 
appearance belied the assumption that he was an officer ; 
if he was one, why did he not arrest me at the depot ; the 
case was a clear one, and I determined to act accordingly. 
'Tis true, that I was unarmed, but, as he appeared to be 
so likewise, I did not fear for the result. Not that I am 
constitutionally brave, on the contrary, it was, perhaps, a 
feeling of a cowardly nature which made me so confi- 
dent. I felt that I had the advantage of him, for I was a 
first-rate amateur pugilist — an accomplishment which I 
acquired while a member of a metropolitan gymnasium — 
and the consciousness of this rendered me as courageous as 
if I had been a perambulating armory, furnished with Colt's 
repeaters and bowie knives. 

" Now, it's no use your putting on airs in that kind of 
style," resumed the fellow in a tone of dogged determina- 
tion, as he again advanced toward me. " I know you to 
be Jack Hunter, the horse-thief, and" — 

He didn't finish the sentence, for I inserted a full stop in 
the shape of a rousing blow, delivered with strong emphasis, 
at the starting point of his short, stumpy proboscis. In an 
instant he disappeared, and a cloud of dust arose from the 
dry road, in the midst of which, a pair of legs, terminating 
in stoga-boots, were describing strange gyrations. In a 
few moments the aforesaid cloud parted, and a hatless 
figure, looking as if a sack of flour had been emptied over 
him, emerged, and made at me furiously. Now was the 
time for the exercise of my science, so I squared myself a la 
Tom Hyer. There was another forcible concussion, fol- 
lowed by an exhibition of ground and lofty tumbling by the 
ginger-bread man. This performance was repeated several 
times, my opponent returning to the charge and receiving 
his dose with determined spirit, and a display of wonder- 
ful fluency in the way of profane interjections and uncom- 
plimentary appellations. My blood was now fairly up, and 
I was beginning to rather like the thing, when my dusty 
friend suddenly changed his tactics, in rather an unpromis- 
ing manner too, for, on gathering himself up from the road 
for the sixth or seventh time, he seized a large stone and 
hurled it at me with vindictive fury. I sprang aside with 
more agility than I ever displayed either before or since, 
or ever expect to again. I was just in time, for it whizzed 
by within a foot of my head. I have said that I was just 
in time to escape the dangerous missile thrown at me; that 
was very true, but I was also just in time to stumble over a 
rock, the effect of which was to spread me out on the 



ground in an attitude of questionable gracefulness. It 
would be superfluous to say that I set about regaining the 
perpendicular with all possible dispatch ; my enemy, how- 
ever, was too quick for me. Ere I could gain my feet, ho 
administered a terrible kick with his heavy boot, which, 
taking effect on my temple, knocked me senseless. How 
long I remained in this condition I can't tell. On return- 
ing to consciousness, I found that my hands and feet were 
securely tied, so that it was impossible for me to move a 
limb. I entertained no doubt now as to the character of 
my assailant. He had most likely robbed me, and secured 
me thus, to prevent my going to town and giving the alarm 
when I recovered. Having arrived at this conclusion, I 
was proceeding to exert my little remaining strength in an 
effort to release my hands, when the sounds of feet and dis- 
tant voices attracted my attention. In a short time I saw a 
large crowd approaching ; they carried a couple of lanterns, 
and were evidently looking for something, or somebody, as 
they examined the fence corners while advancing. I uttered 
a cry, in order to attract their attention, and I succeeded. 
"There he is!" exclaimed one, and I was soon surrounded. 
The glare of the lights for a time blinded me, and, on 
becoming able to see clearly, what was my astonishment to 
behold my late foe among the foremost of the crowd. His 
face was awfully battered, yet I easily recognized him. 
He had not taken my money, that was evident, else he 
would not have voluntarily returned. What could it 
mean ? I was soon enlightened. 

" You are positive this is him !" said a man who carried 
a heavy cane and a lantern. 

" Yes !" returned the fellow with the damaged counte- 
nance, confidently. " I would know him by that red murs- 
tache of hisn, if I seed him on the top of the Rocky 
Mountains !" 

" I reckon you are right, the advertisement describes him 
as wearing a heavy red murstache ; so, we'll take him 
along, and lock him up until he can be examined. If he 
turns out to be Jack Hunter, you will come in for the fifty 
dollars reward, which will pay you pretty well for the 
thrashing he has given you. Come here, some of you, and 
help to raise him. Hold on till I untie his feet. You 
were determined that he shouldn't get off, I see !" 

" Yes, indeed ! I had too hard work to catch him to for- 
get that." 

I had said nothing, I felt that explanation or expostula- 
tion would, then, be of no avail ; so I suffered myself to 
be conducted to jail without a murmur, but with feelings 
of the bitterest kind. From the officer I learned that I 
would be examined on the following morning, and, at my 
request, he promised to send me a lawyer as soon as pos- 
sible after breakfast. My only object in wanting legal 
advice was to get out of the scrape as speedily as practic- 
able. I had no fears for the final result, but I knew that, 
unaided, it might be some time ere I could prove that I 
was not the veritable Jack Hunter, horse-thief and proprie- 
tor of "a heavy red mustache." Mustache! ay, there 
was the rub, and, if my memory serves me not falsely, I 
sincerely wished mine made up into blacking-brushes or 
door-mats — I mean a door-mat, I don't think it would 
make more than one of respectable dimensions. 

Well, in the morning the man of law and fat fees visited 
me, and we soon came to an understanding. He thought 
that he could procure witnesses who were familiar with 
the person of the real criminal, and assured me he would 
have the examination brought on as soon as possible. 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



103 



In about an hour I was conducted through a gaping 
crowd, to the magistrate's office, which was literally jammed 
with eager spectators, who eyed me as if I was a wild ani- 
mal, or the concentrated essence of villainy moulded into 
human form. On being seated, my legal adviser approach- 
ed me with a newspaper in his hand, and, pointing to an 
advertisement, desired me, with a smile, to read it. Adver- 
tisements are, generally speaking, dry reading, but this one 
interested me. It was to the effect that a reward of fifty 
dollars would be paid for the apprehension of Jack Hunter, 
charged with horse-stealing, &c. Then followed a minute 
description of his person. As I read that part of it, I invol- 
untarily burst into a loud laugh, in which the attorney 
joined me ; a breach of decorum which drew from the red- 
headed and ditto-nosed dignitary, seated behind the railing, 
a stern command of " silence in the court." The fact 
was, the description — the mustache alone excepted — was 
strikingly at variance with my physical proportions. The 
person described was, at least, four inches taller, fifteen 
years older, and looked ninety-nine times meaner than me 
(I own a looking glass) ; besides having a long scar run- 
ning across his forehead, and was known to wear a wig. 
The lawyer also whispered to me that he had found two men 
in town who, a year previously, had assisted in arresting 
the bona fide culprit, and who were perfectly familiar with 
his person. " They will be here in half an hour," he con- 
tinued, "so, in the interval, let us have some fun with old 
pomposity yonder" — meaning the Justice — "and your friend 
of last night. I will bring on the case and examine him, 
at which you can assist just to annoy the honorable 
Court (!)" 

The crowd was called to order — which meant to take off 
their hats and keep their mouths shut — and Job Simpson, 
half the surface of whose face was covered with court- 
plaster, was called to testify as to my identity, and the par- 
ticulars of my arrest, in which he bore so conspicuous a 
part. 

The scene that followed was decidedly rich. My counsel 
bullied the justice, and, together, we plied the witness with 
the most ridiculous questions, by which process we gained 
the very important information that he, the witness, was 
not intoxicated on the night of my arrest. That I struck 
him with what he supposed was a slung-shot, weighing at 
least ten pounds. That he never was confined in the luna- 
tic asylum. Never was tarred and feathered for stealing 
chickens. His paternal ancestors were not Africans — 
(delivered very indignantly) — they came from Holland, 
and he could prove it. Never said that the justice was 
drunk half of the time, and didn't know any more about 
law than a big dog. He thought the justice was a gentle- 
man, and knew his business. Didn't vote for General Jack- 
son in 1854, and, finally, could prove that he never swindled 
a nigger out of a hog ; and would swear that I, the prisoner 
at the bar, was Jack Hunter, for he had seen me once before 
up in Squedunk County. 

At this juncture the two men, mentioned by my lawyer, 
arrived, and promptly testified that I was not Jack Hunter, 
although I had " har" on my upper lip just like him. The 
difference between my appearance and the description in 
the paper was then shown, and I was acquitted. I talked 
of getting out a warrant for the arrest of Job Simpson, on 
charges of assault, perjury, &c, but, on looking around, I 
discovered that he had " sloped." Paid the lawyer a V, 
and made a grand rush for — the depot, you probably think 
— no, a barber's shop. In ten minutes my magnificent 



moustache lay upon a piece of paper, a mass of lather and 
red hair, and from that day forth my upper lip is innocent 
of bristles. 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER VI. 
Supposed manner in which chariots were introduced into Assyria — Sesos- 
tris' victories, and his brother's unfaithfulness — The Assyrian chariot mi- 
nutely described, and compared with the Egyptian — Difference between those 
of Korsabad and Nimroud. the latter representing the Trojan chariot — The 
fragments of a wheel found on the site of Ancient Nineveh, of metal, in part 
— Assyrian chariot-makers less skillful than the Egyptian. 



" Scilicet ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes, 
JEmollit mores, nee sinit esseferos." 
The next country in which the chariot flourished was 
the kingdom of Assyria, founded by Nimrod, that mighty 
hunter, according to Usher, sixteen years earlier than that 
of Egypt. Probably, by one of those singular circumstances 
which often serve to introduce fashion and usage from one 
country to another, our chariot was transported into As- 
syria at a very early age. 



I 




ASSYRIAN WAR CHARlOf. 

From a fragment of Manetho's History, preserved by 
Joseph. Contr., App. lib. 1, c. 14, 15 [A. M. 25 13 J, we 
learn that "Sesostris, having appointed Armais,* his brother, 
viceroy over Egypt, went on an expedition against Cyprus 
and Phoenicia, and waged war with the Assyrians and 
Medes, all of whom he subdued, either by force of arras, or 
voluntary submission by the mere terror of his power. 
Encouraged by these successes, he advanced still more con- 
fidently, and subdued the countries of the East." At this 
time (A. C. 1491), the Assyrian Empire had been founded 
309 years. This subjection, doubtless, introduced the 
chariot into the subjected empire. Contrasting the Egyp- 
tian and Assyrian chariots of a later period, as depicted in 
a former and the present article, we find that there was 

* During the absence of Sesostris, Armais abused his confidence, by vio- 
lating his queen and numerous concubines, and, at the persuasion of his 
friends, assumed the crown, and openly defied his brother. Informed of this 
by the head priest, Sesostris returned to Pelusium and recovered his king- 
dom. Prom Sesostris, Egypt took its name— his proper name being Egyptus. 
He reigned 38 years. 



I 



104 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



November. 



a marked distinction between them, which will serve, 
striking-ly, to illustrate the ingenuity, and its different ap- 
plications, as possessed by two of the most distinguished 
nations of the world's early history. In some particulars, 
their chariots closely resembled each other, particularly in 
the hanging up, which, should our readers compare with 
the drawing of an Egyptian vehicle on page 86 of this 
volume, he can see for himself has been improved upon a 
little, by placing the body further back on the axle-tree. 
The lightness between the two, when placed in contrast, is 
very striking. Egypt, a level and fine country for travel, 
would allow of very light construction. Assyria, on the 
contrary, rough and mountainous, required something more 
substantial. That art, in its incipient state, produces a 
heavy article, which usage suggests may be made lighter, 
and at the same time prove efficient, has found examples in 
our own country. Compare the present carriages with 
those of forty years ago ! After describing the Assyrian 
chariot, we shall proceed by contrasting it with the 
Egyptian. 

Proceeding from the front of the Assyrian chariot as 
above illustrated, over or between the horses is a richly- 
embroidered appendage, which seems to be an apparatus like 
that used in India for preventing the horses from coming 
together. The bossed shield of the king is placed at the 
back of the chariot, serving for further security ; in front 
is the brass or iron bar fixed to the pole, as in the chariots 
of Egypt, and the pole in one example terminates in the 
head of a swan — in another, in a ball. The spear is in- 
serted behind the chariot, in a place appointed for it, 
decorated with a human head. The harness and trappings 
of the Assyrian and Egyptian horses are almost precisely 
alike. Pendant at the sides of the horse is a circular or- 
nament, terminating in tassels, analagous to that, divided 
into thongs, at the side of the Egyptian horse, which, we 
presume, may be intended to accelerate the pace of the 
animal, as in the case of the spiked balls fastened to the 
trappings of the race-horses on the Corso, in modern Rome. 
In both examples, several bands pass over the chest, 
and, lapping over the shoulders of the horse, join the liga- 
ments attached to the yoke, or pole. A remarkable band 
and thong, through the upper end of which passes a single 
rein, is the same in both harnesses. The tails of the As- 
syrian horses are fancifully compressed in the centre, while 
the Egyptian horses have a band round the upper part or 
root of the tail. Around the necks of the Assyrian horses 
is a string of alternately large and small beads, which ap- 
pear to have cuneiform characters cut upon them — possibly, 
a series of amulets, according to the custom of many 
oriental nations of the present day. The shield-bearer is 
seen protecting his sovereign with a bossed shield extended. 
In our example there are two horses, but in some instances 
three were employed. 

If we examine the slabs on which chariots are repre- 
sented, lately exhumed by Layard and others, both at 
Korsabad and Nimroud, we discover a marked difference 
in them. Those of the older city are represented in our 
present engraving, and which probably had continued in 
use throughout all Asia for a long period. It is surmised 
that the walls of Nimroud supply examples of the Trojan 
chariot, the intermediate stage between those portrayed at 
Korsabad and those introduced by Cyrus. 

There is a remarkable feature about the wheels of the 
Assyrian chariot, differing very materially from those of 
Egypt. Should the reader look at the bas-reliefs, as in our 



illustration, he will notice that the spokes, as compared 
with the other parts of the wheel, are very slight — a cir- 
cumstance that induces us to believe that they were formed 
of metal. At this point we are assisted in our history by 
the fragment of a small circle, undoubtedly forming the 
portion of a car wheel, recently found on the ancient site 
of Nineveh, on the concave side of which still remain the 
roots of the spokes. The bas-reliefs go to show that the 
felloes were formed of two superposed circles, the external 
circle being united by broad flaps to the internal one. It 
is very allowable to suppose that the Assyrians, finding 
great difficulty in uniting with precision the different parts 
of a wheel, thought of casting in one piece the interior 
portion — that is, the hub, the spokes, and the first circle, 
or felloe — and then completing it by another circle of wood, 
thicker and broader than the first, in order to increase the 
diameter of the wheel, and prevent its cutting into the 
ground. Contrasted with the Egyptian wheel, the Assyrian 
does not impress a modern coach-builder's mind with any 
exalted ideas in favor of Assyrian art. The whole vehicle 
presents a rude and clumsy appearance, far behind the 
Egyptian, as illustrated in this serial history, and the whole 
subject presents matter for study, deeply interesting to 
thinking minds. This subject will be further illustrated 
in our next chapter, with a chariot of a later date. S. 



THE HORSE-TAMER'S SECRET UNFOLDED. 

(Continued from page 81.) 

SUBSEQUENT EDUCATIONAL LESSONS IN HORSE-TAMING I HOW 
TO SUBDUE A KICKING HORSE. 

A kicking horse is the worst kind of a horse to under- 
take to subdue, and more dreaded by man than any other ; 
indeed, it would not be too much to say that they are more 
dreaded than all the other bad and vicious horses put 
together. You often hear the expression, even from horse- 
jockeys themselves, "I don't care what he does, so he 
doesn't kick." Now, a kicking horse can be broken from 
kicking in harness, and effectually broken, too, though it 
will require some time to manage him safely ; but perse- 
verance and patience by this rule will do it effectually. 
When you go to harness a horse that you know nothing 
about, if you want to find out whether he is a kicking 
horse or not, you can ascertain that fact by stroking him in 
the flank where the hair lies upward, which you can discover 
easily on any horse ; just stroke him down with the ends 
of your fingers, and if he does not switch his tail and shake 
his head, and lay back his ears, or some of these, you need 
not fear his kicking ; if he does any, or all of these, set him 
down for a kicking horse, and watch him closely. 

When you harness a kicking horse, have a strap, about 
three feet long, with a buckle on one end ; have several 
holes punched in the strap ; wrap it once around his leg, 
just above the hoof; lift up his foot, touching his body; 
put the strap around the arm of his leg, and buckle it ; 
then you can go behind him, and pull back on the traces ; 
you must not fear his kicking while his foot is up, for it is 
impossible for him to do it. Practice him in this way 
awhile, and he will soon learn to walk on three legs. You 
should not hitch him up until you have practiced him, 
with his leg up, two or three times, pulling on the traces 
and walking him along. After you have practiced him a 
few times in this way,"take up his foot as directed ; hitch 
him to something, and cause him to pull it a short distance ; 



November. THE NEW YORK CO ACH -MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 105 


and then take him out ; caress him every time you work 
with him. You will find it more convenient to fasten up 
his left foot, because that is the side you are on. After you 
have had him hitched up once or twice, you should get a 
long strap ; put it around his foot, as before directed (above 
the hoof and below the pastern-joint) ; put it through a 
ring in your harness ; take hold of it in your hand ; hitch 
him up gently, and, if he makes a motion to kick, you can 
pull up his foot and prevent it. You should use this strap 
until you have him broken from kicking, which will not 
take very long. You should hitch a kicking horse by him- 
self ; you can manage him better in this way than to hitch 
him by the side of another horse. 

HOW TO BREAK A HORSE FROM SCARING. 

It is an established rule in philosophy, that there is not 
an effect without a cause, and, if so, there must be some 
cause for the scaring of a horse. The horse scares either 
from imagination or from pain. Now, it is a law of his 
nature, that if you will convince him that any object will 
not hurt him, there is no danger of his scaring at it, no 
matter how frightful it may be in appearance. To exem- 
plify this, take a horse that is very easily scared at an um- 
brella ; take that horse into a tight stable where you can 


have his attention ; take him by the bridle, and hold the 
umbrella in your hand ; when he first looks at it he will 
be afraid of it, and, if he could, he would soon be out of its 
reach ; but hold it in your hand ; let him look at it, and 
feel it with his nose, a few minutes, and then you can shut 
it as you please, occasionally letting him feel it with his nose, 
and soon he will care nothing about it. 

In the same manner you can break any horse from scar- 
ing at things that may look frightful to him, logs, stumps 
by the roadside, or anything that you may wish to carry 
on him. If you wish to make a trial of this theory, just 
take a horse into the stable, and let him examine the fright- 
ful object a few minutes, after his mode of examining things, 
and you will be perfectly satisfied. We have tried horses 
that would not suffer you to take an umbrella on them shut, 
and in fifteen minutes could open and shut it at pleasure, 
and they will pay no attention to it. There is something 
peculiar in the horse (though it is because he has not the 
faculty of reasoning). You can take an object that he is 
afraid of ; take it only on one side ; let him examine it on 
that side only ; do not let the other eye see it; he will be 
broken on one side, and, as soon as the other eye beholds 
it, will be afraid until he looks at it and touches it with his 
nose ; then he will be broken on both sides. 








l 

i 

I 


P^Srai iiiSiii»iBiilS^ "lliSli 




DONATES C( 

the western si 
ing, and again 
morning, was 
at which time 
so than any tl 
tion. Its dist 
two millions o 
lation Arcturi 
of October, 
says that the < 


DONATl'S COMET- 

THE COMET. 

>met, which at this date so beautifully adorns 
:y from dusk until half-past eight in the even- 
is seen in the northeast at about four in the 
nearest the earth about the 9th of October, 
it was very large and brilliant, probably more 
xat may be seen again by the present genera - 
ance, when nearest the earth, was about fifty- 
f miles. The nucleus was near the constel- 
s, and nearest the earth's orbit on the 20th 
Dr. Bond, of Harvard College Observatory, 
:ause of this comet's appearance again in the 


—October, 1858. 

morning is owing to the considerable northern declination 
of the comet, with a right ascension differing but little from 
that of the sun. 

The following very interesting observations on the pro- 
gress of the comet, at an early date after its appearance, are 
from the pen of Professor Mitchell, of the Cincinnati Ob- 
servatory, and will, no doubt, be read with interest at this 
time : 

"On the evening of the 25th of September, the appear- 
ance of the comet, in the great refractor of the Cincinnati 
Observatory, was especially interesting. The central por- 
tion, or nucleus, was examined with powers varying from 
one hundred to five hundred, without presenting any 



106 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



November. 



evidence of a well-defined planetary disc. It was a bril- 
liant glow of light, darting and flashing forward in the 
direction of the motion toward the sun, and leaving the re- 
gion behind in comparative obscurity. But the most won- 
derful physical feature presented, was a portion of a nearly 
circular nebulous ring, with its vertex directed toward the 
sun, the bright nucleus being in the centre, while the im- 
perfect ring swept more than half round the luminous 
centre. This nebulous ring resembled those which some- 
times escape from a steam-pipe, but did not exhibit the ap- 
pearance which ought to be presented by a hollow hemi- 
spherical envelope of nebulous matter. 

" There was an evident concentration of light in the 
ceutral portions of the ring, while, in the case of a hollow 
envelope, the brightest portion should be at the outer edge. 
By micrometrical measurement, the distance from the cen- 
tral point to the circumference of the ring was found to be 
about nine thousand miles. This would give a diameter of 
eighteen thousand miles, in case the ring was entire. Simi- 
lar measurements, made on the evening of the 26th of Sep- 
tember, indicated a decided increase in the radius of the 
ring, which was now not less than twelve thousand miles 
in length. On the same evening, I noticed the fact that 
the luminous envelope did not blend itself into the head 
portion of the tail, but appeared somewhat to penetrate 
into this nebulous mass, especially on the upper part, pre- 
senting the appearance of about 200 degrees of a spiral. 
The tail, on the 25th, was decidedly brighter and better de- 
fined on the upper than on the lower portion, while on the 
evening of the 26th there was a much nearer approach to 
equality in brightness, especially near the head of the 
comet. Through the telescope, and near the head, the tail 
presented the appearance of a hollow nebulous envelope, 
under the form of a paraboloid of revolution, the edges 
being brightest and well defined, while there was a mani- 
fest fading away of light towards the central region. 
Through the vast depth of nebulous matter composing this 
wonderful appendage, the faintest telescopic stars shone 
with undiminished brightness. 

" The only comet which has presented an appearance re- 
sembling the one now visible is the one known as Halley's 
Comet, as seen by Sir William Herschel and others, in 
its return in 1836. There is a marked difference between 
the two : that while the envelope of Halley's Comet is 
described as a hemispherical hollow envelope, this shows 
more the shape of a nebulous ring ; there is a faint, misty 
light, of irregular outline, but not to be mistaken by even 
a casual observer. Mr. J. R. Hind, the English astronomer, 
who has earned the appellation of the ' Planet-catcher,' is 
good authority on the comet. He expresses the opinion 
that its increase in brightness will go on, in conformity with 
theory, so that about the epact of maximum brilliancy in 
October it will be visible with telescopes in full sunshine. 
The nucleus is of the appearance of a star of the second 
magnitude, and the tail, which points nearly due North, 
although rather faint, is about five degrees in length. The 
comet is about 120 millions of miles from the earth, or a 
little farther from us than the sun, and the diameter of the 
nucleus is estimated to be rather more than 3,000 miles, or 
nearly one and a half times larger than the moon. The 
length of the tail, judging from its appearance, is estimated 
at fifteen millions of miles. The path of the comet is that 
of a parabola, and it is conjectured that it will not appear 
again for some hundreds of years." 

We have had our engraving made expressly for this Ma- 



gazine, and which gives a very fair representation of it as 
it appeared on the evening the drawing was made. 



THE RUSSIAN DROSHKY. 
The following interesting description of the droshky, or 
St. Petersburg cab, we find in a late number of the New 
York Times, over the sobriquet of a traveler who calls 
himself " Marc Random." With some allowance for the 
writer's fanciful description, it presents a pretty fair picture 
of the Russian national vehicle. He asks : 

" Do many of your readers know what a droshky is ? The 
droshky is the popular vehicle of St. Petersburg, in the 
' rolling' season — by which I mean the months when there 
is no sleighing. The droshky stands in the same relation 
to the everyday life and locomotion of St. Petersburg as 
the cab or the ' Hansom' does to London, and the fiacre 
to Paris. Yet it differs in every essential respect (save that 
it has wheels — such as they are) from all these. It differs, 
too, entirely, from the Russian omnibus, which is a clumsy, 
dingy -looking vehicle, much higher behind than before and 
appearing as if strongly inclined to pitch over the horses' 
heads. This latter affair resembles nothing I know of so 
much as that peculiar wagon, often to be seen waiting at 
the back entrances of criminal court-rooms in our large 
cities, and known by the sobriquet of ' Black Maria.' The 
droshky, on the contrary, is a very small carriage, about 
the size, perhaps, of a moderate basket-cradle. Its wheels 
are of a circumference adapted to a barrow. The droshky 
is destitute of springs (as far as I can discover), and is, alto- 
gether, as ingenious an instrument of torture as any exhib- 
ited in the Tower of London or elsewhere. It is provided 
with a little seven-by-nine sort of perch, just behind the 
driver, and the only prospect the passenger has ahead is a 
needlessly close view of a long coat of coarse cloth, with a 
brass plate and number suspended from the collar, the 
whole surmounted by a low-crowned hat, in shape resem- 
bling a peck measure. Many droshkies are not constructed 
to afford room for disposing of the unlucky passenger's 
legs in the usual manner, and, unless he happen to be pro- 
vided with Palmer's patent, and can unscrew his nether 
extremities and leave them at home, he must perforce strad- 
dle the seat, at the imminent risk of breaking his ankles. 
This is the Russian droshky, hundreds of which are con- 
stantly jolting over the stony streets of St. Petersburg, at 
twenty-five copecks, or twenty cents, the ride. It is a con- 
trivance which may be earnestly recommended to the 
attention of dyspeptics, as certain to effect a radical cure 
in a very short space of time. I am glad to say, however, 
looking to the comfort of people who are not dyspeptic, 
that a project has been broached to establish in this city a 
system of public cabs similar to those of London and Paris. 
It is certainly a much-needed reform. These droshkies, at the 
best, can only be useful in fine weather ; which is the excep- 
tion here during by far the greater part of the year. When 
it rains, those who desire to ride are obliged to employ large 
two-horse covered carriages, the drivers of which are even 
viler extortioners than New York hackmen. It is true 
there is a tariff of charges, regulated by law (as, indeed, 
with you), but it is adroitly evaded, and only exists upon 
paper. If you take possession of a carriage and give the 
driver his orders, he invariably tells you that he is already 
engaged and cannot consent to run the risk of being dis 
charged, for a less consideration than three to five roubles ; 
and you must submit to the imposition or go on foot." 



November. 



THE NEW YORK CO A C H - M A K ER'S M A G A Z 1 N E 



107 




SKELETON ROCKAWAY AND KANT-BOARD. 



For the New Tork Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



BY A PRACTICAL COACH-MAKER. 



PART FIRST— BODY-MAKING. 
It is our intention to lay the square rule before the 
readers of this Magazine, in a manner so as to be easily 
understood, especially by apprentices, and young men 
who never had the advantages of working in a shop 
where accuracy and correctness were the order of the day, 
but who have spent the best of their time on the guess at 
it and allow a little system. There are different methods 
adopted in laying out this rule, but it tends to the same 
thing in the end. We purpose adopting the simplest man- 
ner of applying it, and commencing on the simplest job 
requiring its use. 

The above plate represents a skeleton rockaway, with 
the kant-board attached. When we come to a coach job, 
we purpose laying it off in sections, giving each segment 
requiring the application of the rule our principal study, 
till we feel we have given sufficient instructions to keep the 
recipient from relapsing into his former habits, and con- 
vincing him of the necessity of its application. By once 
applying yourself to the use of the square rule, you can 
always learn and improve, and find out many things which 
you cannot expect to learn from a publication, further than 
to get the method of applying it. We will at once proceed 
with our rockaway to lay it down on the draft-board. As this 
is the square rule we are on, it is expected that all the pat- 
terns are made for the side elevation. As there are several 
calls for this production, we will have to let some one else 
tackle into a chapter of instructions on pattern-making, 
or defer it till some future time. It is supposed you have 
made your draft from a correct scale-drawing. Now we 
will lay out our kant-board. 



For convenience we will place the kant-board on the 
draft ; it would do in this case on a separate board, or 
under the draft — but, for a contracted body, it is very 
essential to have the kant exactly half the width of the 
body from the base line ; then, by applying your rule, you 
can get the exact length of any cross-bar required. 

In order to find out the swell we give the side, we 
have first to calculate on how much turn-under we are to 
give the standing pillars. We want it to turn under 1\ in. ; 
this 2\ in. you mark off at the extreme depth, C, of the 
bottom side, from the line, B, of the hinge-pillar ; add f in. 
more to the 2\ in., for the tenon point of pillar; from this 
point draw the square line, D, which is the inside of the 
pillar. Now you have the full depth of the pillar, which is 
3 J in. ; you can now draw an easy curve from where you 
marked it 2\ in. at the bottom, to about 5 in. above the 
bottom of the arm-piece. This is the turn-under of the 
body from the back of the tenon. Now add \\ in., and 
draw line E up to where it intersects the seat line, F; this 
line, E, is the face of the bottom side of the transverse 
section. Having obtained the turn-under of pillar, and 
the full depth of side frame, we will now mark it off on the 
kant-board. 

From the base line on the draft-board draw the chalk- 
line A, the full length, and exactly half the width of the 
body, between the bottom sides ; this we will call three 
feet, then, with your square, draw lines from the extreme 
length of top, or kant-rail, till it reaches the horizontal line, 
A; also, draw lines from where the arm-piece terminates 
on the front and back pillars. From line A, which is the 
face of bottom side, and on line B, mark off the previous 
calculation of pillar. The \\ inch between lines I) and E 
is the distance to frame the standing pillars from face of 
bottom side, which you mark on the kant-board. From 
this, mark off the full depth of pillar between lines D and 



108 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



November. 



B. Now you have the depth of side swell at the standing 
pillars. Now we will place the back and front pillars in 
their proper position. Before we can decide on the sweep 
of top-rail in this instance, we will frame the pillars f inch 
from the face of bottom side, which we mark on the board 
from the perpendicular line at the foot of the pillar to the 
extreme limits of body lines, G G. At this point, mark l£ 
for the thickness of pillars at top. Now we can shape the 
swell of the body. In doing so, give more sweep on the 
quarters than in the door-way. One and a quarter inch 
is sufficient lor the swell of the door. 



€\}t |5ome CtrrU. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Mag.17.ine. 
ABGARUS. 

From the vale in far Edessa, where reposed his quiet home, 
In the flush of early manhood, came Abgarus unto Rome — 
He would see the world's proud mistress, see her in her proudest 

day — 
Came he while with glorious sceptre yet Augustus held his sway. 
Words of welcome, to the stranger, by the monarch were addressed, 
Who unto the royal palace led Abgarus as his guest. 

While the rustic lingered, viewing all the glory and the pride 
Rome, with grasping hand, had gathered from her conquests far 

and wide, 
Cassar fixed his love upon him and it bound him like a chain. 
Which, though all its links were gilded, he had gladly snapped in 

twain ; 
For not all the regal splendor — all the glory Rome could boast — 
E'er would still his fond heart's yearning for his loved, his native 

coast ; 
For the valley where his childhood danced its long, bright hours 

away, 
Where the home of youth and manhood in its quiet beauty lay. 
He would .fain have sought his cottage, in that valley nestled low, 
But so well Augustus loved him that he would not let him go. 
Vaiu were all his fervent pleadings — vain to move a monarch's 

will— 
Bowed he with an air submissive, but his grief was deep, though still. 
And he pondered long upon it, till there came a happy thought, 
And he knew that from that moment his deliverance was wrought. 

When, in all his mid-day splendor, through the heavens the sun 

doth ride, 
Like the flower his name that beareth, high we lift our heads iu 

pride ; 
But when evening shadows, falling, have subdued his garish glow, 
Then our hearts, subdued and humble, bend to earth like lilies — 

low. 
Nor alone the Father do we honor, while our spirits kneel, 
Loving Him, ourselves forget we, and for all His children feel. 
Not as we, believed Abgarus — simple was his faith and rude, 
But, though still the cause unknowing, the effect he understood. 
When the latest lingering sunbeams with the evening shadows 

blend, 
In that hour, unto the Circus, he had led his royal friend. 
There were gathered beasts from every quarter of the world then 

known — 
From the frozen polar regions and from out the torrid zone. 
Never one of all their keepers dared within their sight to go, 
As uncaged, uuchained, they bounded, in their fury, to and fro. 
Now he hailed th' auspicious moment for the lesson he would teach, 
And Abgarus took a portion of the native soil of each, 
Flung it down, and iu a moment every beast his rage forgot, 
And Augustus smiled to sec them bounding to the charmed spot, 
Where the earth — a tiny parcel — from their native forest lay — 
" Ah ! his native home is dearest even to the beast of prci/. 
Go, Abgarus — thou hast conquered — hie thee to thy simple home, 
But a pining captive art thou — though an honored guest — in Rome. 
I have sought thy heart to fetter, but my chains they held it not, 
For its earliest loves are fondest, and the last to be forgot." 

Lca Dklisn. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

AN HOUR AROUND AUNT DEBBIE'S CENTRE 

TABLE. 

BY MISS MARY E. THROPP. 

" Do you believe in dreams ?" said bright-eyed Nellie 
Thompson, on one side of Aunt Debbie's centre table, to 
Frank Foster on the other. 

"Yes," said Frank, looking admiringly at Nellie's pretty 
face, " I believe in dreams, of course. I believe in day- 
dreams, love-dreams, and, in fact, I had one night-dream 
that was fully and startlingly realized." 

" Now, Frank," said Nellie, approvingly, " I'm glad 
you're so honest ; I never will believe but what men are 
just as much impressed by dreams, ghost presentiments 
and all that as women, only they are not all noble enough 
to acknowledge it ; they don't like to appear credulous or 
superstitious — why, Sir Walter Scott was superstitious, 
and so was Byron, and Napoleon, and — but do tell us 
about your dream." 

" Certainly, with pleasure — but do you really believe in 
dreams and projects, ladies ? Because," and his eyes glanced 
mischievously at Nellie, " that information may be turned 
to advantage." 

"I do," said Aunt Debbie's niece, looking up abstract- 
edlv from the skein of silk she had been unraveling;. 

" Why," said Frank, " did you ever see anything your- 
self?" 

" No," said the niece, " but my great-uncle did, and he 
was an eminently practical and truthful man." 

" Well," said Nellie, "to tell the real truth, I never saw 
anything myself, nor have I ever seen any one who did, 
but, somehow or other, I believe in ghosts for all that." 

" Well, now," said Aunt Debbie, suspending her knitting 
and looking at us benignly through her spectacles, "I have 
seen something with my own eyes, not when they were 
old and somewhat dimmed as now, but when they were 
young and clear-sighted as yours, my children." 

" Did you, though," cried Nell. " Oh, Aunt Debbie ! do 
tell us," and " do tell us" we all chorused. 

"I will, but I want to have my niece first," said the old 
lady, with her usual unselfish politeness (for she was fond 
of spinning yarns) ; "tell us, my dear, what your great- 
uncle saw." 

" Well, he was riding towards the Organ Church, you 
know, aunt, and was cantering along almost in sight of it, 
when he happened to see in front of him the figure of a 
little quaint old man in broad-rimmed hat and drab cloak, 
one of the long, narrow cloaks with capes, you know. 
Well, my great-uncle was a good social man, so he thought 
he would have a chat with the little old Quaker, and 
spurred on his horse accordingly. But he soon found, to 
his great surprise, that the more he tried to reach him the 
further off he seemed, and, though he urged and spurred 
his high-mettled horse till he flew like the wind, he could 
not approach him. But the most provoking part of it was, 
the little old man didn't seem to hurry himself in the 
least, but he just kept right on in his steady jog-trot way, 
till my uncle's hair stood straight upon his head. How- 
ever, he kept on after him riding, or rather flying, till they 
came to the grave-yard of the church, which is by the 
road-side, you know, aunt, and then he happened to glance 
up for an instant at the reflection of the setting sun on the 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



109 



church spire opposite, and when lie looked again the little 
old man was gone ! Bewildered, and half-fearing that in 
spite of appearances he had hurried the old man till he 
gave out, my uncle rode about and looked in the fence 
corners and searched for him in every direction, but with- 
out success. Then he dismounted, and, tying his horse, 
went into the grave-yard and looked about among the 
graves, but he was not there. At length he gave up the 
useless search, and, remounting, rode on to the gentleman's 
where he intended to stop, and in the course of the evening 
he mentioned the circumstance and asked the gentleman's 
opinion about it. He replied that he had heard something 
similar a time or two before, and could not account for it 
any further than that he knew a little old man of that 
description was found frozen to death at the side of the 
road some miles below, during the past winter, and that 
he had been buried at the grave-yard of the Organ Church 
by the people of the neighborhood." 

A silence succeeded for a minute or two, and then we 
turned expectantly to Aunt Debbie, who instantly remarked, 
" I cannot vouch for the authenticity of ' ghost stories' in 
general, but this has at least the merit of being strictly 
true, you may rely upon that. 

" Very many years ago, when my ' infant feet,' as Mi's. 
Sigourney beautifully expresses it, ' had trod upon the 
blossoms of some seven springs,' I had one very intimate 
friend, little Ellen Marston, whom I loved better than any 
little body in the world, for I was not so fortunate as to 
have either brother or sister near my own age. Ellen was 
a gentle, graceful little being, with a fair complexion, large, 
tender blue eyes, and a perfect crown of golden curls about 
her head, that danced and floated with every movement of 
her flexible little figure. All this was very good and 
beautiful, but Ellen had that which is better — a loving, 
truthful and unselfish nature — and it was for this I loved 
her so dearly, and for this, also, she was considered a 
profitable companion for Aunt Debbie, who was no better 
than she should be, I assure you. Dr. Marston lived more 
than a mile beyond the village then, and whenever I was 
permitted to go see Ellie, I was, to my great delight, gene- 
rally allowed to remain some time at Greenbank. I had 
been spending a week there at the time my story opens, 
and was sent for rather unexpectedly to return home. My 
brother John, then a young man, came for me, and I was 
to return with him next day, so we retired soon, Ellie and 
I, the last night we were to spend together, determining to 
get up early, as we had to dress our dolls differently and 
make some contemplated improvements in our play-houses. 
In fact, John's premature arrival had interfered with some 
very important arrangements of ours, and we had now 
nothing left but to make the best of a bad matter. 

" The house at Greenbank was a long, low building, 
flanked right and left with wings a single room deep, and 
all on the ground-floor. A piazza, whose slender columns 
supported honey -suckle, jessamine and other climbing 
plants, extended along the entire front of the house, and 
was called ' Lovers' Lane,' from some old legend connected 
with it, I believe. This was a most attractive spot in sum- 
mer time ; for birds built among its vines, and the doctor 
sometimes placed an ^Eolian harp in his window near the cor- 
ner column ; but now the wind blew, and the snow drifted 
in, till it was impossible for us to play there. 

" We occupied the chamber at the extreme end of the 
right wing. It was a well-lighted room, having windows 
on three sides, and this night it was particularly so, as the 



ground was covered with snow, over which a full January 
moon poured its silver radiance. The walls, curtains, and 
drapery of the bed were white, and, altogether, the room 
was almost as light as day. 

"We had talked a long time, and kissed each other good- 
night repeatedly ; but, still remembering something that 
the other had forgotten, it was far into the night before we 
became sleepy. Little Ellen had not answered my last 
question or two, and I was gradually sinking into a doze, 
when, suddenly and unaccountably, I became conscious 
that some one was near the bed. Whether I had been 
roused by a sound or movement I cannot tell, but I was 
now broad awake, and, haunted by an indefinable feeling 
of dread and fear, I lay waiting and watching for the inevi- 
table something I felt was impending. Nor did I wait 
long, before, slowly and solemnly, moved a tall, white figure 
out from the head of the bed. (At this moment the tongs 
slid and fell behind Nellie, who leaped into Aunt Debbie's 
lap, to the imminent danger of the half-finished stocking. 
Aunt D. held her there, and continued :) 

"It seemed like a human being completely shrouded in 
white ; and, as it moved between my eyes and the moon- 
light, I could see that its ghastly face was turned towards 
me, and that its large, fearful-looking black eyes were fixed 
upon mine. Slowly it moved on round the bed, but its 
face turned always towards me, and its glaring eyes never 
swerved an instant from mine. When it reached the head 
of the bed again, an arm was stretched out, and a heavy 
ice-cold hand was laid upon my forehead. My blood 
seemed to congeal in my veins beneath that touch. I was 
stone cold with terror. I could not speak — I could not 
move. I was paralyzed. I could not even think, and for 
some time, I think, I must have been insensible. Gradually, 
however, consciousness returned, and with it the recollec- 
tion of the fearful visitant, and the unutterable dread of a 
second visitation. Oh, the agony of those interminable 
hours ! I did not dare to speak to Ellen, or to touch her, 
not even to move. I could only lie, and long for day, 
while the cold perspiration gathered upon my forehead in 
great drops. At last it came, and with the first movement 
in the house, I sprang to the floor. Ellen followed instant- 
ly. I looked at her. Her face startled me. It was livid ; 
every hue of health had faded, and she staggered and trem- 
bled so, I could hardly get her along the corridor to her 
mother's room. She had seen it too — the same cold 
hand had been laid on her forehead, she said, and she 
shivered all over at the recollection. Poor little Ellie ! 
not even the tender caresses of her mother, who took us 
both into her bed, could reassure her, nor the loving press- 
ure of her lips and arms restore the warmth and glow of 
life to her little shivering frame. One cold chill succeeded 
another, and then came fever, and, for weeks afterwards, 
little Ellen's life was despaired of. I was conveyed home, 
and, for two or three months afterwards, was the victim of 
a low, nervous fever, from which I gradually recovered ; 
but the worst consequence of that terrible night to me was 
the dread of being left alone. I could not endure to be left 
alone, even in the daytime, for years afterwards ; and, even 
now, I sometimes live over the unspeakable horror of that 
night in my dreams. Meantime, Dr. Marston and your 
Uncle John, neither of whom had any sort of faith in appa- 
ritions whatever, instituted a strict search for the unprinci- 
pled person who could (as they averred) thus cruelly fright- 
en two helpless, unoffending children. Large rewards were 
offered for the detection of the culprit, but without avail. 



110 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



November. 



The servants were closely questioned, and proved innocent. 
The premises were examined, but a slight bed of snow had 
fallen towards morning, and there was not a footprint to be ' 
seen about the house, and the windows and out-door of the 
apartment (which was at the head of the bed) were found 
securely fastened as the servant had left them the night 
before, without a shadow of alteration. The door that 
opened into the coi'ridor had to be unlocked, I know ; for, 
in my trepidation, I could hardly succeed in getting it open, 
and I had told them so. Not a clue to this mystery could 
be found, on the closest scrutiny, and, in a few weeks, the 
unavailing search was abandoned. 

"The ghost story of Greenbank was now noised abroad, 
and, with variations, became a fruitful topic for all the nur- 
sery-maids of the district. Some very conveniently dis- 
posed of the ghost by sending him upon a broom-stick up 
the chimney — others averred that he had disappeared 
through the key-hole — and others, more magnificent in 
their conceptions, shook the house to its centre, and sent 
him off in the midst of thunder and lightning. 

" Ten years after, at a party given to Ellen by a mutual 

friend, Dr. • was introduced to me. ' I have had the 

pleasure of meeting you before, Miss Dodsyn,' said he, in 
a tone of voice unpleasantly familiar ; so I merely replied I 
did not remember. ' Oh yes, you do,' said he, ' I have 
given you good cause to remember me. Don't you recol- 
lect the last night you spent in the end chamber of Green- 
bank. Well, I had the honor of spending some little time 
with you there, though I am quite certain you did not re- 
cognize me.' ' Indeed !' said I, concealing, as well as I 
could, my indignation to get at the truth, ' and how did 
you get there, sir V 

" Luckily the doctor's perceptive organs were not very 
largely developed, so he answered without hesitation, 
' Well, as I was an old student of the doctor's, the room 
you occupied was mine, and I had a night-key to the door 
at the head of the bed, which opened from the piazza, you 
know. I had had leave of absence for a couple of weeks, 
but returned at the end of one, and going to my room and 
finding it so well tenanted, I determined to have a little 
fun at your expense ; so I procured a sheet, chalked my 
face, held my hands in the snow till they were almost 
frozen, and then made my entree. Your bright eyes were 
very observant, Miss Dodsyn, and I had to look very 
fiercely to frighten you.' (Little Nell closed hers.) ' And 
how did you get away V I asked, calmly, forcing my indig- 
nation down. ' Oh, I remained some time at the head of 
the bed, and then stole out noiselessly.' ' Well.' ' But 
before that, while I was making preparations for my noc- 
turnal visit, a man came for Dr. M. to attend a sick woman 
in the neighborhood, and I agreed to go in his stead, telling 
him to go on and I would follow soon. I was obliged to 
remain with the patient long enough to hear about the 
commotion at Marston's, and I was rather apprehensive. 
Fortunately for me, however, an inch or two of snow had 
fallen in the mean time, which prevented any one's knowing 
that I had been at Greenbank.' 'But' — suggested I — 
' would it not have been better for you to have returned to 
the doctor's, and remedied the evil, as far as possible, by a 
full explanation V ' I thought of doing so at the time — 
meant to, in fact — but when I heard how seriously a mere 
practical joke was taken, I went back and filled up my 

leave of absence at R , as I had originally intended.' 

" ' But if you were afraid to discover yourself then, why 
do you do it now V I inquired. 



" ' Oh,' said he, gallantly, ' what have I to fear from a 
gentle, charming young lady like yourself? Besides, at 
this distance of time I am safe, assuredly.' 

"' Scarcely, sir!' said I, exasperated beyond endurance. 
' If I had strength enough in this right arm, I would thrust 
you from the room now — but there is my brother.' 

"John, who happened at this moment to glance towards 
me from his station opposite, saw the unusual agitation of 
my manner, and crossed over immediately, but I, knowing 
the impetuosity of John's character, had presence of mind 
enough to ask him to take me out to the fresh air, attribut- 
ing my emotion to a temporary cause. God forbid that I 
should be the cause of mortal combat between two of my 
fellow beings." 

(Here Aunt D. paused to take up a stitch, and we were 
all vociferous in our exclamations against the unfortunate 
doctor. Nellie thought he ought to have been punished — 
not killed nor cart-whipped — she didn't mean that, oh no — 
but published in the papers, or cut by the ladies, or some- 
how, and Frank thought he'd just like to have pitched him 
out the window, for fun. The stitch all right, Aunt D. re- 
sumed :) 

"The old house at Greenbank has long since given place 
to a modern and more stylish mansion. The doctor and his 
wife sleep together, side by side, in the quiet grave-yard 
attached to the old place, and Ellen is now the joy and 
sunshine of a planter's home on the beautiful banks of the 
Savannah, where she is trying, with God's assistance, to 
train a little Ellie and Debbie, with one or two other young 
immortal beings, for eternity." 

Aunt Debbie was silent awhile after concluding, and 
abstracted, as if busy with old associations ; then, recollect- 
ing herself, she turned to Frank for his dream and its con- 
sequences. 

" Well," said Frank, with a preparatory ahem and 
a comical gravity of manner, quite irresistible, "I dreamt I 
fell out of bed the other night, and lo and behold I awoke 
and found myself on the floor !" 

%m Illustrations of \\i Drafts. 

SCROLL-QUARTERED COACH. 

Illustrated on Plate XIX. 
Mr. Walter R. Bush, of Albany, has kindly contribut- 
ed this draft to the Magazine ; but, in doing so, very modest- 
ly disclaims any originality about it. We fear that his ex- 
treme modesty in this instance may have deprived him 
of the credit justly his due. He, however, says : " I 
I have no recollection of copying, although I might have 
seen something like it in many respects." We consider it 
a very fine draft, whether original with our friend or copied, 
and therefore give it a place. On comparing this with the 
former illustrations of the coach, as given in this work, it 
will be found to differ from them in several points, and, 
consequently, we give it more for the sake of variety than 
as a representative of the fashion. As manufacturers, 
we think Messrs. Goold & Co. fully up to the fashions in 
getting up work, and for durability their work is seldom 
equaled. Track, 4 ft. 8 in. 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



Ill 



CHILD 8 CARRIAGE. 

Illustrated on Plate XX. 

Mr. Ralph Smith, of New Haven, contributes this very 
pretty little child's carriage to the Magazine. It has 
been engraved from a photograph, without any reference 
to scale. We think, however, that any person wishing to 
make one can get all the idea necessary to do so from our 
picture. You will notice that a dolphin's tail forms the 
toe-board, and a nautilus-formed shell the body, which the 
dolphin appears in the act of swallowing — and such a 
mouthful! These were carved by Mr. G. H. Clinton. 
The whole is painted black, and touched up with brown 
and white to imitate the natural shell. Trimmed with cote- 
line for body-linings, and figured silk in the head-linings. 
The top is enameled leather — the springs, joints, and bands 
being full-plated with silver. The price is $40. 

THE ALBANY SLEIGHS. 

Illustrated on Plate XXI. 

We give on this plate three different varieties of the 
sleigh, all in perspective, and all from ambrotypes of the 
manufactured article. They have been taken without re- 
gard to scale, and no doubt will prove quite as useful, as 
guides in manufacturing, as any with which the craft have 
been " bored " for the last three years. This is not saying 
much, to be sure, but it will show that we are not inclined 
to give a thing for more than it is worth, which value in 
this case we shall leave with those who have written us 
" please give us some sleighs." We are Under many obli- 
gations to Messrs. Goold & Co. for these drafts, which 
represent truthfully their originals. 

gZg* We would be very much obliged to our friends if 
they would furnish descriptions of their drafts, to accom- 
pany their publication, when they hand them in. No one 
knows better than the manufacturer how a body is made, 
&c, &c, and it would lessen our editorial labors very much, 
besides giving our readers variety in detail. Where any 
may feel incompetent to do so, so as to meet the public 
eye, we will very cheerfully prepare their " rough notes " 
for publication, and give the contributor full credit. 

Our next number will contain a fine draft of a hearse 
lately built at Albany, two light buggies, and a fourth draft, 
not yet decided upon. 



The Fate of a Monopoly. — The company in Paris 
which, a short time since, undertook to monopolize all the 
hackney coaches in that city, and to perform in its collect- 
ive capacity what private enterprise and superintendence 
was much fitter to carry out with any chance of success, has 
proved a failure. The "Imperial Company of Fiacres" has 
got into debt two millions and a half francs, and is now 
borrowing the amount of its debts from another company, 
on the security of its " rolling stock." 



%arfcs from \\i %Ml 



A PLAIN DASH. 




It would be a very easy task to fill this department with 
designs of a fanciful nature, but which our'readers would 
never make, perhaps. In this instance, we choose to give 
another picture of the times — we might say " hard times" 
— as everybody seems to think they are. Many shops here 
have made such dashes as our sketch presents, and some 
with two additional " bars," placed so as to come just where 
the straps to the flap secure the rolled-up apron. In a 
curved dash they answer a very good purpose, since the 
bars effectually prevent the apron and straps from wrinkling 
the leather in front of the covered dash, which is so often 
found to depreciate the value of some of the finest work. It 
will be understood that the squares at the upper corners 
form the dash handles, when the frame is covered. 



A DESIGN FOR A JENNY LIND DASH-RAIL. 



A friend sends us this 
rail for a wooden dash. 
We give it in a half fig- 
ure. The straight por- 
tion may be plated with 
silver. The whole de- 
sign will, probably, be 
new to some of our read- 
ers. 




HANDLE FOR A PHAETON. 

This is a very tastefully shaped handle for a 
Phaeton, which tells its own story well. It shows 
a portion of the body with the slat-irons attached. 
The whole presents a very unique appearance, for 
which we are indebted to the same gentleman who 
i favors us with the Jenny Lind dash-rail, above. 



112 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



November. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE CLIP KING-BOLT IN A NEW ASPECT. 

New York, September 27, 1858. 

Editor of N. Y. Coach-maker's Magazine : 

Dear Sir — The September number of your Magazine 
contains an article upon what you call a Clip King-bolt, and 
that Messrs. Stivers & Smith, of this city, are the first to 
adopt this plan. In this respect you are in error. Messrs. 
Stivers & Smith were not the first to adopt the plan. My 
father is the inventor of this, as well as some other trifles 
in the line, for which he has never received credit. 

About two years since I built a light skeleton wagon, 
with the king-bolt exactly as you describe it, under the di- 
rections of my father, which was the first I ever saw or 
heard of it, and, I believe, the first that ever was built of 
the kind. He talked then of getting a patent for it, but 
has neglected it until now. He may, however, do so yet, if 
not too late. Since then I have built numbers of them, 
and have now, in my shop, two of them, with a stay under- 
neath, as in ordinary king-bolts. It is, undoubtedly, the 
best plan ever invented for light work. Honor to whom 
honor is due. 

Yours, respectfully, J. N. Reynolds, 

182 Suffolk street, N.Y. 
[The above letter takes off somewhat from the originality 
we credited to Messrs. Stivers & Smith, by this prior in- 
vention, by the father of our correspondent. We think, 
however, that the good nature of the parties — all of whom 
we are happy to number in our list of friends — will settle 
this questio vexato, without resort to "shooting-irons," 
We know that a smaller matter than this has produced a 
long and bloody war ; but fortunately we live in an enlight- 
ened age, when plough-shares are more in use than spears, 
and when the cause of truth may be successfully vindicated 
with weapons bloodless as the quill. — Ed.] 



DESIGN FOR A BAR AND STAY FOR THE CLIP 
KING-BOLT. 

^^ tj Mr. Reynolds, whose communica- 

\ | § tion in relation to the Clip King-bolt 
VJ 1 we give above, sends us the accom- 
panying design for a "bar and stay" to the same. We 
think this addition very necessary, in order to relieve the 
strain on the king-bolt and to prevent the axle and bed 
from " turning under." We have had the cut done in con- 
formity with the design furnished us, but we think an easy 
and graceful turn of the drop-stay, after leaving " the bar " 
or coupling, would greatly improve it, and besides make it 
less liable to break, as all iron-work, turned as in our exam- 
ple, is apt to be " galled " in the process. 

+-* * m »»-»— 

At Aberystwith, England, in the churchyard of St. 
Michael's, is the following characteristic epitaph, in memory 
of David Davies, blacksmith : 

"My Sledge-hammer lays reclined, 
My Bellows, too, have lost their wind ; 
My Fire's extinct, my Forge decayed, 
And in the dust my Vice is laid. 
My Coal is spent, my Iron gone, 
My Nails are drove, my work is done." 



faint %WM, 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

LEAD-COLOR. 



BY JAMES SCOTT. 



In my last contribution I gave you some hints concern- 
ing priming, which subject I shall now follow up, with a 
few remarks on what may be properly termed " leading." 
After a body has been primed a sufficient length of time 
for that coat to become perfectly hard, lead-color is the 
next thing in order. This time you may use a little tur- 
pentine and dryer, enough to harden in three or four days. 
If the job is not hurried, apply the paint as thick as it will 
work freely ; but, if you have not plenty of time, mix thin 
and put on an extra coat. Two thin applications will dry 
clear through quicker than one when plastered on heavy 
and thick. 

The next operation is puttying ; and if the reader is not 
acquainted with an approved method of preparing putty or 
hard-stopper, as it is often called, he will please refer to the 
" Paint Room " of the September number. In applying 
priming and the first coat of lead, it is well to be particu- 
lar about crowding the paint into all holes and inequalities 
needing puttying, as it will not adhere well to naked wood 
or iron ; it will, also, in a great measure, prevent it from 
shrinking or bulging out. When filling holes, always 
allow the putty to protrude a little, it gives room for shrink- 
ing during the process of drying, and will cut down level 
when you rub the filling or " rough-stuff." Plastering for 
open-grained wood, should, I think, be mixed with keg-lead, 
thickened with whiting ; add a little japan or litharge, to 
dry it. 

VARNISH. 

What strange antics varnish does cut up, when it takes 
a notion. Who is there among the craft long-headed 
enough to explain, satisfactorily, by what curious hypothe- 
sis these freaks are caused. I have heard innumerable 
theories advanced, and very ably argued, and yet my expe- 
rience has proved each and all of them fallacious. One 
declares that, when the air is heavily charged with electri- 
city, you should not varnish. Very plausible ! But I have 
time and again put on a first-rate coat of varnish, when the 
very earth trembled with the violence of a thunder-storm, 
and the sky was lurid with darting lightning. Another 
warns you to beware of varnishing while it rains, or when 
the atmosphere is damp. While stDl another is of the 
opinion that hot dry weather is unfavorable, and extreme 
cold, ditto. Humbug ! all of it. That there is some sub- 
tle influence in the atmosphere, which is the cause, there is 
not the shadow of a doubt, but what that influence is, or 
how it can be guarded against, are questions which will 
require the labors of an investigating committee of scienti- 
fic men, ere they can be answered. It is but a few days 
ago that a case came under my observation, which was the 
strangest I have ever seen. Two bodies were varnished in 
different rooms, in the same building ; the varnish used on 
both was drawn from the same can ; there was no percep- 
tible difference in the temperature of the rooms, and yet 
the varnish on one of them looked like the skin of a person 
badly scarred by small-pox, while the other was bright 
and smooth as the surface of a mirror. It is true that 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



113 



cases of this kind do not often happen, yet their occurrence 
is quite frequent enough to merit investigation at the hands 
of all who are interested. The cause once ascertained, 
measures may, no doubt, be taken to prevent the effect. 
Who will solve the problem ? 



In consequence of the crowded state of our col- 
umns, we have necessarily been obliged to leave out Mr. 
Scott's article on Striping, until our next issue. 



ORIGINAL ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

Illustrated on Plate XXII. 

No. 1. This design was sent us for the Magazine by Mr. 
J. C. Norris, of Canada East. The eagle should be painted 
to imitate nature, of course, the scroll drop-lake, showing 
marine blue, tips of leaves touched with silver white, the 
central shield with blue, the lines gold color, dots white. 
We think this a very pretty design, and will look well on a 
coach or Rockaway door quarter, if rightly executed. 

No. 2. This and the next design are from the pencil of 
Mr. Ferdinand, heraldic painter, of this city. The mer- 
maid to be laid on a gold ground, the lower portion of the 
body shaded with ultra-marine, the scales and outline black, 
and the upper portion with some fiesh-colored paint. The 
water scene dark blue, with light and yellow tinge. Sur- 
rounding ornamental work should be gilt, shaded, and 
would be much improved by a few judicious touches of 
light colors. 

No. 3. Surrounding ornnmental scrolls, gilt and shaded, 
shield red or blue, the initials gold. 



Crimmmj %&$&> 



GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE TOPS.— No. 2. 



BY M. G. TOTJSLEY. 



After obtaining the measure of the bows, by means of 
the scale given on page 74, the question next arises, what 
kind of bow-slats are the best and cheapest ? Some manu- 
facture them from wrought iron, at a cost of from $1 to 
$1 25 per set, and more, if plated. Others use the com- 
mon malleable slat-iron and cover the ends of the bows with 
a socket. This socket costs, in labor and material, from 50 
cents to $1 50 per pair. No stitched socket can be made 
by hand for less than $1, and must be plain at that price. 
From these figures it will readily be seen that the covers, 
which are needed to conceal a clumsy and cheap malleable 
iron slat, will cost just about as much as a finely -made and 
plated slat-iron ; so that the cost of the cheap slat-iron 
is a dead loss instead of a saving. The manufacture of 
single sets of neatly-constructed wrought-iron slats is a 
loss of time, and cannot compete with an article that is 
systematically manufactured. Finding this to be true, 
many different forms of slat-irons have been invented, and 



their manufacture covered by a patent. For a cheap and 
durable iron, the Smith's patent has been received with 
considerable favor. 

Shelton & Tuttle's patent is used in many parts of the 
East, where cheap work is manufactured, as the socket end 
of the iron can be made to receive the bow in such a man- 
ner as to allow the whole to be finely finished with paint, 
instead of being covered in the ordinary way. All of these 
styles are good, and can be recommended for the purposes 
for which they are designed ; but, for a fine slat-iron, 
strong, handsome and convenient, the Cook's patent has no 
superior. The japanned iron is strong and finishes up to the 
bow neatly, while the plated ones are accompanied with 
capped nuts and plated screws, and the cost of a full plated 
set is less than that of the cheapest malleable ones covered 
with a respectable socket, and a carriage will sell quicker, 
if not better, with the former applied. The superior con- 
venience of the Cook's patent is no inconsiderable item, as 
the bows can be covered separately, or the covers stitched 
by a machine and slipped on, and the irons inserted after- 
wards. Others may differ with me in my views, but this 
is no puff, as that is an article which finds no place in this 
department. 

In writing this series, I must be allowed to speak freely 
of all the inventions which enter into the composition of 
the part under consideration, as I intend to dissect a car- 
riage top, and treat of it in all its parts, candidly, with the 
intention of advancing many useful hints, and of eliciting 
some from others. Having disposed of the subject of " bow 
slats," which seemed to stand between measuring and set- 
ting bows, I shall proceed, in the next article, to give a 
new method of applying the measure (obtained from the 
draft) to the bow, in cutting it off and attaching it to the 
iron, which I believe to be not only original but very useful. 



NEATNESS AMONG TRIMMERS. 
Order is Heaven's first law, and in no department of our 
business have we found less of this law than in the trim- 
ming room. Some workmen will have their work-bench 
filled with tacks, knobs, buckles, chalk, paste — in short, a 
sorry hodge-podge of here a little and there a good deal of 
the evidence of slovenliness on the part of the occupant. 
Then, again, the patent leather is unrolled and kicking 
about the floor, the moss — nobody uses moss now-a-days — 
and curled hair are everywhere, and the paste is sticking to 
everything in use. We have seen trimmers, whose jobs 
have been "turned out" with such a variety of paste 
shading, about the top and other parts of the leather, as to 
almost entirely spoil it. Such workmen are not fitted for 
their profession. The old adage, " an ounce of prevention 
is better than a pound of cure," was never more appro- 
priately exercised than in the trimming department. We 
all know that leather, once soiled, can never be made to 



114 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



November. 



look as good as new. For this very reason, a trimmer 
should keep his hands clean, and his work, as far as prac- 
ticable, as he proceeds, covered up. 

Not long since, we saw in a trimming room any quantity 
of scraps hanging on the floor, and a pile in one corner, of 
dirt, and leather, and paper, and other material, as the 
merchants say, "too numerous to mention," a fine place 
for one to raise his own fleas, and no doubt they find 
ample feeding ground near at hand — in the sloven's own 
person ! But all are not like our hero. There are some 
trimmers whose habits are worthy of commendation — 
they are neatness itself; such we would hold up, to the 
class we have been describing, as worthy patterns for them 
to follow. 

t m ■*- m i 

[From the London Field.'] 

Harness Blacking. — The following ingredients make 
excellent harness blacking : — One pint spirits of turpen- 
tine, one ounce Prussian blue, a quarter of a pound of 
beeswax, one table-spoonful of lamp-black. Slice the wax 
very thin, put it in a tin vessel, pour on it the turpentine, 
cover very closely, leave for twenty-four hours, then stir it 
up, grind the other articles, and mix them in it thoroughly. 
— N. B. To be kept covered, or it becomes hard. — Vauria. 

A correspondent of yours wants a good recipe for har- 
ness blacking : — Spirits of turpentine, 1 pint ; add beeswax 
until as thick as cream ; place near the fire ; take Prussian 
blue, one-third part, best ivory black, two-thirds part, mix 
and rub up with beeswax until a drop placed on the nail 
cannot be seen through, then add a thick solution of shellac 
in spirits of wine, with 2 oz. of gum benzoin to the pint, 
and of soft soap 1 oz., and melt together in a hot water 
bath ; lay on with a black-lead brush (very hard), and 
polish with a soft brush ; use once per month. It will 
polish at once after washing. — Medicus. 

If C. W. B, tries the following, I think he will not be 
disappointed : — Beeswax (slice fine) 8 oz., spirits of turpen- 
tine, as much as sufficient to cover it ; let it stand till dis- 
solved, then well mix with 4 oz. of ivory black, half an 
ounce of Prussian blue, and 2 oz. of olive oil, previously 
well rubbed down smooth together. — N. B. If it should 
get too hard by keeping, add a little turpentine. — T. C. B. 

If C. W. B. will get carefully compounded by a druggist 
the following recipe, I think it will save his pounds, shil- 
lings, and pence : — Half a pound of beeswax, three quar- 
terns of turpentine, a quarter of a pound of dross black, a 
quarter of a pound of indigo, and one glass of the oil of 
thyme. When prepared, keep it in a tin canister, covered. 
The above recipe I have used for years with good effect. 
Apply it in the usual way, with a brush rather stiff, first 
washing the harness well of all other ingredients. — Will 
Scarlet. 



A Large Wagon-train. — There have several "gen- 
tile " merchants lately set up in business in Utah, in whose 
employ 600 wagons and 7,000 oxen are engaged in the 
transportation of merchandise across the Plains to fill their 
stores. The contractors for supplying the United States 
army have also 1,120 wagons, divided into trains of thirty- 
five each, the first of which left the frontier on the first of 
June, and arrived in Salt Lake City the 11th of August, 
after a journey of seventy-two days. 



€\}t |t,eto gork Coar.fj-makr^ Utarpp^ 

NOVEMBER 1, 1858. 

E. M. STBATTON", Editor. 

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

" T. H. M." — In our haste, we did not finish our answer to 
your inquiries in the October number. "The enameled process 
in painting" is performed by spreading three and sometimes 
four coats of flake-white over the surface of the ground you wish 
enameled. The color of the varnish, afterwards spread on, 
imparts to it the enameled appearance and completes the job. 

" R. M. and others." — With every disposition to accommodate 
our numerous friends in the country, in their varied inquiries, 
yet we find it a burthensome task. Correspondents will here- 
after bear in mind, that in cases where we receive letters on 
special business, no ways relating to the Magazine, they must 
enclose two three-cent stamps, the one to pay the postage, on 
the return letter, the other to pay the city carrier's charges — 
which we are obliged to pay in all cases — or no attention will be 
paid to them. 

" Midnight Musings" is too sleepy for our columns. The 
author is advised to try his hand at " sober prose," where no 
doubt he will succeed better. We give enough of his poem to 
immortalize the writer, with the remark that we think it is full 
as good as Miss Virginia Watson's, of the defunct Western 
Coach Maker's Mag. 

" Oft, in dreams, wild fancy 

Has led me, in her wild delight, 
To those bright scenes of other daj-6 — 
Once so joyous, gay and bright, 
Where oft we've sung the live-long night !" 
This is not the first instance where " wild fancy" has led man 
astray. We advise our correspondent to shun her teachings 
hereafter, and stay at home, instead of " baying the moon^ " the 
live-long night." 

flSP" We very frequently receive letters so stupidly directed 
that we cannot possibly tell where the writer hails from. The 

following is a case in point : 

"Root, Sept. 10, 1868. 
Mr. K M. Stratton : 
Sib, — Please send me a copy of your Magazine. Tours, <fec, 

T. P ." 

Our correspondent leaves us to find out his State from the 
P. O. mark, which, as in this case, is often illegible, and conse- 
quently Mr. T. P. could not be attended to. In writing, please 
name the town, county and State. A little more care will pre- 
vent any delay in serving our friends. 



OURSELF AND ENTERPRISE. 

Brother Craftsmen — This is the sixth number of your 
New York Coach-maker's Magazine, and we think that 
by this time you have become convinced that ours is 
intended to be something more than a catch-penny under- 
taking, and that, when we told you of our intention to 
publish a work worthy of the craft, we meant all we prom- 
ised. We believe we have thus far performed all that we 
agreed to do, and, with a little violence to our modesty, 
would intimate that toe have done a little more. Let us 
see. We promised, in our prospectus, to give three plates 
monthly. Have we not always given as many as four, and, 
in two numbers, five each ? Have we not invariably given 
you twenty pages of reading matter, interspersed with nu- 
merous and expensive illustrations ? 

Thus far we have no reason to complain. With the 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



115 



effects of the panic still visible — very sensibly so to car- 
riage-makers — yet our patronage from the craft has ex- 
ceeded our original anticipations. Our respectable number 
of advertisements and subscribers will insure us against 
loss during the first year of its publication, and place us in 
a position to ask confidently for that increase of patronage 
which alone will remunerate us and place our publication 
on a paying basis. To this end, we invite our friends — 
we are happy to find we have many all over the country — 
now and during the winter months, when the prospects of 
success in canvassing will not warrant us in employing a 
traveling agent to call upon you — to use a little exertion 
to induce those to subscribe who may be within the circle 
of your influence. There is scarcely a friend to this enter- 
prise who may not, by a little exertion, be the means of 
adding one or more names to our lists of subscribers, and 
there are many who, by a little extra effort, might send us 
clubs of three, six, eight, or ten, and perhaps more, and so 
help to "grease our wheels," that your Coach-maker's 
Magazine may be enabled to run along its silent highway 
smoothly, and profitably to its conductor. Come, friends ! 
please put your " shoulder to the wheel" and give us a lift, 
will you not ? We believe you will. This will stimulate 
us to greater exertion, and its effects will be seen in the 
future, as our design is not merely to make money, but we 
are very ambitious to give the craft a work worthy of them. 
Remembering that this is now the only Magazine of the 
kind in existence, let us see what you can do for it, in the 
way of increasing its circulation. 

There are some to whom this work has been regular- 
ly sent, under the assured impression that they would 
contribute to its departments. Need we say to such as we 
name, that, unless they step up to the captain's office and 
settle, either by MS. or the tin, we shall be under the 
(to us, painful) necessity of " setting them adrift in an open 
boat ?" We do not see the consistency there may be in 
any individual's receiving our beautiful work, and yet not 
returning to its publisher a quid pro quo. However, we 
do not expect to be compelled to resort to any such ex- 
tremity ; we think our generous friends need only to be 
reminded of their engagements to fully redeem them. 

Lastly, there are a few — glad to be able to say only a few 
— who for three or four months have received this work, 
who, on sending in their names, promised to " pay on the 
receipt of your first number," but have neglected to do so 
until now. To such, we promise, this is the last visit our 
. monthly makes to such veracious patrons, unless they come 
" right up to the scratch." A word to the wise is, &c. 



THE FAIR OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE AT 
THE CRYSTAL PALACE, NEW YORK. 

After considerable delay, said to have been caused by 
the temporary occupancy of "the Atlantic Cable com- 
mittee," the Thirtieth Annual Fair of the American 
Institute was finally and formally opened on the 22d Sep- 



tember. After a week's postponement it might have been 
supposed that exhibitors had had time enough to have 
come forward and taken up their allotted space, but such 
was not the case. At the time of opening, the building 
presented to the public but a sorry show of empty space. 
In the evening of the day mentioned, the customary inau- 
guration ceremonies were gone through with, the edifice 
being brilliantly illuminated. Judge Meigs delivered a 
short address, in which he stated its objects and aims, com- 
mending to his hearers their favorable co-operation in this 
enterprise, which, if analyzed, would, perhaps, be found 
quite as much for individual profit as for the public good. 

On the 4th day of October, in the afternoon, we made a 
professional visit to this celebrated palace, where Ave found 
a few sleighs, buggies and other vehicles, but the show in 
this line, as compared with former years, was very small, 
and is attributable to the effects of that " masterly inac- 
tivity" which appears to have taken possession of every 
department of business life. We may state, that Messrs. 
Stivers & Smith, of this city, had a large stock of sleighs 
and buggies on exhibition ; Mr. Ed. Smith, a very fine no- 
top buggy ; Mr. D. Daly, of Brooklyn, a no-perch trotter, 
weighing only 100 lbs., and a few other manufacturers 
were making a little show, but very little was found of 
much interest to our readers. 

Later. — Within less than twenty-four hours from the 
time to which the above remarks refer, the Crystal Palace, 
a fruitful theme for penny-a-liners and newspaper scribblers 
generally, was a complete heap of smoking ruins. At ten 
minutes past five o'clock, P. M., October 5th, a fire was 
discovered at the Forty-second street entrance. From this 
point the flames spread with such wonderful rapidity to 
every part of the huge edifice, that it was with great diffi- 
culty that the two thousand visitors in the palace at the 
time could be got out without danger to life. This, how- 
ever, was done, and in about twelve minutes after the fire 
was first discovered, the lofty dome fell in with a dreadful 
crash of glass and iron, and in less than one-half hour the 
structure — the cynosure of all eyes, which, since its erection 
in 1852, has been a prominent object to strangers in visit- 
ing the city, by the Harlem and New Haven Rail Road — 
was among the palaces of the past — annihilated. 

It would be a difficult matter to estimate correctly the 
value of the property ; but it is said that when, some time 
since, the American Institute essayed to buy it, they valued 
it at $125,000. The statuary and goods, valued at $225,000, 
would make the sum total $350,000. This, probably, is a 
very low estimate. Its original construction and decora- 
tions cost about $635,000. The losses to the Institute, in 
decorations and prospective profits from the season's exhi- 
bition, which had scarcely got under way, coupled with 
the heavy losses to some of the exhibitors, make it a 
serious matter all around. It is thought that the exhibit- 
ors, alone, lost about $158,000. 



116 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



November. 



The building was, probably, the most magnificent struc- 
ture ever erected on this Continent — the principal dimen- 
sions of which we add for future reference : From the 
ground to the gallery floor, 24 feet ; to top of second tier 
of girders, 44 feet 4f inches ; to top of the third tier of 
girders, 59 feet 10 inches ; to ridge of nave, 67 feet 4 inch- 
es ; to top of bed-plate, 69 feet 11 inches ; to the top of the 
upper ring of the dome, 123 feet 6 inches ; from the curb- 
stone, on the Sixth avenue, to the top of the lantern, 151 
feet ; to the top of the towers, 769 feet. The area of floor 
and galleries was 249,691 feet, or about 5f acres. 

The original stockholders — just as we predicted at the 
time of building this palace — lost all they invested in the 
undertaking, some three or four years ago, and the build- 
ing was, in June last, taken out of the receiver's hands, in 
whose possession it then was, for the benefit of some bond- 
holders, by the city authorities, who claimed possession of 
the property by the terms of the original lease to Edward 
Riddle, in 1852, for the purpose of erecting the edifice for 
the Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations. 

How the fire originated appears to be a mystery, al- 
though, with the readiness of ignorance, it is, for lack of a 
better reason, attributed to an incendiary. There is no 
question about the property-holders, in the neighborhood, 
wishing it was out of the way for a long time, and this event 
is but the consummation of their desires, and the end of its 
vicissitudes and troubles. Sic transit gloria mundi. 



MORE OF OUR ADVERTISERS. 
Since our general recapitulation in the July number, our 
kind advertising friends have favored us with the following 
patronage : 

Axles & Springs — Spring Perch Co., Bridgeport, Conn. 
" — Tomlinson Spring and 
Axle Co., » " 

Coach & Carriage Hardware — White & 

Bradley, " " 

Felloes, Shafts, &c. — Smith & Barlows, " " 

Laces, Tassels, etc. — W. Boston, " " 

Wheels & Materials for do., &c. — F. 

Lathrop & Son, " « 

Varnishes, Japans, &c. — F. W. Parrott, " " 

Axles & Carriages — D. Dalzell, South Egremont, Mass. 

Anti-Rattling Shaft Fasteners — W. S. Chapman, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Laces & Coach Trimmings generally — Hayden & 
Letchworth, Auburn, N. Y. 

Coach-door Handles, &c. — Cary & Young, Newark, N. J. 

Coach Lamps & Plating — C. N. Lockwood, " 

Copal Varnishes — Pierson & Robertson, " 

" —Price, Bond & Co., " 

— S. P. Smith & Co., 

Carriage Springs — W. Wright & Co., " 

Hubs, all kinds — Win. Miles & Co., " 



Carriage Hardware & Trimmings — 

F. S. Driscoll & Co., N. Y. City. 
Importer and Manufacturer of Paints — J. 

Kohnstamm, " " 

Photographing on Wood, and Engraving — 

Waters & Co., " " 

Sash & Sash-doors — Henry Moore, Jr., " " 

Springs, Axles, &c. — Samuel Mowry, " " 

All the above gentlemen are true as steel to the interests 
of carriage-makers — the sash-maker included — and which 
they have manifested by telling where our friends can find 
the best articles in their line, and particularly in contribut- 
ing material aid to the Magazine enterprise, without which 
our wheels might clog. However, be that as it may, the 
above, together with another "crowd" counted out in our 
July number, are the most generous, fair-dealing and cor- 
rect business men we have seen since "the Panic" set in; 
and as they have been true to us, we trust our friends will 
be true to them, by letting them know, when they want 
anything in their line, that they are not forgotten. There 
is one thing we wish to enjoin on the reader — don't charge 
the Editor with selfishness in writing this article ! It is 
plainly intended to benefit the craft in general, and our ad- 
vertisers in particular. 



AGENTS WANTED. 
We are anxious to obtain a few good agents, local and 
traveling, for this Magazine, in different portions of the 
United States and the Canadas. We would be willing to 
give the sole agency for Maine, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, &c, to differ- 
ent individuals, who could present respectable and approved 
credentials, as to good character and moral worth. We 
should expect that whoever might be engaged would can- 
vass their allotted territory with spirit and energy, and 
make fortnightly reports of names to this office, at the same 
time remitting us all moneys, less the per centage allowed 
to agents in our agreement. Those who have a taste and 
the qualifications for engaging in this enterprise, will learn 
our terms, and, if mutually satisfied, be furnished with the 
necessary authority-papers, on application by letter to the 
publisher. This call, be it understood, only applies to such 
as are willing to travel at a per centage, paying their own 
expenses. Agents who belong to the craft preferred. 



WHO WANTS BUSINESS? 
If there are any persons who want a little more busi- 
ness than they can attend to, and do not exactly know 
how to reach such a condition, let them read the following 
letter to the editor, and go and do likewise. 

New Hates, Sept. 22d, 1S5S. 

Mr. E. M. Sratton : 

Dear Sir — Enclosed I hand you my check, No. 480, 
for twenty-five dollars, in full for advertising one-quarter 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



117 



of a column in the New York Coach-Maker's Maga- 
zine, for twelve months. You will please not insert the 
advertisement again, as my business has so rapidly in- 
creased that I find it impossible to fill my orders. 

You have only got out four numbers, but I have paid 
you for the whole year, and I assure you that I am well 
"satisfied. Wishing you and your enterprise much success, 
I remain your friend, G. F. Kimball. 

P. S. — If the twenty-five dollars do not cover the 
whole amount, please inform me by return mail and I 
will remit. Yours, with respect, G. F. K. 



Frank Leslie's Illustrated Neivspaper is one of those 
interesting and independent weeklies we are glad to receive 
among our exchanges. Its influence is very great upon 
the community, which has recently been shown, in its com- 
plete upsetting of the swill milk imposition, as practiced 
upon the better class of our city population. Published at 
13 Frankfort street, at $3 a year. 



Ctotcrial JSjiabhtjs. 



The Cab-drivers' Grievances. — The hackmen, num- 
bering some eight hundred in this city, who have so long 
imposed upon the public, begin, by their whinings, to im- 
press the minds of the suffering with the fact that their ras- 
cality — heretofore — has made their business anything but 
profitable, at the present time. Smarting under the effects 
of their own conduct, they recently sent a deputation of 
twenty-five carriage-drivers and hackmen, to wait upon the 
Mayor, in reference to the restrictions placed upon them, in 
view of suppressing the extortions of ticket-swindlers and 
others, to whose vile practices these "hackmen" are ever 
ready to lend assistance, and in whose gains from dishonesty 
they are ever ready to share. They say that every need- 
ful caution would be secured, if the owners of carriages 
were compelled to take out one license for each carriage, 
and that the driver wear and exhibit a corresponding badge- 
If — as the city " Fathers " propose, in deference to their 
wishes — these drivers are compelled (!) to takeout licenses, 
and wear a badge, what more security against trickery 
shall we gain, than for years past? But read the Alder- 
manic propositions : 

" Such drivers will be allowed to solicit for fares, the 
protection to the public being the badge, name and num- 
ber exhibited and registered, as the guarantee of their in- 
stant liability to arrest, upon the proof of any fraudulent 
use of the accorded privilege. Each steamboat and rail- 
road landing will have a place set apart for these men to 
stand and solicit, as in Baltimore, Boston and other cities, 
so as to prevent unnecessary intrusion upon foot-passengers 
in the street. It is understood that a meeting will be held 
of licensed hack-drivers on Wednesday evening, to form a 
' Protective Association,' and none will be allowed to belono- 
to it but citizens of good character, 21 years of age. Any 
imposition upon the public is to be followed by instant dis- 



mission from this Association." 



The Teleki, a Turkish Conveyance. — The authoress 
of " In and Around StambouV says : 

" Imagine a very dirty, tawdry, diminutive Lord Mayor's 
coach, or a half-penny edition of Cinderella's pumpkin, 
with two most wretched white horses tied to it by a 
strange entanglement of leather thongs and rope. A 
charm of blue and red beads, against the evil eye, hung 
around the neck of each of these poor animals, whose ap- 
pearance was far more likely to inspire feelings of pity than 
of envy. ' Are we to carry the horses, or are they to carry 
us ?' said I to Vassili, as I stood with the magnificent Es- 
pinu in the gate. The Greek driver laughed heartily on 
this being translated to him, but declared that his cattle 
would do the journey well. Having got the vehicle, the 
next difficulty to be overcome was how to get into it. No 
step, no door ! I saw, with dismay, that Espinu and I 
(neither of us at all in the fairy style) must inevitably take 
a flying leap through the window, which was obligingly 
opened for us. I must say that my heart rather misgave 
me for a moment, especially as I saw the Armenian bishop's 
eyes gleaming through the opposite lattice ; but presently 
taking shame to myself that an Englishwoman should quail 
at anything, and invoking the spirit of the clown I had 
seen so cheerfully risk his neck in the last pantomime, I 
tucked up my petticoats as high as consideration for the 
Armenian bishop would permit, and one spring from the 
loose stone at our door settled me comfortably on all-fours 
at the bottom of the teleki, with no other injury than a 
slight knock on the head." 

A Carriage Road in Turkey. — A route for a carriage 
road has just been surveyed by the French from Damascus 
to Beyrout, which they have indicated by stones bearing 
numbers. It is supposed that it will require three years in 
which to complete it, and that it will cost from 3,000,000 to 
4,000,000 francs. 

A Queer Vehicle. — The correspondent of acotemporary, 
writing from the Adirondack, says : " I noticed an extraor- 
dinary vehicle that I had not seen before. It was mounted 
on four wheels about the size and shape of four good-sized 
pumpkins. They had been cut off from the end of a 
gnarled log, and holes knocked through them, into which 
axletrees had been put, strong enough to bear a sniall house. 
Apairof immenseshaftswere attached, nea;' whi.;,?i was 'lying 
a single yoke, which looked as if it-were a good Foaci for'one 
man to carry. After puzzling my brain awhile in vain conjec- 
tures as to what sort of monster this extraordinary struc- 
ture belonged to, I turned to the pettier ai-d inquired of 
him. He gave a low chuckle',' as -if enjoying hugely some 
pleasant recollection, then replied/ J -Why, you see, that's 
for my bull. I was passing Johnson's-clear.mgQneilay, who 
had a big, savage bull. Now, this bull had, a few days 
before, come near killing him, and he wanted to get rid of 
the brute, for he was afeared of him. So he hollered to me 
and asked me if I didn't Avant to buy his bull. I told him 
yes. ' What'll you give?' said he. I put down a low figure. 
'Take him,' says he. I drove him hum, and he was as ugly 
a devil as you'd want to see. Wall, I got this consarn made 
for him, and put him in it, and worked him right down, 
and I keep him worked down, so that he is now tame as a 
'But what do you draw with him ?' I asked ; 'that 



cow. 



heavy thing with those four round billets of wood for 
wheels must be a load of itself over these rocks and stumps 



118 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



November. 



and uneven ground.' ' Oh, no,' said he, ' he does all my 
work ; he thinks nothing of a ton of hay and a saw log two 
feet through ; he makes along slick as' can be.' I should 
honestly judge that an animal, that could drag a ton of hay 
on such wheels as those over his rough clearings, could 
carry, in a wagon constructed on the ordinary model, ten 
tons easily." 

Public Omnibuses. — The Board of Aldermen has 
adopted a resolution directing omnibuses to be driven at 
a uniform speed. While our authorities have this matter 
in hand, they would do well to take some steps in regard 
to the overcrowding of public vehicles of all kinds. "The 
City Railroads have always taken in as many persons as 
could obtain standing room inside or a foothold on the 
platforms, and, since the adoption of the plan requiring 
payment on entering,- the omnibuses do the same thing. 
Nothing is more common now than for stages to crowd 14, 
15 or 16 into room designed for 12. If our City Government 
keeps up the sham of pretending to regulate the public 
conveyances, it should give some attention to this matter. 



A Monstrous Omnibus. — They have a mammoth omni- 
bus in France, at the small town of Cavaillon (Vaucluse), 
whose origin is rather singular. The proprietor of an 
extensive silk-spinning mill in that place has about eighty 
women and young girls in his employ, most of whom 
belong to the villages surrounding, and are accustomed 
to spend the Sabbath at home. Heretofore, that they 
might do so, they were obliged to start on Saturday even- 
ing and walk from three to twelve miles, and return on 
Sunday evening more fatigued than by a hard day's work. 
In order to remedy this inconvenience, their employer had 
this ponderous vehicle constructed, with two rows of seats, 
one over the other, capable of carrying about sixty passen- 
gers. When the mill is closed on Saturday evening, four 
strong horses are harnessed to it, in which the females are 
conveyed to their respective villages, and on Sunday even- 
ing the same omnibus calls for and conveys the opera- 
tives back again to Cavaillon. 




For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

SCALE DRAFTING, AS APPLICABLE TO CAR- 
f* \fi ' RIAGES. 

BY JOSEPH IRVING,- ,pF BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



',-,-,-' 



iCoiitinued frori 2)age 98. 

LESSDK SECOND. 
With the understanding that you have practiced suf- 
ficiently' with tie <pen -to enable you to commence inking 
your pencil 6ketck, Ave will now proceed by mixing our 
ink as described in Lesson I., then with your small com- 
pass pen describe the hubs of the wheels as represented 
in the diagram. In all cases of carriage drafting, ink 
the wheels first, as they are outside of all and nearest 
the vision. Now you have the hubs inked, get your 
large compass pen and describe the circumference of 
the wheels, leaving the outside line the heaviest. Having 
done that, you can divide the circumference of the wheel 
into any number of spokes desired. Then, with a straight 
edge, draw two fine lines, to represent the spokes, from 
the points in the circumference of the wheel to the hub, 



keeping the centre of the hub for your 
guide. Having the wheels done, you 
can now commence inking your body 
lines, and be sure and don't cross any 
of the double lines you have made for 
the wheels. When you have inked all 
the lines necessary to complete your 
draft, with a piece of india-rubber rub 
out all traces of the lead pencil, and 
commence shading, which is done by 
dipping your hair pencil in the ink, 
and adding water until it comes at the 
shade required. In miniature draft- 
ing, I think it best to shade all parts 
deep that are to be painted black, and 
shade lightly all colored parts. It 
looks far better than too deep a shad- 
ing all through. Ornamental work is 
better done by the lead pencil than with the pen. To 
make ornamental work done with the pencil as durable 
as with ink, get a clean camel-hair pencil and a drop of 
milk, and give it a light brush over, and when dry it 
cannot be erased. 



INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

September 14. Mode op Preventing Nuts from Unscrew- 
ing. — S. Noblet, of Halifax, Pa. : I claim preventing bolt-heads 
or nuts from turning, by inserting below them a flexible metallic 
washer, one end of which is turned against the head or nut, and 
the other held immovable in place, substantially as described 
and represented. 

September 21. Self-Acting Wagon Brake. — A. Larrowe, of 
Cohocton, N. Y. : I am aware that self-acting brakes, having a 
wedge-shaped rubber for self-tightening on the forward motion 
of the wagon, and self-releasing on the backward motion, are 
not new ; such, therefore, I do not claim. 

But I claim constructing the rubbers, with the flanges on 
each side, operating loosely in grooves in bar, B, and resting on 



November. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



119 



1 



springs, h, for allowing tho rubber to rise upon an inclined 
plane, and relieve the friction of the wheels when backing the 
wagon, and for replacing the rubbers, the whole operating as 
described, and for the purposes set forth. 

September 28. Ambclance Wagon. — Israel Moses, of New 
York City : I am aware that several devices have been employed 
in emigrant wagons, traveling-carriages, and other vehicles of a 
similar nature, to enable them to afford shelter, and to perform, 
in some degree, the part of a domicile. But the necessity of 
reducing everything in an army, deemed of extraneous charac- 
ter, to the mere purposes of combat, has heretofore caused am- 
bulances to be constructed in the simplest manner possible, 
with perfect disregard of comfort to the sick, and of convenience 
to the attendants. 

My improvement is intended to overcome these objections, by 
combining in one vehicle not only the means of transport and 
protection to the sick and wounded, but the surgeon's office and 
stores, as well as a hospital camp. 

Therefore, I do not claim any of the devices employed by me, 
separately and irrespectively of their peculiar construction and 
arrangement. 

But I claim an army ambulance, constructed and arranged 
as described, that is to say, having ability to transport the sick 
and wounded under cover, either lying or sitting, by means of 
a system of sectional folding seats, arranged along the sides, as 
described, as also for carrying the surgeon's medicines and im- 
plements in removable cases, fitting in and under said seats, 
and arranged in drawers under the boc'-y of the vehicle, so that said 
cases may be used for general or detached service, as required ; 
and also the arrangement of an adjustable door, capable of serving 
as a table, as set forth ; together with the arrangement described 
of the hammock, for one, two, or more persons ; and, finally, 
in combining with the vehicle, as a central support, the tent 
necessary for the hospital camp, the whole being combined and 
operating as a connected device for transporting, subsisting, 
and protecting the sick and wounded of an army, and their ap- 
propriate attendants, as set forth. 

October 5. Wear-Ikon for Carriages. — I. George Lefler, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. Dated September 8th, 1857 : Disclaiming the 
formation of " goose-necks," or recesses in the bodies of vehi- 
cles, and disclaiming the use of metallic guards, or "wear- 
irons" — 

I claim, without limiting myself to any precise form or exact 
proportion, the construction of carriage, or other bodies, with a 
metallic recessed guard, constructed and arranged in the bod3 r 
of the vehicle, substantially as described, for the purpose set 
forth. 



Cjfe i)tim mists' Column. 



LATE EUROPEAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

Price Griffiths, engineer, Manchester Road, Burnley, Lanca- 
shire — improvements in the manufacture of shaft couplings. 

William Capstick, Liverpool — improvements in wheels for 
carts or vehicles to run on common roads. 

Thomas Riddell, Carracon Terrace, Old Ford, Bow — improve- 
ments in the construction of omnibuses, and in brakes, to be 
applied to such, and other wheel carriages. 

Paul R. Hodge, 16 Chalcot Crescent, Regent's Park, and 
George Spencer, 6 Cannon Street West — improvements in the 
means of preventing or regulating the recoil of springs used in 
railway engines, carriages, and station buffers. 

Dudley Le Souef, Twickenham — an improved shaft-bearer or 
tug, and an improved manner of affixing the same to the har- 
ness. 



CARRIAGE WHEELS-— The proprietor of a Spoke Fac- 
tory in the vicinity of New York City is desirous of con- 
necting a WHEEL FACTORY with his present business, and 
will furnish Room, Power and Spokes for that purpose, taking 
ready-made Wheels in payment. The location is right for doing 
an extensive trade in Wheels, and, to a person qualified to manu- 
facture a superior article, the opening will prove advantageous. 
Address Box No. 219, Post Office, Newark," N. J. ' 



"A little nonsense, now and then, 
Is relished by the best of men." 



Bemus, a spruce young man from the city, was riding 
out into the country a few days since, with his " gal," and, 
as the sun was hot, he stopped under the shade of a tree to 
let his horse breathe. The "skeetcrs" were very thick, 
and Bemus, thinking to have a little fun, called to a farmer 
at work in a field : " Hallo, sir, what do you feed your 
mosquitoes on ?" " We feed 'em here on little city fellers 
and bosses." Bemus whipped up. 

The following notice, says the Salem Gazette, may be 
seen on a blacksmith's shop, in the town of Essex : " No 
Horses Shod on Sunday except sickness and death." 

A poor son of the Emerald Isle applied for employ, 
ment to an avaricious hunks, who told him he employed no 
Irishmen : " For the last one died on my hands, and I was 
forced to bury him at my own charge." " Ah, your honor," 
said Pat, brightening up, " an' is that all ? Then you'd give 
me the place : for sure I can get a certificate that I never 
died in the employ of any master I iver served." 

An English paper, speaking of the American light 
pleasure-wagon, says that the wheels consist of four circles 
of cheese-rinds, filled in with spider-webs. 

When Dr. H. and Sergeant A. were walking arm-in-arm, 
a wag observed to a friend : "Those two are just equal to 
one highwayman." "Why so?" was the response. "Because," 
rejoined the wag, " it's a lawyer and a doctor — your money 
or your life." 

" See there !" exclaimed a returned Irish soldier to a 
gaping crowd, as he exhibited with some pride his tall hat 
with a bullet hole in it. " Look at that hole, will you ? 
You see that if it had been a low-crowned hat I should 
have been killed outright !" 

" Well, Pat, Jimmy didn't quite kill you with a brick- 
bat, did he ?" " No, but I wish he had." " What for ?" 
" So I could have seen him, hung, the villain !" 

Two persons of a satiric turn met a neighbor, and said : 
"Friend, we have been disputing whether you are most 
knave or fool." The man took each of the querists by the 
arm, so that he was in the middle. " Troth," said he ; " I 
believe I am between both." 

It is evident, at least to common minds, that when a man 
buys a one-hundred-dollar handkerchief for a "duck of a 
wife" he may be very aptly termed H a goose of a hus- 
band," 

'.'. So there's another rupture of Mount Vociferous," said 
Mrs. Partington, as she put up her specs; "the paper tells 
us about the burning lather running down the mountain, 
but it don't tell us how it got afire." 



120 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



November 




THE GUARD WHEEL MACHINE. 

This machine combines within itself all the parts requisite 
for the putting together and fitting into their proper places, 
true and exact, all the different portions of a carriage wheel, 
and the operation is very simple. It is intended to be 
worked by hand, although it can be operated by power, if 
necessary, or should there be power already in the shop 
where it is fixed. Our engraving is a perspective view, and 
from our description of the operation of the machine will 
be thoroughly understood. 

A is a frame combined with the two frames A'. Each of 
the frames A' has a block, L, that can slide along it, and 
carry face plates, L ; through these blocks and face plates 
pass screws, J, which are operated by the hand wheels, 
K, or by the crank, k, which is on one of them. Between 
these face plates, L, with the screws passing into the centre 
of the hub, the hub is placed and screwed up firm and 
secure. 

On the frame, A, is a block, B, which can be moved to 
any position on the frame, and held there by a bolt and 
nut ; from a plate on this block rise two pillars, C, that 
serve as journals for the axle, d, to which is attached a long 
lever, D, and this axle also carries a small segment, E ; a 
tool-holder, F, is free to be rotated through the journal,/, 
by the handle and gear, G, or to be moved back and forth 
only by the motion of the lever D. The first operation is, 
of course, boring and mortising the hubs, which is perform- 
ed by putting an augur into F, and letting the lever, D, by 
its own weight, give it the necessary feed ; the handle, G, is 
then rotated, and a hole is bored in the hub. The distance 
which the holes are to he apart is regulated, so that each is 
an equal distance apart, by a stop on one of the face plates, L. 

The boring being complete, the augur is removed, and a 
mortising chisel put in its place. F is prevented from ro- 
tating, but allowed to 



slide, and the mortising motion is 



given to the tool by means of the lever, 
D, and segment, E, and the hub is fed to 
the chisel by the large wheel, K, which 
pushes the hub, face plates, and blocks, 
I, along, or draws them back when the 
nut of the other screw is removed. Both 
the screws, J, being now put in gear, the 
hub is placed in its proper position, and 
the spokes taken and driven in ; they are 
adjusted, and have the necessary dish 
given them by means of the guide, n, 
which is supported by the bar, N, from 
the frame. We should also state that the 
bevel of the mortise is adjusted by mov- 
ingthe plate from which C rises on B until 
the right angle is obtained, and then fast- 
ening it by a peg. The spokes, M, being 
now all driven home, a hollow augur is 
fitted into F, and a clutch or support 
for the spoke placed on A, and by rotat- 
ing the handle, G, the tenon, m, is cut on 
the end of the spoke; when these are all 
cut, the wheel is removed, and the piece, 
H, is placed on the frame, E. This piece, 
H, admits of the felly being correctly 
bored : by means of the clutch, h, and the 
handles, h', it is held quite secure and 
firm during the boring. The hub can 
be bored for the axle box, by fitting a 
small tool on the screw, J, and passing it 
inside, and rotating it by means of the handle, k. We have 
seen the hubs bored and mortised, the spokes driven in and 
tenoned and the fellies bored, of three sets of wheels, or six 
large wheels and six small ones, in between six and seven 
hours, by one man, in one of these machines. An extra 
piece can be supplied, so that they will be applicable for any 
kind of mortising, and with little trouble one of them can 
be transformed into a lathe. We believe that it is one of 
the most useful machines for carriage builders and wheel- 
wnghts ever yet produced. 

It is the invention of C. II. Guard, of Troy, N. Y., and 
was patented by him October 20th, 1857. Any further 
particulars can be obtained by addressing him as above, or 
S. C. Hills, No. 12 Piatt st., New York. A machine can be 
seen in operation at Messrs. Brewster & Co.'s extensive 
carriage manufactory, Nos. 372 and 374 Broome st., New 
York. 

As Mr. Guard is the originator of the principle of putting 
wheels together entire without changing the location of the 
hub, which principle he has fully secured to himself in his 
letters patent, and as he has not and will not sell any Ter- 
ritory (excepting shop rights), any person using any ma- 
chine embracing the principle, unless purchased of him or 
his agents, will be dealt with as the law provides. 

"NbwYobit, April 20, 1858. 

" C. H. Guard : Dear Sir — After giving your wheel machine 
a thoroughly practical trial, we are convinced that we can make 
a wheel much superior to those made solely by hand, and at a 
great saving of cost. 

"BREWSTER & CO., 372 and 374 Broome st." 

Messrs. Dusenbury & Van Duzer, who have made a great 
many wheels on this Machine, and Messrs. Miner & Stevens, 
who have one in their factory, speak in high terms of Mr. 
Guard's Machine. 



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Engraved expressly/or the New York Coach- Maker's Magazine.— Explained on page 130. 




DALZELL BUGGY.— \ in. scale. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach Maker's Magazine.— Explained on page 131 



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DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, DECEMBER, 1858. 



No. 7. 



For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

THE JOKER OUTWITTED. 



BY JAMES SCOTT. 



I have heard and read of many practical jokers, queer 
geniuses too, some of them, but Bill Brush was the most 
inveterate, and, at the same time, the most successful one, 
I ever knew personally. Joking was his hobby, or, rather, 
a sort of idiosyncrasy, to which all other habits, tastes, and 
inclinations which he possessed were, in a great measure, 
subservient, Had he devoted half the study to his legiti- 
mate occupation — carriage painting — that he did in con- 
cocting and carrying out schemes to " sell" the unwary, he 
would, no doubt, have been a star painter, instead of a 
second-rate dauber — a consideration which, by the way, 
might be profitably applied to the cases of several geniuses 
of my acquaintance ; but, de gustibus non est disputandum. 
Being utterly unscrupulous as to the means employed, and 
having no respect for persons in the selection of victims, 
it is not surprising that this peculiar kind of amusement 
got him into some ugly scrapes, several of which terminated 
in boot applications and pugilistic demonstrations of a san- 
guinary character, Bill always coming off with the outlines 
of his countenance sadly marred, and in a state of complete 
physical dilapidation. One might naturally suppose that 
these little drawbacks would teach him caution, if not total 
forbearance ; but no, he was too thoroughly devoted to this 
strange passion to be cured by aught but some powerful 
remedy. His disease was chronic in its nature, but there 
were those who knew how to treat it, and were busily 
preparing a dose for him which — but I am anticipating. 

He was the only journeyman painter employed in the 
shop. For assistants he had a couple of boys, of that inter- 
esting age when youngsters first begin to feel a hankering 
after calico, and talk largely of the enormous expense inci- 
dent on two weekly visits to the barber's shop. Bob and 
Ike, the aforesaid boys, were most bitter, uncompromising 
enemies of Bill Brush, against whom they were compelled, 
in self-defense, to wage constant war, for he gave them no 
rest — no peace. Not a day passed but saw one, or both of 
them, the victims of some bamboozling operation, much to 
the merriment of the balance of the hands and the triumph- 
ant exultation of their persecutor. They often attempted 



to retaliate in the same manner, but seldom succeeded, 
owing to the fact that they did not sufficiently study and 
mature their plans before carrying them into execution. 
This remission, considering the master-spirit they had to 
deal with, was a sad oversight, but one which they finally 
discovered, and took measures to obviate. It became evi- 
dent to them that, in order to insure success, they must 
plot — must form plans understood by both, and must hit 
upon some ingenious combination of circumstances which 
would effectually draw the wool over the eyes of their ever- 
vigilant antagonist, and then, when off his guard, open out 
on him with some well-devised and carefully-arranged con- 
trivance which would expose him to the ridicule of the 
whole shop. "Beat him badly once" they argued, "and 
we can do it again ; besides, it will take the conceit out of 
him to be overreached at his own game. At all events, 
we will try." Such was the conclusion they arrived at, 
after an evening spent in consultation, and they mutually 
agreed thenceforth to devote their minds and energies to 
the discomfiture of the great joker. 

It was one of those cool mornings — too cool to be com- 
fortable — which often occur in early autumn. Bill, on 
arriving at the shop, gave orders to put up the stove, and 
sent the youngsters to bring it from the shed, where it had 
been stowed away in the spring. As they were ascending 
the stairway on their return, it became evident that they 
had quarreled, for loud and threatening language was freely 
exchanged between them. The "boss" painter was sur- 
prised, as he had never known them to fall out before. 

" Don't you tell me again that I stole Mrs. Bricktop's 
water-melons, or I'll warm your ear for you !" exclaimed 
Ike, vehemently, as they deposited the stove on the floor. 

" Takes a bigger feller than you to do that, you swell- 
head, you !" retorted Bob, defiantly. 

" Swell-head, eh ! I'll swell your head." 

" You can't do it, hoss, nary time !" 

Like gladiators — I mean Bowery Boys — rushing to the 
combat, they charged upon each other. Bill dropped the 
stove-pipe, and sprang between them, just in time to pre- 
vent a collision. Seizing one with each hand, he com- 
menced to reason the case with them ; but to little purpose. 

" Let me go !" yelled Ike, struggling to release himself. 

"Take that/" screamed Bob, aiming a furious kick at 
him. 



122 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



December. 



The aim, however, was not true, for, by some means, it 
took effect on a very sensitive part of one of Brush's organs 
of locomotion. Quick as lightning he released the boys, 
and, clutching the wounded member in his hand, he hopped 
around the shop, groaning and squirming in an agony of 
pain. There was a rush — a scuffle, and co-ivhollop ! the 
infuriated combatants came to the floor. Again the now 
crippled mediator flew to prevent the strife. But alas ! in 
his eagerness to prevent bloodshed, he unwittingly caused 
it. Three hops and a jump had he advanced, when crash! 
he went over the stove, up went his heels and down came 
his head — nose undermost — to which circumstance he prob- 
ably owed the preservation of his skull, for the aforesaid 
nose was completely sm — but spare me the harrowing de- 
tails. Suffice it to say that, when he gathered himself up, 
it looked a good deal like a small-sized head of red cabbage. 

Simultaneously with this terrible catastrophe, the pro- 
prietor of the establishment, attracted by the noise, came 
running into the shop, and started back aghast at the fero- 
cious appearance of matters and things. 

"What does all this mean, Mr. Brush ?" he at length 
inquired. " Are you drunk, sir, or crazy ? Fighting with 
the boys, too — you ought to be ashamed, a man of your 
age engaged in this disgraceful manner!" 

" I aint drunk !" replied the painter, spitting out the 
blood that descended from his battered organ of smell ; 
" nor I aint been a fight — " 

" There, there, that will do ! Don't add falsehood to 
your folly ! Remember, sir, I will have no more of this 
in my shop !" And the old man bounced indignantly out. 

'• Well, now, if this here aint a piling things on a little 
too steep !" whined Brush. " Here, I've been most mur- 
dered a tryin' to stop a fight, and now, I'm not only 
blamed for fightin' myself, but he says I'm drunk. Now, 
see here, if you fellers ever — " But the fellers were gone 
— they had slipped out while the boss was lecturing Bill. 
" Confound them cubs ! This here's all owin' to them ; but 
I'll pay them off ! See if I don't !" 

The mutilated proboscis was plastered up — the belliger- 
ent youngsters received a severe " talking to," which only 
drew from them sullen, threatening mutterings. All through 
the forenoon, they looked the wickedest kind of daggers 
at each other, and, several times, Brush thought he detect- 
ed symptoms of a fresh outbreak. This, when he thought 
of the vindictive fury which characterized the fight of the 
morning, made him nervous and awfully uneasy. Noon, 
however, arrived without any further demonstration, and he, 
with commendable caution, determined to remain in the 
shop until they had gone to dinner, in order to prevent 
them from being alone, and renewing the quarrel. For the 
same reason he hurried back just as soon as he had swal- 
lowed his "grub." It lacked, perhaps, a quarter of one 
o'clock when he returned, and many of the " hands" were 
lounging around, waiting for the bell to call them to work. 
Some of them attempted to detain him, and commenced 
joking about the warlike appearance of his nose ; but, con- 
trary to his wont, when attacked in this way, he made no 
reply, other than an expressive shake of his head, as he 
hurried up stairs. They were beginning to speculate on this 
sudden change in his manner, when a terrific yell from the 
paint-shop thrilled through every heart. 

" Murder ! murder ! come up here, men, for mercy's 
sake ! Oh, be quick ! They're dead I do believe ! Oh-o-o !" 

Pell-mell they flew up stairs. At the open door of the 
shop stood Bill, his face pale as that of the dead — eyes 



fixed and full of horror — hair bristling like the mane of a 
wild boar — one hand nervously clutching the door-latch for 
support, and the other pointing into the room. The door 
was soon gained by the excited crowd, when a scene of 
frightful violence met their gaze. Near the centre of the 
floor lay the form of Bob, stiff and bloody, his right hand 
still grasping an ensanguined knife. Further on, the body 
of Ike was seen in a half-recumbent position, and present- 
ing the same horrible appearance. Near him lay a hatch- 
et, red from edge to handle. Paint-pots, brushes, buckets, 
stools, and boxes were scattered around in the wildest con- 
fusion, giving evidence of a terrible struggle. For a few 
moments the spectators stood horror-struck and speechless, 
when some one at length found a voice, and, in imploring 
accents, cried : 

" Do, some of you, run for a doctor !" 

" Yes, yes ! some of you run for a doctor !" repeated Bill, 
recovering himself; "and be quick about it ; perhaps they 
aint both dead yet. Let's raise up Bob ; poor feller, who'd 
a thought he'd ever come to this, he was allers so peaceful 
and quiet. This is awful ! Easy, now, don't hurt him !" 

Tenderly did the sorrowing joker take the boy by the 
shoulders, and raised his head from the floor, and gently 
was he placing it on a pile of buggy cushions, when, to his 
unutterable consternation and surprise, the gory lips parted, 
and, in triumphant tone, exclaimed — "sold/" 

At the same instant, the body of Ike, in the most singu- 
lar manner, commenced rolling around the floor, giving 
vent to wild and uproarious peals of laughter. 

With mouth stretched to its widest extent, and protrud- 
ing, wondering eyes, Brush looked first at one, and then at 
the other. He rubbed his forehead vacantly, and silently 
turned to the crowd, as if seeking an explanation. A per- 
fect roar of merriment was the only response. Sides shook, 
vest buttons flew, and cries of sold ! sold ! resounded from 
every side. Again he turned to the boys, and then the 
truth suddenly flashed upon him — he had been fooled — 
was victimized — the Avhole thing — quarrel, fight, murder, 
blood, hatchet, and knife — was a joke — a " sell" gotten up 
expressly for his benefit. He saw it clearly enough now — 
he was able to trace the whole plot from the beginning. 
The tables were completely turned on him — he, the prince 
of jokers, was beat at his own game. He would be laughed 
at by every one — would be derided, pointed at in the 
street, and his defeat would be gloried in by his enemies. 
The reaction, occasioned by the consciousness of the full 
extent of his discomfiture, was too much for him, and he 
fainted. A cold bath, in the shape of a bucket of water 
dashed in his face, soon restored animation. The scattered 
utensils were restored to their places, and the lately defunct 
apprentices were busily removing the blood (rose-pink 
mixed with water) from their hands and faces when he re- 
opened his eyes. With a ghastly smile, he inquired for 
his hat. It was given to him, when he slowly and languid- 
ly advanced to the grinning boys, and, throwing it at their 
feet, left the shop bare-headed. The action spoke volumes, 
and was greeted with loud applause. 

For a time, Bill bravely breasted the storm of ridicule 
which assailed him from every quarter ; but, so violent did 
it become, he was forced to retreat. Remembering that he 
had an aunt living " Out West," who had urgently invited 
him to visit her, he went, glad of even this shadow of an 
excuse for leaving the scene of his downfall. In some six 
months he returned an altered man — a man who repudiated 
joking, and practiced gravity and dignity of deportment. 



December. 



THE NEW YOEK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



123 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



Usus uni rei deditus et naturam et artem sccpe vincit. 

Cicero. 

CHAPTER VII. 



The possession of war-chariots added greatly to the power and efficiency of 
ancient nations — Memnon with chariots at the siege of Troy — Later improve- 
ments pointed out in the Assyrian chariot — The manner of harnessing horses 
among the Assyrians — Homer's allusions to the chariot highly poetical, with 
examples — Hesiod, a cotemporary, also describes them — The different em- 
ployments of them among the Scythians, Elamites, etc. — Chariot cities — 
Immense slaughter of charioteers on one occasion by the Israelitish armies. 

Some have conjectured that Egypt and Assyria had both 
derived a knowledge of the arts from some nation of antiqui- 
ty. Among these is Layard. Thisis possible ; but as relates 
to one branch of the arts, we are disposed to think, as be- 
fore stated, that chariot-making took its rise in Egypt, and, 
afterwards, in less skillful hands, was imitated at Nineveh 
and Babylon. In one thing we are certain, that, as with 




ASSYRIAN CHARIOT OP A LATER DATE. 



the Egyptians so with the Assyrians, a great proportion of 
the strength of their armies consisted in chariots. It is 
said by Plato (De Legibus, lib. III.), that the Assyrians 
sent 200 chariots and 20,000 men, under the generalship 
of Memnon, to assist the Trojans in defending their city 
against the assaults of the Greeks, of which Troy is allowed 
by ancient writers to have been a dependency. At the 
time alluded to, the Assyrians had made considerable im- 
provement in their chariots, which Ave will now endeavor 
to point out. The large ornamental frame-work, extending 
from the front part of the chariot to the end of the pole, 
was replaced by a thin rod, as represented in the accompa- 
nying illustration, or by a rope or leather thong knotted 
in the centre or near the end, as in other examples. The 
body of the chariot designates the marcb of civilization, in 
its being made more graceful in form, although in the 
hanging up little progress appears to have been made. 
The pole, as remarked in our last article, no longer termi- 
nated in the head of a swan or a ball, and, judgino- from 
the sculptures, they were of an entirely different form. 
The wheels were much higher, being about five feet high. 
The upper portion of the body was not rounded, but more 



nearly square, with a projection in front, which it is con- 
jectured may have been used for arrows, as no quivers are 
shown on the sides, as in the old Nimrod bas-reliefs. The 
panels appear to have been elaborately carved and adorned 
with rosettes and tassels. Instead of six, the wheels were 
furnished with eight spokes, and strengthened at the felloe.- 
joints by four plates of metal. These later examples' 
appear to have been completely covered with ornaments — 
some having an elegant moulding or border round the sides. 
They were, probably, inlaid with gold, silver, and costly 
woods, and also painted like some of the examples takeu 
by the Egyptians in Mesopotamia fifteen centuries before 
Christ, and recorded in the statistical tablet of Karnak, 
where are mentioned " thirty chariots worked with gold 
and silver, and painted poles," brought from that con- 
quered nation.* Only two horses were used in the Assy- 
rian chariots, in this differing from the Egyptians. From a 
passage in the Scriptures (Zechariah vi., 2), it would seem 
that these horses were paired according to their colors, a 
taste which their descendants have followed down to our 
time. Chariots with scythes have not been 
found illustrated on any sculptures yet exhumed 
at Babylon or Nineveh, although mentioned by 
Ctesias as being in the army of Ninus. 

The trappings and harness of the horses at 
this later period differed very much frorn those 
of an earlier date. Three elegant and high 
plumes, rising one above the other, waved above 
the horses' heads, an arched crest and clusters 
of tassels were placed across the forehead, falling 
nearly to the eyes, and the harness attached to 
the yoke was more profusely ornamented with 
rosettes and fringes, in a more plain and simple 
manner than formerly. In the earlier exam- 
ples, as we have seen, the tails of the horses 
are simply bound in the centre with ribbons — 
in the latter the end is plaited, as in the Persian 
fashion represented in the Persopolitan sculp- 
tures, and on the early tombs from Xanthus. 
The horses, as with us, were guided by two 
reins, and the driver carried a whip, which, like 
the Egyptian, consisted of a simple thong at- 
tached to a loop at the end of a short handle. 
Without entering further into details, which, we fear, our 
minuteness, as regards Egypt and Assyria, may have tried 
the reader with already, we will now examine into the his- 
tory of the chariot, as found among other nations. 

The pages of Homer are crowded with mention of the 
chariot, and the poetical descriptions given in the Iliad fur- 
nish matter for some of the most beautiful passages found 
therein. In fact, such an influence has his pages had on 
his successors, that other votaries of the Muses have gone 
over the same subject, with more or less of varied interest 
and success. His summing up will present the following 
points : that the felloes of chariot wheels, in Homer's day, 
were manufactured from the poplar. In the fourth book of 
the Iliad is the following passage : " He [Simoisius] fell 
on the ground in the dust, like a poplar, which has sprung 
up in the moist grass-land of an extensive marsh — branches 
grow smooth yet upon the very top, which the chariot- 
maker lops with the shining steel, that he might bend [it as] 
a felloe for a shining chariot." 

* The chariots and horses of Naharaina (Mesopotamia) are mentioned in 
an Egyptian monument of the Eighteenth Dynasty. An officer of Thotmes 
I. "captured for him, in the land of Naharaina twenty one hands, a horse 
and a chariot." (BiraKs Memoir on the Statistical Tablet of Karnak, p. 8.) 



124 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



December. 



That the axle of the chariot mentioned in the fifth book 
of the Iliad was made of beech : " The beechen axle groaned 
under the weight of a dreadful goddess and a very great hero." 
That two horses were employed, " fed on lotus, lake-fed- 
parsley, white barley, and oats." 

That so choicely were they esteemed, that at rest the 
horses were unhitched, the chariot taken into the tent, and 
covered up " with a covering " 

That they were used on funeral occasions, at sacrifices 
in honor of the gods, and, in the richness of a poetical 
spirit, the Mantuan bard tells us, "the Houris unyoked [for 
Juno and Minerva] the fair-maned steeds, and bound them 
to ambrosial mangers ; but they tilted the chariots against 
the splendid walls" The old poet did not entertain a low 
opinion of the chariot, by any means, for he has placed the 
immortal Jove, his erratic wife Juno, and other deities, of 
lesser fame, therein, who have driven to war in the most 
pompous manner. 

The following description of Juno's chariot, in the fifth 
book of the Iliad, is too beautiful to omit in this connec- 
tion. A very literal translation is subjoined : " Juno, vener- 
able goddess, daughter of mighty Saturn, quickly moving, 
harnessed her gold-caparisoned steeds ; but Hebe [the 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno, and afterwards the wife of 
the world-renowned Hercules] speedily applied to the 
chariot, and to the iron axletree on both sides, the curved 
wheels golden, with eight spokes. Of these, indeed, the 
felloe is of gold, imperishable ; but above [are] brazen ties 
fastened on them, wonderful to be seen ; but the circular 
naves on both sides are of silver, and the body [or, more 
properly translated, seat] was stretched on with gold and 
silver thongs [there was a double circular rim] ; from this 
projected a silver pole ; at its extremity she bound the 
golden beauteous yoke, and to it attached the beautiful 
golden collars. But Juno, longing for conquest and bat- 
tle, led the swift-footed steeds under the yoke." The imagin- 
ary gaudiness of the poet was, no doubt, suggested by 
chariots of superior workmanship, and one can but feel 
that the use of the iron-axle at such an early age is proof 
that art was on the advance. 

Homer's cotemporary, Hesiod, has minutely described a 
chariot, as delineated by Vulcan on the shield of Hercules, 
who, if history is correct, was wheelwright in particular, 
and blacksmith in general, to the mighty Jupiter, who, in 
a passion, one day, kicked him out of the heavens, and 
made the sooty artisan, in his fall, a cripple for life. Very 
few of the poets have failed to refer, in some way, to the 
chariot, and we have no doubt but that among the nations 
of antiquity, as in our day, vehicles, such as chariots, wag- 
ons, curricles, and carts, were in very common use, both for 
pleasure, business and war, by the most civilized nations. 

Among the ancient Scythians the chariot was very exten- 
sively used, not only in war but for other purposes. This 
rude people used wagons as dwellings [Herodotus, Melp. 
4, 4V), and in sacrifices, to which oxen were yoked. But 
perhaps nothing in this connection is more singular than 
the uses to which this barbarous nation applied the half 
wheels of vehicles, at the sacrifices in honor of the memory 
of kings, which is too cruel for our recital, but which the 
curious reader may find in the pages of Herodotus. 

The Elamites, tributaries to the Assyrians, were cele- 
brated for their chariots carrying arches (Isa. xxvi., 2). 

Chariot cities, or cities for the support of warriors fight- 
ing in chariots, are frequently mentioned in the Bible, as at 
Chron. i., 14, and viii., 6. According to the Mosaic law 



David could not possess chariots — nor put his trust in them 
— yet when the Ammonites and Syrians (Chron. xix., 7 ; 
2 Sam. x., 18), after their disgraceful conduct towards his 
pacific messengers, had come out in battle against him, 
with their thirty-two thousand chariots, hired out of Meso- 
potamia, he slew, according to the sacred historian, seven 
thousand men, " which fought in chariots," showing that at 
this period chariots were in very common use among vari- 
ous nations. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

SPRINGING OF TIMBER. 

" Like crooked men, that -warp and spring and bend, 
Will timber spring and warp, from end to end. 
The senseless limber springs from natural laws ; 
Illustrious knaves will spring without a cause. 
But crooked timber, crooked tongues and spars, 
And plank and deal, that warp and twist, and bars 
May straightened be. But crooked hearts and heads 
Cling to a crooked way, where'er it leads." — Edwaeds. 

Almost all kinds of timber, and, more especially, firm 
and elastic timber, when it is split or sawed out of the log, 
will spring more or less ; and some kinds of timber, when 
getting it out, will spring to such a degree as to be unfit 
for the purposes for which it was originally intended. If 
we take a hickory, or white ash, log, and logs of many 
other kinds of timber, entirely straight, and split them 
through the middle, the pieces will spring in the shape of 
a rainbow. If, now, these halves be split, so as to make 
quarters of the log, the quarters will spring still more 
than the halves ; and, if the quarters be split in the direc- 
tion of the concentric circles of the log — slab fashion — 
those pieces will spring still more. Again, if we take off 
a thick slab from one side of such a log, either by sawing 
or scoring with axes, that log will spring more or less 
towards the side from which the slab was taken ; and, if a 
slab of equal thickness be taken from the opposite side the 
log will, almost always, spring back again and be straight. 
If a log of very tough and elastic timber be sawed in a 
saw-mill into plank, boards or anything else, by com- 
mencing on one side of the log and continuing to saw 
from one side only till the log is all sawed up, the first 
plank that is taken off will usually be a little thicker in 
the middle than it is at the ends ; and the next plank 
will be a little thicker than the first ; and the next still 
thicker than the second. For this reason we often see 
plank and scantling much thicker in the middle than 
at the ends. We often see timber for wagon tongues 
and scantling for axletrees sawed of as many different sizes 
as there are pieces, simply because the sawyer did not 
understand his business ; or, if he did understand it, did 
not take interest enough in his business to perform it in a 
workmanlike manner. It is not a little trying — yes, ex- 
ceedingly vexing — to have a log of excellent timber sawed 
up into stuff of all thicknesses, because the sawyer did not 
understand how to take advantage of the springing of tim- 
ber. The most tenacious timber usually will spring the 
most ; and it is no uncommon thing to see a log split at 
the ends for a foot or two, on account of its inclination to 
spring. Timber always springs in a certain direction, as 
has already been shown ; and, if one will exercise a little 
skill and care in sawing out stuff that is greatly inclined to 
spring, it may be done with all desirable trucness and pre- 
cision ; although every piece may spring badly after it is 
taken from the carriage. 

The cause of springing of timber is attributable to the 



De 



CEMBER. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



125 



contraction of the wood nearest the outside of a log, and 
to the expansion or dilation of the part towards the heart. 
But what causes this inclination to contract on one side of 
a stick, and to dilate on the opposite side, is a question 
which has puzzled the brains of the wisest philosophers 
of the age. Since, then, we know that timber will spring 
in a certain direction when it is being sawed out, it is a 
very feasible and practical operation to saw up a log into 
almost any kind of stuff, having it of a uniform thickness, 
or of a true taper, from end to end. 

A skillful and experienced sawyer, when sawing up a 
log, which he is assured will spring badly, will first mea- 
sure the diameter of it, and make his calculations as to 
how many cuts there will be in it, allowing always for the 
saw kerf. He will then square the log ; and, afterwards, 
if the log be sprung at all, will take off the first cut from 
the concave side. If one cut does not straighten it, take 
off another. Now, take off a cut from each side alternately, 
remembering always to cut first from the side that seems 
to be a little concave. Sometimes small logs may be braced 
in the middle against some part of the carriage, to prevent 
its springing. 

In sawing a log of tough timber into tongues, 
for instance, an awkward, unskillful Jonathan 
will begin and saw the whole log from one side. 
The consequence would be, the tongues, most 
of them, would be larger at the middle than 
at the large end; and, from the last half of 
the log, he would get a number having ends 
of full size but middles too small for a tongue. 
Such work wastes much timber, needlessly, and 
turns out stuff to the manufacturer which re- 
quires a vast amount of unnecessary labor to 
reduce it to a proper shape. 

We take advantage, many times, of the 
springing of timber in putting axletrees into a 
carriage. When it is desirable to have an axle- 
tree retain its trueness the greatest length of 
time, the heart side is placed upwards. If the 
heart side of many pieces of timber be put 
beneath, the axletree often becomes sprung to 
such a degree as to be worthless. We can easily discover 
which is the heart side of a stick, by the concentric circles 
of the wood. 

Spring-bars will retain their shape best and be stronger, 
by having the heart side downwards and the sap side 
upwards. 

Whippletrees will endure a greater stress and remain 
straight longer, when the heart side is forward and the sap 
side of the wood behind. For the same reason, any stick 
of timber, resting on its ends, and supporting a given weight 
in the middle, will be stronger and remain straight longer 
when the heart side is placed upwards. 

In making spokes for wheels, every good carriage-maker 
knows that the grain should run from side to side, and not 
from the face to the backside of a spoke. 

The reason assigned for placing timber in the positions 
already mentioned is, because it sustains a given stress 
much better without losing its true form ; and, when this 
is any object, a workman must have some reference or regard 
to the inclination of his timber to spring when in active 
service. In my next I shall treat of straightening crooked 
timber. 

S. Edwards Todd. 

Lake Ridge, Tompkins Co., N. Y. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



BY A PRACTICAL COACH-MAKER. 



PART FIRST.— BODY-MAKING. 



Continued from page 108. 

In the last article, we left the diagram in a position 
ready for the square rule. We have reduced the parallelo- 
gram, and omitted all lines which are not necessary for our 
present consideration, in order to leave as clear a field as 
possible to operate on. In the first place, divide the door- 
way into, say, five parts, and draw parallel lines from the 
base line, C, till they intersect all the lines on the kant- 
board. From the door-line, B, space off the distance to the 
end of the bottom-side, and draw parallel lines the same 
as the door-way, numbering them from 1 to 7, each way, 
from the centre. Now lay your bottom-side in its place on 
the board, and transfer the cross-lines on to it, by marking 




SKELETON ROCKAWAY AND KANT-BOARD THE LINES OMITTED. 

them, top and bottom, with the square from the face side. 
It would be well for a beginner to number the lines on the 
bottom-side, to correspond with those on the board. You 
now draw an imaginary line, as represented by dots in dia- 
gram, from line 7 at the point of bottom-side, on a parallel 
with line C, till it reaches the turn-under line of the pillar. 
Take your dividers now, and set them to the space at this 
point, between line B and the turn-under line, and mark 
it off on the kant-board, on the same line 7, from the small 
line of body, in towards line A. From this point to line 
A is the width of the bottom-side at this point. Next 
take line 6 and proceed in the same manner, by drawing a 
parallel line with C, from the point where line 6 intersects 
bottom-line of bottom-side, and take the space of the turn- 
under on your dividers, and mark it off from the swell line, 
as in 7 ; that leaves the width of your bottom-side, at this 
point. Take line 6, and proceed in like manner till you have 
all the lines pricked off on the bottom of bottom-side. Then 
mark off the top of the bottom-sides, in like manner, draw- 
ing parallel lines with line C — as represented by dots 
in the diagram — where the perpendicular lines intersect 
the top-line of hottom-side, to turn-under line of pillar, and 
take the space, as heretofore, on your dividers, and mark 
it off from the small line, and take the remainder for width 



126 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



December. 



of bottom-side on the top. You will perceive — on dia- 
gram — I have marked off the shape of the bottom-side un- 
derneath, by guide-marks. The next thing to be done is 
to lay off the corner pillars. First, on the back of the 
pillar, at the top-rail, mark it the width that is laid down 
on your kant-board, at the extreme end, which is 1^ inch. 
Now, to get the width at the arms, draw a perpendicular 
line from the back end of the arm, down and across the 
kant-board, as in the diagram at this point. From line H 
to the small line is the width of the back-pillar at the arm. 
From these two points, mark with a straight-edge, and set 
your level from lines X and Z, to the small line, and level 
your pillars accordingly from the back ; then lay your pil- 
lars on the draft-board, and transfer line 8, where it inter- 
sects the pillar-lines. From these points, draw parallel 
lines with C, and see how much of the turn-under you have 
to deduct from the kant-board, as in marking off bottom-side, 
and mark off the pillar at that point. When line 7 inter- 
sects the pillar, you can get the width at that point by 
offering the pillar in its place on the bottom-side, and mark- 
ing it on the under-side. On the inside, get the width the 
same as the points on bottom-side. Now we lay off our 
arm-pieces, by placing them on the draft-board, and trans- 
fer all the perpendicular lines that intersect them top and 
bottom ; then set your level from the diagonal line P (which 
is the inside line of arm), with the perpendicular lines, and 
mark it across the top and bottom, at each transfer line. 
This will also give the level to cut the shoulders of the 
arms by, when you are framing the body. Now get your 
dividers, and set them at each point from P to the small 
line, and mark it on the top arm at each point, respectively, 
which will give you both the swell and thickness of the 
arms. In marking off the under side of the arms, you will 
perceive there is a little of the turn-under comes in their 
range, which will have to be deducted from the thickness at 
each respective point, which you get by drawing parallel 
lines with C from each point, until it reaches the turn-under 
line. 

(To bo continued.) 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 



BY THE JUNIOR EDITOR. 



CHAPTER IV. 

" When thou haply seest 
Some rare, note-worthy objectin thy travels, 
Make me partaker of thy happiness.' — Shakespeare. 

Respected Senior : 

Many of our readers have undoubtedly come to the con- 
clusion, that the Junior has ceased to perambulate the 
country, in search of subscribers, and other business in con- 
nection with the Magazine, but the reappearance of his 
familiar letters will, in all probability, reassure them that, 
notwithstanding the hard times, he is still in the land of 
the living. 

My last chapter left me at Albany, but, as a great genius 
has said, " Westward the star of empire takes its way," I 
actually gathered from it the idea that something might be 
done in that direction. Turning my back upon the sunny 
hills of New England and the extensive workshops of her 
great cities, and taking the railroad train in a westernly 
direction, I wended my way through the great Mohawk 



valley, stopping occasionally at the little towns along the 
way, just often enough to convince myself that country 
carriage shops can make excellent lumber work — make 
plough-beams, or file saws, in a word, can turn their hands 
to almost anything, in cases of necessity. 

During my rides I amused myself in reading the quack 
medicine placards, painted, in bold letters, upon the huge 
rocks, which occasionially relieved the sombre monotony 
of the Mohawk valley, and then, as though intending to do 
something desperate, I would come down with full force 
upon the large shops in the largest towns, where, strange 
to say, I did actually, in many instances, take large clubs, 
and received many encouraging promises ; for the former 
I was thankful, for the latter, h-o-p-e-f-u-l. Shall we be 
disappointed, Brother Stratton ? 

Did you ever mark the effect the influence of the times 
has on the reading propensities of the craft ? One 
would suppose that everbody would have, not only the 
time, but the disposition to read when the times are dull. 
But alas ! King Lager is apt to filch more than his share 
of the dimes — too apt to people the brain with reveries 
that satisfy, without feeding the immortal mind. These 
are, however, the exceptions rather than the rule. 

At all the larger cities, along the Central Railroad, 
respectable clubs rewarded the efforts of your correspond- 
ent ; but I must be excused from individualizing, for, oh, 
tell it not in Gath ! the establishments which were doing 
the most business, only one year since, are doing the least 
now, and vice veisa. But the usual number of incidents 
which serve to enliven the tour of a wide-awake traveler 
came opportunely to my relief. At Lockport I found that 
a teachers' convention had called together a goodly num- 
ber of male and female teachers, who were about to take 
the extra train for Buffalo. A familiar voice (or, at least, 
one which I thought I had heard before) greeted my 
ears, and on directing my eyes to the opposite side of the 
platform, and seeing the speaker, I was glad — as I then 
thought — to recognize, in hers, the familiar face of an old 
acquaintance, formerly a resident of Cleveland, Ohio. 
But, alas! I shall never trust my eyes again. Subsequent 
inquiries proved that I was either mistaken, or that she 
had assumed an alias, and manufactured sundry items of 
history not included in my series. The latter hypothesis 
was not at all probable, for the Superintendent of the Buf- 
falo schools informed a friend of mine, afterwards, that the 
said duplicate was a valued teacher in a high school of 
that city, where she had been engaged for the term of four 
years — the exact date at which the Cleveland teacher went 
Eastward. I mention this, as being a rather singular case 
of circumstantial evidence, which would, perhaps, under 
some circumstances, hang a man. 

At Buffalo, the gentlemanly foreman in the extensive 
hardware house of Messrs. Pratt & Letchworth came to my 
aid with a light " turn-out," and with his assistance I man- 
aged to " surround" the city. But the worst feature of the 
day's adventure was the fact of the Junior's getting into 
the "lock-up." Yes, I was actually shut up within the 
gloomy walls of the Buffalo penitentiary ! This would 
have proved a serious affair, had it not been for the 
fact, that it was the mammoth workshop where the above- 
named firm manufacture tons of hardware daily. I quietly 
observed to my friend, in whose company I was, as we 
passed through the different apartments, wonder-struck by 
the machinery, and thunderstruck by its din, that his em- 
ployes might be very good workmen, but that, judging 



December. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



127 



from their exterior appearance, I was not favorably im- 
pressed respecting their moral character. "With him this 
subject was a question of philanthropy ; but I had brought 
my mind to bear upon it in a different light, although the 
subjects of our remarks seemed to look very streaked. 

Messrs. Harvey and Wallace, who did not take the West- 
ern work the last year, extended a warm hand to our 
" New York Coach-maker's Magazine," and, strange to say, 
they and their workmen were "flush," even in these hard 
times. But trade, generally, in Buffalo was very dull. As 
I journeyed Westward, along the Lake Shore road, several 
clubs of subscribers were collected ; but business west of the 
Ohio line seemed to have grown gradually less and less, 
until it appeared to have come to a perfect '• stand- still." 
At Cleveland, and on the reserve generally, carriage-mak- 
ing was desperately bad. 

Arrived at Columbus, the bad state of travel was relieved 
by the warm greetings of friends ; but I found that one 
" Old Friend" had left for parts best known to himself, and 
an anxious group were inquiring after him with Avatery 
eyes. " Alas, poor Yorick, thou wert a fellow of infinite 
jest !" But, lest I may weary the reader with the continu- 
ation of my rambling notes, I shall close with this chap- 
ter, and " turn up" in a future number in a new character. 



THE TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT OF COLTS. 

The following instructions with relation to the manage- 
ment and training of colts, and the subsequent operations 
upon obdurate and ungovernable horses, were originally 
written and published by Mr. Rarey, some three years ago, 
and are an important part of his system. If a colt is prop- 
erly broken in his first encounter with man, the necessity 
for a method of taming, other than that used for wild horses, 
would never have been experienced, therefore these instruc- 
tions are peculiarly valuable. 

HOW TO HALTER, SADDLE, AND BRIDLE A COLT. 

In breaking a colt, we should first endeavor to make him 
conscious of what is required of him. Fettering him with 
a halter for the first time, placing the saddle upon his back, 
fastening the girths, are all matters of paramount import- 
ance, demanding the greatest degree of patience, persever- 
ance, and an intuitive knowledge of his idiosyncrasies. 

Before putting a halter upon a colt, he must be rendered 
familiar with it by caressing him, and permitting him to 
examine the article with his nose. Then place a portion of 
it over his head, occasionally giving it a slight pull, and in 
a few minutes he will be accustomed to these liberties, and 
then the halter may be fastened on properly. To teach him 
to lead is another difficulty. Stand a little on one side, rub 
his nose and forehead, take hold of the strap and pull 
gently, and, at the same time, touch him very lightly with 
the end of a long whip across his hind legs. This will 
make him start and advance a few steps. Repeat the ope- 
ration several times, and he will soon learn to follow you 
by simply pulling the halter. The process of saddling and 
bridling is similar. The mouth of the colt should be fre- 
quently handled, after which introduce a plain snaffle 
between his teeth, and hold it there with one hand, and 
caress him with the other. After a time he will allow the 
bridle to be placed upon him. The saddle can now be 
brought in and rubbed against his nose and his legs ; next 
hang the stirrup strap across his back, and gradually insinu- 



ate the saddle into its place. The girth should not be fast- 
ened until he becomes thoroughly acquainted with the 
saddle. The first time the girth is buckled, it should be 
done so loosely as not to attract his attention ; subsequently 
it can be tightened without inspiring him with fear, which, 
if fastened immediately, it would most certainly do. In 
this manner the wildest colt can be effectually subjugated 
by such imperceptible degrees that he gives tacit obedience 
before he is aware of his altered condition. 

THE PROPER WAY TO BIT A COLT. 

Farmers often put a bitting harness on a colt the first 
thing they do with him, buckling up the bitting as tight as 
the can draw it, to make him carry his head high, and then 
turn him out in a lot to run a half a day at a time. This 
is one of the worst punishments that they could inflict on 
a colt, and very injurious to a young horse that has been 
used to running in pasture with his head down. 

A horse should be well accustomed to the bit before you 
put on the bitting harness, and when you first bit him you 
should only rein his head up to that point where he natu- 
rally holds it, let that be high or low ; he will soon learn 
that he cannot lower his head, and that raising it a little 
will loosen the bit in his mouth. This will give him the 
idea of raising his head to loosen the bit, and then you can 
draw the bitting a little tighter every time you put it on, 
and he will still raise his head to loosen it. By this means 
you will gradually get his head and neck in the position 
you wish him to carry it, and give him a graceful carriage, 
without hurting him, making him angry, or causing his 
mouth to get sore. 

If you put the bitting on very tight the first time, he 
cannot raise his head enough to loosen it, but will bear on 
it all the time, and paw, and sweat, and throw himself. 
Many horses have been killed by falling backward with the 
bitting on : their heads, being drawn up, strike the ground 
with the whole weight of their body. Horses that have 
their heads drawn up tightly should not have the bitting 
on more than fifteen or twenty minutes at a time. 

HOW TO HARNESS THE COLT. 

You should, by all means, have your harness made to fit 
your horse, especially the collar. Hundreds of horses have 
been spoiled by collars that do not fit as they should. A little 
attention to this matter beforehand will facilitate your pro- 
gress very much. Take your harness into the stable ; go 
through the same process that you did with the saddle, let- 
ting the colt examine your harness satisfactorily ; then put 
it on carefully, and, after you have it all complete, put on 
your lines ; use them gently, as he is rather skittish, until 
he is used to them a little ; then lead him back and forth in 
the stable, until he does not seem to mind the fitting of the 
harness to his body ; then take hold of the end of the traces 
and pull slightly at first, increasing your strength until he 
will pull you across the stable back and forth ; then hitch 
him to whatever you wish him to pull. 

TO HITCH UP THE COLT. 

This should be done with great caution, first letting him ex- 
amine the buggy or sulky in his own way of examining 
objects ; then carefully hitch him up ; having everything 
safe, let him start the buggy empty, and pull that at first 
in that way ; then get in, and let him take it slow, and 
he will not be near so apt to scare, and by degrees you 
will be making a good work-beast. 



128 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



December. 



If you want to have a horse that will be true to pull, 
and that tbinks he could pull a mountain, never hitch 
him to anything that he cannot pull, and after he is used 
to pulling, he just thinks that he can pull anything, be- 
cause he always has, and he does not know anything 
about his strength beyond his experience. 

THE KIND OF BIT, AND HOW TO ACCUSTOM A COLT TO IT. 

You should use a large, smooth, snaffle bit, so as not to 
hurt his mouth, with a bar on each side to prevent the bit 
from pulling through either way. This you should attach 
to the head stall of your bridle, and put it on your colt 
without any reins to it, and let him run loose in a large 
stable or shed some time, until he becomes a little used to 
the bit, and will bear it without trying to get it out of his 
mouth. It would be well, if convenient, to repeat this seve- 
ral times before you do anything more with the colt : 
as soon as he will bear the bit, attach a single rein to it, 
without any martingale. You should also have a halter on 
your colt, or a bridle made after the fashion of a halter, with 
a strap to it, so that you can hold or lead him about without 
pulling on the bit much. He is now ready for the saddle. 

HOW TO MOUNT THE COLT. 

First soothe him well on both sides, about the saddle, 
and all over, until he will stand still without holding, and 
is not afraid to see you anywhere about him. 

As soon as you have him thus gentled, get a small block, 
about one foot or eighteen inches in height, and set it 
down by the side of him, about where you want to stand to 
mount him : step upon this, raising yourself very gently ; 
horses notice every change of position very closely, and, if 
you were to step suddenly on the block, it would be very 
apt to scare him ; but, by raising yourself gradually on it, 
he will see you, without being frightened, in a position very 
near the same as when you are on his back. 

As soon as he will bear this without alarm, untie the 
stirrup-strap next to you, and put your left foot into the 
stirrup, and stand square over it, holding your knee against 
the horse, and your toe out, so as not to touch him under 
the shoulder with the toe of your boot. Place your right 
hand on the front of the saddle, and on the opposite side 
of you, taking hold of a portion of the mane and reins, as 
they hang loosely over the neck, with your left hand ; then 
gradually bear your weight on the stirrup and on your 
right hand, until the horse feels your whole weight on the 
saddle. Repeat this several times, each time raising your- 
self a little higher from the block, until he will allow you to 
raise your leg over his croup and place yourself in the saddle. 

There are three great advantages in having a block to 
mount from. First, a sudden change of position is very apt 
to frighten a young horse which has never been handled. 
He will allow you to walk up to him and stand by his side 
without scaring at you, because you have wonted him to 
that position ; but if you get down on your hands and 
knees and crawl toward him, he will be very much fright- 
ened ; and, upon the same principle, he would frighten at 
your new position if you had the power to hold yourself 
over his back without touching him. Then, the first great 
advantage of the block is, to gradually accustom him to that 
new position in which he will see you when you ride him. 

Secondly, by the process of leaning your weight on the 
stirrups and on your hand, you can gradually accustom 
him to your weight, so as not to frighten him by having 
him feel it at once. And, in the third place, the block ele- 



vates you so that you will not have to make a spring in 
order to get on the horse's back, but from it you can gradu- 
ally raise yourself into the saddle. 



Clje |)uiitf Cirri*. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE CASTLE I BUILT. 

BY LDA DELINN. 

Like some structure by magic upreared in the night, 
Stood my castle fair in the morning light ; 
Nor hammer nor chisel had given it mould, 
Though stately it stood, like the temples of old. 
0! that castle of mine was wondrous fair, 
And none the less real, though built in the air; 
There were gardens around it, which rivaled that one 
Known as Eden, long since, in the land of the sun; 
A stream purling on, now in light, now in shide, 
As it wound through the forest, or danced in the glade ; 
The flowers on its margin, with blush and with quiver, 
Saw their images worn by the beautiful river, 
While the stream gliding on, as an offeringof thanks, 
Sang the loves of the flowers that bloomed on its banks. 
There were bowers where the brightest sun ne'er shone, 
There were grottos as fair as Calypso's own, 
There were paths that wound through a chequered shade, 
Where the dark green leaves in the sunshine played ;' 
There were fountains whose gentle murraurings fell 
On the ear like the chime of a silver bell. 
Through hall and through bower rang the voices of song, 
For my castl.i was filled with a joyous throng. 
I know not if all of those guests were fair, 
I only know that the loved ones were there. 
Who hath not bowed low at an earthly shrine ? 
Each heart hath its idols -full many had mine. 
" Full many had mine!" ah! bid me not tell 
How many still hide in my heart's deepest cell : 
But the voice of my worship dies out in a sigh — 
The voice so exultant in the days gone by ; 
A spell hath fallen on hall and on bower, 
Which may not be lifted by human power. 
'Twas thus, if the story is rightly told, 
That Sheddad, one of the kings of old, 
Determined to build him a royal hall, 
With gardens that should rival all 
Which that holy book, the Koran, relates 
Of the beauty enclosed by the Paradise gates. 
To punish his pride, a perpetual spell 
Was laid on his palace (so Moslems tell), 
And the royal palace, its gardens bright 
Have long been hidden from human sight, 
Save at long intervals — only then, 
To keep his sin in the minds of men. 
The wanderer o'er the desert sands, 
Weary and faint, delighted stands, 
And sees, with tears of glad surprise, 
That palace in his pathway rise. 
May he taste of a draught from those waterfalls, 
Of the fruit bending low o'er the garden walls; 
From those clustering flowers may he pluck one rose, 
Whose fragrance may cheer him as on he goes? 
He may not — the beautiful vision grows dim — 
And the desert alone remains to him. 
And so there are times when I catch a gleam 
Of the flowers that grew by that dancing stream, 
Of the winding paths where my feet have strayed, 
Of the fountains playing as then they played ; 
When I tread again the enchanted hall, 
And loved ones throng at my lightest call. 
But alas! alas ! for the spell that falls 
On those beautiful gardens, those stately halls; 
It may not be lifted, the vision is o'er, 
And life is again what it once was before. 



December. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



129 



THE FEAR OF BEING AN OLD MAID. 

BY MRS. E. B. HALL. 

When I was a little girl, I was a fat, merry, jolly dump- 
ling, as happy as the day was long. Everybody pinched 
my red cheeks, and I waddled about with my doll in my 
plump arms, finding fun in everything, and fully believing 
that my doll was as sensible as myself; and perhaps she 
was, almost. But, though I had a natural antipathy to a 
spelling-book, and no fondness for spending a long sum- 
mer's afternoon in poking a needle in and out of a bit of 
calico ; though I considered patchwork all foolishness, and 
gussets as utter superfluities ; though I was called a simple- 
ton for asking my mother why she cut cloth up and then 
sewed it together again, still, I was fond of picking up 
ideas after my own fashion. When the wise people around 
me supposed I was thinking of nothing but play, my two 
little ears were open to every word spoken in my hearing. 
And many was the word impressed on my memory, which 
the speaker forgot the next moment. The talk around me 
was my real education, as it is of all children, send them to 
what school you may. 

When I was ten years old, I had one sister, aged fifteen, 
and another seventeen ; and, as usual with girls of that 
age, they had a set of cronies, some very like and some 
quite unlike them in character. One afternoon, as I was 
tending my doll Ophelia, who was sick in bed, I heard a 
brisk discussion among these girls, which, I may almost say, 
decided my fate for life. 

The first words that caught my attention came from an 
animated, romantic girl of sixteen, scolding because the 
heroine of a novel she had just read was left unmarried at 
the end of the story ! What surprise was expressed at 
this catastrophe ! what indignation ! 

One of my sisters did not seem to sympathize with this 
burst of disapprobation, and then came the pithy question, 
" What, would you be willing to die an old maid ?" Mary 
said verv quietly, "Yes ;" and sister Ellen added, " So 
would I." 

Then such looks of amazement and incredulity. " You 
can't mean what you say," cried one. " If I did not know 
you too well to think you a hypocrite — ■" said another. 
" Why, it was meant that all women should be married !" 
exclaimed a third. "Then why are they not all married ?" 
asked Mary, with her usual simplicity. 

Eager and hot grew the controversy, and I lost not a 
word, while Ophelia lay flat on her back, her stiff kid arms 
sticking out, and her croup quite forgotten. Then first did 
I take notice of that terrible combination of monosyllables, 
" Old Maid." In how many different tones of contempt, 
dread, and deprecation, did I hear it uttered by those juve- 
nile voices ! What anecdotes came forth about the cross 
old maids, and fidgetty old maids, and ugly, and dressy, and 
learned, and pious, and flirting, and mischief-making old 
maids. Never did a bevy of regular fifty-year-old spin- 
sters utter so much scandal in one afternoon as was poured 
forth by these blooming young creatures. Two or three 
friends of my mother, whom I had always cherished in my 
innocent affections, because they talked so pleasantly and 
Avere so kind to me, now appeared like new personages. 
" Miss Z. was so ugly, she never could have had an offer !" 
" Miss Y. dressed so shabbily, and wore green spectacles, to 
look literary." Aud "Miss X. was forever talking about 
Sunday-school and society meetings," and so on. 

You may be sure that the next time these ladies came to 



our house, I scanned very closely the face of Miss Z., a face 
that I had always loved before; but now I saw that it was 
exceedingly plain. I looked hard at Miss Y.'s drab-colored 
bonnet and shawl, perceived that they were old-fashioned 
and ordinary, and that her green spectacles looked pedan- 
tic. Then Miss X., beside whom I had always squeezed in 
upon the sofa, encouraged by her kindly smile and delight- 
ed with her conversation — how uninteresting she had be- 
They were old maids! 



come 



It must be observed that my sisters — right good, sensible, 
domestic girls they were — had no part in this bewilderment 
of my young ideas. They were in the minority ; so I took it 
for granted they were in the wrong. Besides, what chil- 
dren are ever as much influenced by what is uttered in the 
familiar voices of their own family as by words of com- 
parative strangers ? Take care of what3 7 ou say at a friend's 
house, with the young folks catching up every random 
sentiment you drop. Many a judicious mother's morning 
exhortation has been blown to the moon by some light 
dinner guest, who did not, after all, mean to give his real 
opinion, or whose opinion was not worth having. 

And now, I assure you, my education went on rapidly. 
It is perfectly marvelous, in how many ways and by what 
different sorts of people a young girl is taught that it is a 
terrible thing to be an old maid. Fools never show their 
folly more than in their hackneyed jests upon this topic ; 
but what shall we say of the wise folks, who sin almost as 
often in the same way ? What shall we say of the refine- 
ment of him who is gentlemanly in thought and expression 
on all subjects but this? — of the humanity and chivalry of 
him who assails the defenseless? — of the justice of him 
who taxes a class with the faults of individuals, and wounds 
with that meanest of weapons — a sneer ? — or of the Chris- 
tianity of him who indirectly censures and ridicules one of 
the arrangements of Providence? 

I learned my lesson thoroughly, for it came to me in 
some shape every week. I read it in every novel and news- 
paper, and heard it from every lip. The very men who 
spoke truth and sense on the subject sometimes neutralized 
it, by an idle jest in some moment of levity, and the jest 
drove out the truth from my vouno- heart. At eighteen I 
lived only for the ignoble purpose — I cannot bear to say — 
of getting married ; but what could have been the ruling- 
wish of one who had been taught by society to dread celib- 
acy worse than death ? I dare say I betrayed it every- 
where. I dare say I was duly laughed at. 

At last, quaking on the verge of six-and-twenty, I had 
an offer — a most absurd one. I was six years older than 
my lover, had ten times as much sense, probably, except on 
one point. I knew that he was '■ rather wild," as the gen- 
tle phrase goes. In short, I neither loved nor respected 
him ; but I was willing to marry him, because then I should 
be Mrs. Somebody, and should not be an old maid. 

My parents said " No," positively. Of course I thought 
them unreasonable and cruel, and made myself very misera- 
ble. Still, it was something to have had "an offer" of any 
kind, and my lips were not hermetically sealed. I had several 
confidants, who took care that all my acquaintances should 
know the comfortable fact that I had refused Mr. S, 

I went on with increasing uneasiness a few years longer, 
not seeking how to be useful or trying to find out for what 
good purpose I was made. Neither was [ looking for- a 
companion who could sympathize with my better aspira- 
tions and elevate my whole character, for I had no right 
views of marriage. I was simply gazing about in anxious 



130 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



December. 



suspense, upon every unmarried man of my acquaintance, 
for one who would lift me out of the dismal Valley of Humili- 
ation into which I felt myself descending. Had I met 
Apollyon himself there, with the question on his lips, I 
believe I should have said " Yes." 

At thirty-six I wore more pink ribbons than ever, was 
seen everywhere that a respectable woman could go, won- 
dered why girls went into company so young, found that I 
was growing sharp-faced and sharp-spoken, and was becom- 
ing old-maidish in the worse sense of the word, because I 
was becoming an old maid against my will. I forgot that 
voluntary celibacy never affects the temper. 

My sisters, be it remembered, were older than I. They, 
too, were single. But they had lived more domestic lives 
than I had, had read fewer works of fiction, had been cul- 
tivating their own natures, and seeking to make everybody 
around them happy. And everybody reverenced them, 
and loved to look upon their open, pleasant countenances — 
I mean everybody worth pleasing — and they were very 
happy. 

At last our good parents died, and left each of us a little 
independence. Within a year I was married. 

I was married for my money. That was ten years ago, 
and they have been ten years of purgatory. 

I have had bad luck as a wife, for my husband and I 
have scarcely one taste in common. He wishes to live in 
the country, which I hate. I like the thermometer at lb 
deg., which he hates. He likes to have the children brought 
up at home, instead of at school, which I hate. I like music, 
and want to go to concerts, which he hates. He likes roast 
pork, which I hate, and I like minced veal, which he hates. 
There is but one thing which we both like, and that is what 
we cannot both have, though we are always trying for it — 
the last word. 

I have had bad luck as a mother, for two such huge, self- 
ish, passionate, unmanageable boys never tormented a feeble 
woman, since boys began. I wish I had called them both 
Cain. At this moment they have just quarreled over their 
marbles. Mortimer has torn off Orville's collar, and Orville 
has applied his coltlike heel to Mortimer's ribs; while the 
baby Zenobia, in my lap, who never sleeps more than half 
an hour at a time, and cries all the time she is awake, has 
been roused by their din to scream in chorus. 

I have had bad luck as a housekeeper, for I never kept 
even a chambermaid more than three weeks. And as to 
cooks, I look back bewildered on the long phantasma- 
goria of faces flitting stormily through my kitchen, as a 
mariner remembers a rapid succession of thunderbolts and 
hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico. My new chambermaid 
bounced out of the room yesterday; flirting her duster and 
muttering, "Real old maid, after all!" just because I showed 
her a table on which I could write "slut," with my finger, 
in the dust. 

I never see my plump, happy sisters, and then glance in 
the mirror at my own cadaverous, long, doleful visage, 
without wishing myself an old maid. I do it every day of 
my life. 

Yet half of my sex marry as I did ; — not for love, but 
fear ! — for fear of dying old maids. 

They have their reward. And they whose idle tongues 
create this mischievous fear, and thus make so much domes- 
tic misery, have their responsibility. 

A man recently walked two days running and was weak 
& fortnight afterwards. 



%m Illustrations of tfje §)rafk 



THE ALBANY HEARSE. 



Illustrated on Plate XXIII. 



This is another fine contribution from Messrs. Goold & 
Co., Albany, New York. It was originally designed by 
our friend Mr. Walter R, Bush, and sketched by Mr. Wm. H. 
Perry. The drawing is to the half-inch scale, and gives a 
good representation of the vehicle. The torches (inverted) 
and plume-sockets are silvered. These are in duplicate, 
black, so that — as they are made to take off — either a set 
of silver or plain black torch and plume-sockets may be 
used, as fancied by those hiring the hearse. The body 
proper is a coach body, with an addition back to fit it for 
hanging the doors, one of which is represented here, to 
which a mock and carved pump-handle has been added, to 
give it a proper finish. The painting, of course, is plain 

black. 

The trimmings are black velvet curtains, 
with silver fringes, cords, and tassels. The 
head-lining is formed with an oval ray for a 
centre-piece — the outer edge of the ray be- 
ing silver fringed, to which are added a silver 
rosette and tassel. A flush work parts and 
ties to one side in the centre, so as to show 
the ray, but meeting at the back and front, 
diamond fashion. The front finishes with 
parted drapery, to correspond with the sides 
and back, but exposes a black ground of 
plain velvet. We give an illustration of one 
of these doors, two of which open behind. 
This hearse was made for Messrs. Foland & Yanderwer- 
ken, of Albany, at a cost of about $1,200, and is the finest 
thing which has yet come under our inspection. 




For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 
TROTTING BUGGY. 

Illustrated on Plate XXIV. 

Troy, N. Y., Sep. 28th, 1858. 

To the Editor of the New York Coach-maker' 's Magazine. 

Inclosed you will find a sketch of a light trotter that I 
am now finishing, which, I think, for lightness and dura- 
bility, makes a very good and convenient light buggy. It 
is made as light as 160 lbs.— from 160 to 210 lbs. "They 
do away with the trotting appearance, by making the body 
high. Some people will say : " Now, I want a very light 
buggy ; but I don't want it to look like a trotting buggy ; 
I want it to have the appearance of a business buggy." 
This, I think, comes nearer the thing than anything I have 
ever got up in the light buggy line. The outside spindles are 
made of three-eighths iron, with a collar in the centre to rep- 
resent a spindle, and the foot of the rod sets on the sill of the 
body, the same as the brace from the seat of a skeleton 
wagon. The sides of the box do not connect at all with 
the iron legs, so that there is no strain from the seat upon 



December. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



131 



the body at all. The iron legs can be plated or japanned. 
Either looks well. The wood-spindles are placed in the 
top of the box, and run up into the edge of the seat panel, 
outside of the iron legs that run across the bottom of the 
seat-frame. They look well, if made light. 

Yours truly, 

E. Chamberlin. 



DALZELL BUGGY. 
Illustrated on Plate XXIV. 
We have been favored, by Mr. Dalzell, of So. Egremont, 
Mass., with the unicpue design for a light trotter, given on 
the plate above named. All the novelty there is about it is 
seen in the side of the boot, which is sun-rayed with patent- 
leather in folds terminating in a panel. Another plan 
would be, to finish this side by substituting cane-work for 
leather, which makes a very neat and tasty finish, and, in 
our judgment, is preferable to the leather. 



For the New York Coach-maker'3 Magazine. 

THE PICCOLOMINI CALECHE. 

Illustrated on Plate XXV. 

Mr. Editor: As we are, in a great measure, indebted to 
great people and events for names for our different styles 
of carriages, allow me to introduce to your patrons the 
Piccolomini caleche. I was in hopes to be able to design 
something for the Atlantic cable event ; but, like the cele- 
bration, it would have been rather premature, and so I 
have escaped that crest-fallen position, analagous to a dog 
carrying his tail between his legs. 

The style and plan of this carriage are simple and easy in 
appearance, and will admit of track from 4 ft. 8 in. to 5 ft. 
2 in., by using straight transoms for a narrow track, and 
crooked transoms for a wide track, which rule can be 
applied to a number of different styles, as all workmen 
know, who are capable of making caleches. 

Joseph Irving. 



jiprfcs from tljt gutuil. 

For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

SECTIONAL ELLIPSIS CARRIAGE-PART. 



Illustrated on Plate XXVI. 



Bridgeport, Sept. 13th, 1S5S. 

Mr. Editor : — The accompanying design of a sectional 
carriage-part is useful for vehicles where a short turn is 
required. Take, for example, a coupe, where there is a 
swell on the front part of the pillar. The carriage-part 
can be six inches closer to the body than in the use of the 
old or common fifth-wheel. The slide-wheel may be 
applied to any one of our ordinary carriages, if required. 

Fig. 1 represents the top portion of the fifth wheel ; fig. 
2 shows the under portion of the same part of a carriage ; 
2 is the slide-wheel ; 3 is the back circle upon which the 
upper portion of the fifth wheel plays ; 4 is a bird's-eye 
view of the axle-bed on which the transom-plate rests ; 5 
shows the back socket in which the back end of the pole 



is inserted ; G is a top view of the spring ; B B shows the 
two back stays ; C C the two front stays, the outward 
branch of which is secured by the roller-bolts, which serve 
the purpose of whiffletrees, and are shown horizontally 
instead of perpendicular, as, were it possible, they ought to 
be. At E is shown the fifth wheel-stop. D indicates, in 
fig. 1, the place of the second stop, which plavs in the 
groove at A of the slide plate. At 7 is represented the 
swept back-bar. G. I. Moore. 

[The plate which accompanies the above communica- 
tion — of which the figures on plate 26 are but a portion — 
is one of the finest pieces of drawing we have ever seen, 
and is an exceedingly creditable performance to its author. 
We would have been pleased to have given all the figures 
there represented, complete, did the expense of engraving- 
warrant it; but we think we have presented all which is 
essentially necessary, and hope our correspondent will be 
satisfied, by " taking the will for the deed." In the mean 
while, we trust our patrons will bear in mind that our 
endeavor to please them, in this instance, as in others 
heretofore, has cost us much expense, which nothing but a 
liberal encouragement will justify. — Ed.] 



THE IRON TRADE IN EUROPE. 

Late English papers complain that the prospect of the 
iron trade continues gloomy and unsatisfactory, and, unless 
some improvement takes place, several firms will have to 
reduce the number of hands, and work short time. Most 
of the Continental ports are closed for the winter, so that 
few foreign orders are expected until the spring. The de- 
cline in the demand for iron from America has been one of 
the chief sources of depression. In 1853-4, there was an 
exceedingly large demand for iron from America, an in- 
crease of one-third having taken place in the value of the 
exports from 1852-3. The American crisis of 1854 caused 
a reaction, which the magnificent crops of the last and pre- 
sent year have removed. The stocks in the States are 
known to be small, but, notwithstanding this fact, the orders 
have been on a scale much below the average. This state 
of things has ruled in Staffordshire, as well as in other 
counties, and the important question of a reduction in prices 
will force itself upon the attention of iron-masters, at the 
ensuing quarterly meetings. While bar iron continues at 
£9 per ton, the iron-makers in the United States become 
formidable competitors with the English manufacturer ; and 
if the price of iron were reduced to £8 per ton — which 
will, in all probability, be the case at the next meeting — the 
American demand would, to a great extent, be regained. 
Indeed, we have heard it contended that the price should 
be reduced to £7 per ton. It is impossible for iron-masters, 
at the present price of labor and materials, to make iron 
remuneratively at less than £9 per ton. It follows, therefore, 
that whatever be the amount of the reduction in price, a 
corresponding decline will be made in the wages of the 
men — a step very undesirable during the present high 
price of provisions. The coal trade is active, in conse- 
quence of the winter demand, and prices are unaltered. 
The export of coal from South Yorkshire is proceeding 
satisfactorily, and would be extended, if the facilities for 
shipment were increased. 



132 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



December. 



The Iron Trade — later. — The iron trade of Stafford- 
shire continues dull, although a slight improvement is 
announced in the orders received from the United States. 

At Sheffield trade had shown further signs of improve- 
ment, and in some branches of the American trade business 
was improving. 

The French iron-masters arc again complaining of the 
insufficient protection of their interests, to enable them to 
compete successfully against foreign iron. 

A letter is said to have been sent by the chief authori- 
ties in Paris to the French Custom-house, stating that the 
decree admitting iron duty free, under certain conditions, 
and which has expired, would not be renewed. The 
Moniteur had not, however, confirmed this. 



\ 



ami ;uooi)L 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

TOUCHING UP CARVING. 



BY JAMES SCOTT. 



With but few exceptions, painters who can stripe think 
that they can touch up carving just as well as they can 
draw a line. I say think, because they all try it, and yet 
not more than half the number make a neat job — a state of 
affairs which is, in my opinion, mainly the result of using 




pencils not well adapted to the purpose. The manner of 
touching up, illustrated in this number of the Magazine, is 
practiced by all the best and most tasteful painters of my 
acquaintance ; so, you see, I don't claim it as original — an 
admission which, I trust, my dear reader, will persuade you 
to lower the point of your nose, if, perchance, the assertion 
contained in the first sentence of this article, caused you to 
elevate it. And, though a digression, I Avould here say, 
that if anything in my scribblings on painting should 
strike you as being egotistical, or in any way objection- 
able, don't read them ! If you think you can do better, 
just invest a dime in foolscap and tallow candles, and " pitch 
in." If readable, Mr. Stratton will, no doubt, publish 
them : and that portion of the craft whom the " Paint 
Room" is intended to benefit will be your debtor. My 
articles are written expressly for those who need the infor- 
mation contained in them, and not for those fault-finding 



individuals who know all that is worth knowing, and a good 
deal more. Nuff ced. 

As I intimated before, many painters use pencils for 
touching up carving that are not well adapted to that pur- 
pose. Some use the same pencil they stripe with, while 
others work with a short, stumpy concern that would, 
almost, do to black irons. If you want to do it in the 




manner shown in the engraving, procure a camel-hair 
pencil, three quarters of an inch long, containing about as 
much hair as an ordinary striper. Get one with a fine 
point, and perfectly straight. Commence in the centre of 
the leaf — at the point of course — bear down slightly at 
starting, and gradually elevate the butt, or heel, as some 
term it, of the pencil, which will bring the mark to a gra- 
dual point. 

A glance at the engraving will explain the balance of 
the operation. A shorter pencil may be employed for the 
" dottings" which mark the junction of leaves. If the 
style is too florid to suit your taste, make it plainer by 
leaving out some of the superfluities. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

A LETTER FROM AN ENTHUSIASTIC PAINTER. 
—WHAT OUGHT TO BE DONE. 

Mr. Editor — Feeling that I would like to contribute 
something of interest to your valuable Magazine, something 
that concerns our branch of the craft, I do so, hoping that 
I may at least be enabled to impress fully upon the minds 
of my fellow-workmen the great importance of their trade, 
the beauty of their work, and the necessity of their skill to 
the whole world. When each painter feels this, we may 
hope to see something emanating from the workshops of 
our craft that will do honor to themselves and impart a 
vast credit to the country. Especially, at this juncture, 
ought American painters to use ever)'- endeavor, and strain 
every nerve, and devote their greatest powers and best 
energies to raise the standard of their art, in order to keep 
pace with the improvements of the rest of man's inventions. 
But, no ; we are content to grumble over our work from 
morning until noon, and from noon until night, without 
feeling one single spark of emulation. My earnest desire is, 
that all such would retire immediately from the scene of 
action. This I entreat them to do for their own sakes, for 
the sake of the craft, and for their country's sake, for a 
wrong it is for them to remain any longer, view the matter 
which way they may. 

Such a state of things is not surprising, because there is 
nothing to oppose such a repetition of affairs within our 
shops and among ourselves. Many will say such things 
will take place constantly, and cannot be helped ; others 
will think something might be done ; but I, myself, will 



December. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



133 



take the liberty of suggesting the only alternative applica- 
ble to this most intolerable burden. That remedy is, a 
unity of action from one boundary of our country to the 
other — a society of carriage painters, or, indeed, all painters. 
What a powerful auxiliary to the trade it would be. This 
is not a mere visionary scheme of the writer, for I have 
met with many of my brother tradesmen who have ex- 
pressed an entire willingness to aid such a project to the 
best of their ability. Some of these men are those whom 
the world is proud to lean upon and look up to for instruc- 
tion and advice, therefore such a recommendation would 
preclude all possibility of personal aggrandizement or pub- 
lic emolument to be derived from such a scheme. I know 
there are several objections that will force themselves to 
the notice of the reader of these pages ; among them will, 
perhaps, be found the following : The great magnitude of 
such an undertaking and the impossibility of bringing all 
within our limits. In answer to this, I will merely state that 
I am very much mistaken if such earnest endeavors will not 
be appreciated, and to a greater degree than many are 
willing to admit. Without doubt, nearly all of the craft 
would be willing, and others would follow, lending their aid, 
not only pecuniarily (which would be but little), but also to 
the puzzling of their craniums for the production of new 
and superior colors, dryers, the testing of different methods 
of procedure in painting, striping, varnishing, ornamenting, 
etc., and disseminating this acquired knowledge throughout 
the whole civilized globe. Would we not feel that we had 
done something for ourselves, for our families, for our 
country, for poor human nature, and would we not be the 
happier for it ? 

In the second place, objections might be raised to the 
ability of the craft to support such an organization. To 
this objection, I would reply in the language of the senior 
editor of this Magazine, to a gentleman in New York city, 
when he expressed his fears that the new work would not 
be supported, " that the carriage-makers of this community 
are a class of men too well-informed, too active and intelli- 
gent, not to appreciate the worth and the assistance the 
Magazine would render them in the course of a year." The 
same is quite applicable to our case. 

These and similar other objections will come down upon 
this proposal, as the writer of this article fully expects ; but, 
without doubt, the most intelligent portion of the readers 
who happen to peruse this article will readily admit the 
possibility of the scheme, and the due consideration with 
which it ought to meet on every hand. Another advan- 
tage, accruing from such an arrangement, would be the 
publication of a serviceable journal, containing accurate 
accounts of experiments, as these might from time to time 
be tried on colors, etc. For there might be a laboratory, 
with such apparatus attached as would be found necessary, 
together with a competent chemist, for the purpose of 
developing the chemical resources .of our art, and other 
facts worth knowing, besides those before mentioned else- 
where in this article. 

A few words more, and I will close ; hoping some more 
able pen, some zealous advocate, will step forward and 
express his honest convictions. By so doing, we may, in 
time, have one gTand centre to rally ai - ound — -some point 
from whence to start, and some object to gain — a medium 
which would guide the master and protect the journey- 
man in all their rights and privileges. Such a system of 
apprenticeship could be adopted as would prove advan- 
tageous to all parties concerned. 



Men able and willing to undertake the organization of a 
society for such purposes can almost everywhere be found. 
Those of learning and talent are scattered over our land, 
and waiting impatient^', as it were, for something to do. 
Look on which side you will, there you will find them. 
Why, then, shall we defer this matter any longer ? Every- 
thing seems to demand it of us. All require its accom- 
plishment at our hands. If only one meeting in New 
York, New Haven, Railway, Newark, or any other great 
carriage mart, would take the first step, called by some of 
our first men, it would partake of that interest which 
characterizes talent wherever it may be found. The com- 
ing winter would afford an excellent opportunity for such 
an occasion, because all could better attend then than in 
the busy seasons of spring and fall. 

All can perceive at once the necessity and plausibility 
of such a course. It would alike prove advantageous to 
all masters, journeyman and apprentices. Indeed, its 
healthy influences would extend on every hand, thereby 
encouraging all the craft to flourish as the green bay-tree, 
affording protection and prosperity to all concerned. 

John Shuttleworth. 



Crimmiitg iJLwnft. 



THE MOCK BUGGY-TOP. 




This is an age of show and make-believe action ; but we 
here present our readers with something, which, although 
it has its usefulness in show, yet has its usefulness in point 
of comfort in combination with economy as well. There is 
but one bow required in our mock-top, which is raised to 
about six inches above the back seat-prop, or can be let 
fall at pleasure by the use of a short joint, as in our draw- 
ing. The whole arrangement presents the appearance of a 
top, to the casual observer, when the carriage is in use, and, 
although it is no protection against the storm, is a partial 
defense against the wind when one is driving with it, and, 
therefore, more beneficial to weak spines than no top at all. 
It, also, effectually does away with that "fancy" appearance 
which attaches itself to the no-top buggy, and in which 
many a refined female refuses to ride. A mock -top of this 
description, of prunelle, can be put on a buggy for from 
twelve to fourteen dollars, including the shifting-rail. 



THE PRESENT STYLE OF CARRIAGE-TRIMMING. 

This being the close of the year — the tail-end of an unu- 
sually dull season — we have but very little variation to 
report in the mode of trimming buggies, prevalent in New 
York, from that of last spring. The herring-bone back to 



134 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



December. 



stick-seats is still made, occasionally varied by lining-nails, 
buttons, etc., through the length of the tack. Dashes are 
finished very plain, and the white stitching, so long in vogue 
for cushion-fronts, falls, boots, and tops, is sometimes 
varied with black, and many buggies are finished very 
plain, without any stitching scarcely. 

The other day we observed, standing at the door of a 
Broadway repository, a " Byron," or New York buggy, such 
as is figured on Plate I. of this volume, minus the top, 
trimmed — the centre of the falls, tops of cushions, and in- 
side lining of the seat — with fine drab cloth, which, being- 
finished with patent-leather, as a substitute for lace, made 
a neat and tasty job. 

We have also seen braided patent leather cord and 
fringed leather tassels applied to the backs of coaches, as a 
substitute for the usual silk or worsted outside cords, which 
not only makes a novel finish, but is a decided improve- 
ment over the old mode, which was liable to soon fade 
when exposed to the weather ; whereas the new substitute 
not only retains its beauty a longer time, but may actually, 
when it becomes dull, be made to look " as good as new," 
by the application of a little English leather varnish. We 
think this mode of finish particularly well calculated for the 
hack service, so constantly liable to exposure in the open 
air. We are very much mistaken in our expectations, 
should not this improved method in the finish of coaches 
supplant that so long in use, and which is objectionable 
from various reasons. 



RECIPE FOR MAKING PASTE. 

If you want a paste that is a paste, buy of the druggist, 
for one dollar, one pound of isinglass, dissolve three leaves 
of it with a piece of alum about the size of a crab-apple, in 
three pints of water, thickened with wheat flour and boiled 
well. This paste will, if well made, be more elastic and 
keep in good condition longer than any other. There is 
want of judgment displayed on the part of some persons 
in making paste. They will throw in their flour after they 
have put in the water. This is entirely wrong. First, 
put in your flour, afterwards the water, as you find 
necessary, after stirring. By this operation you get the 
flour well saturated and have a good mixture, whereas, 
when the flour is thrown into the kettle last, no after- 
stirring can effectually prevent its being lumpy. 



AN APOLOGY. 

Tins department is wholly given up to the charge of our 
assistant, who, in consequence of ill-health, has not been 
able to attend to his duties for the past two months. The 
writers, too, who have been engaged to contribute to this 
column, have been so dilatory about "sending in some- 
thing," that the general editor this month again finds 



himself "in a fix." We trust, however, to be favored with 
an article of interest before the next number is issued. 
With these remarks, we would ask the indulgence of the 
trimming fraternity a few weeks longer. 

C \z Ueto goii Coatlj-nralur's ISajjajhte. 

DECEMBER 1, 1858. 

E. M. STKATTON, Editor. 

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

Erratum. — In closing the article on the Geometry of Carriage 
Architecture, on page 108, the printer made the author state 
that " one and a quarter inch is sufficient for the swell of the 
door." It should read, one quarter of an inch is sufficient, &c. 



"W. F., ofGa." 
ent Vender" from — 



We do not know enough about the " Pat- 
-, you refer to, to advise you otherwise than 
to have nothing to do with him. We are tired of hearing about 
this wolf " who goes about seeking whom he may devour." 

"F. W. B., Ark." — The recipe for patent leather reviving 
polish will be sent, when you send one dollar by mail, as directed 
on page 93, October number. 

" T. F., N. Jersey." — The subscription price, yearly, for the 
Mercure Universel is $5.50. We suppose you are aware that 
it is in the French language. We will accommodate you on the 
receipt of the amount. 

"W. K., of S. C." — There are several contrivances for setting 
boxes, but we know of none more convenient and, at the same 
time, efficient, than the one invented by Dole, and advertised 
under the head of " Office Business" in our columns. 

" F. W., of C. W." — Your letter, enclosing $3, is received, but 
in addition you should have sent us 25 cents to pay the United 
States postage, which, in all cases, we are obliged to prepay on 
magazines when mailed abroad. 

Jg^" We very frequently receive letters, of which the follow- 
ing is a specimen ; 

" Dear Sir — I would like you to send me a copy of your 
Coach-maker's Magazine as a sample, and if I like it 1 will sub- 
scribe." 

We have, since the commencement of our volume up to this 
present writing, invariably done as requested, until our broken 
volumes have multiplied on our hands. We find, or at least 
we have come to the conclusion, that this request is but another 
mode of getting a number dishonestly, and in order to protect 
ourself from the evil, we shall hereafter be obliged to charge 25 
cents as a guarantee against impositions. In nine cases out of 
ten these customers are never heard from again, and it is very 
evident they never had any serious intentions of subscribing. 

A VISIT AMONG OUR EASTERN FRIENDS. 
In the morning of the 27th of October we left our edito- 
rial sanctum for some three days' visit on business " down 
East," so, springing into a city car, we were hurried direct 
for the Twenty-seventh street station of the N. Y. and N. 
Haven Railroad. In consequence of the passage of a city 
ordinance lately — and which had to be enforced by the 
strong arm of the police — from this point, after taking our 
seat in the Company's car, we were still further conveyed, 
some quarter of a mile through a tunnel, by the aid of 
horse flesh, before we could get "annexed" to the iron 



December. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



135 



horse, as some tourists arc pleased to term it, at Forty- 
second street. This having been consummated, away we 
went in an express train, lohizzy-ty-iohiz, leaving the dirt, 
mud, and other disagreeable filth which, in consequence 
of misgovernment attributable to our city fathers, abounds 
in Gotham, not omitting the genus homo, and dashing 
along through its suburbs, thickly bestudded with the shan- 
ties of squatters of almost every nation of the world, we 
were soon far away on our journey. 

The first impression which particularly forced itself upon 
our mind was the sombre hue of the forest, as it " in its 
autumn beauty stood," colored by the icy hand of Mr. 
Frost. An inordinate lover of nature in its greenness our- 
self, yet we could scarce avoid exclaiming with Bryant : 

"The summer tresses of the trees are gone, 
The woods of autumn all around our vale 
Have put their glory on. 

" The mountains that infold, 

In their wide sweep, the color'd landscape round, 
Seem groups of giant kings in purple and in gold, 
That guard the enchanted ground." 

Could it be possible, thought we, and is winter thus 
near ? 

Away, away we drive ! at one moment apparently about 
to pitch into somebody's castle, and the next clashing across 
a stream — no stopping " according to law," to see if we 
may do so with impunity, until we reached the old and 
pleasant village of Stamford, Conn., where, in the two manu- 
factories which grace the place, and add activity to its indus- 
try, we have some twenty-five patrons to our new enter- 
prise. From this point, where we stopped to wood and 
water, our course was directed to Bridgeport, 58 miles from 
our office, which were successfully traversed in 2\ hours. 
This trip took us directly across the site where formerly 
stcod the country schoolhouse in which we, when a " young 
idea," were " taught to shoot" — to the very doors where our 
infantile days were passed — to the very places where, in our 
mind's eye, though distant the scene, we can see the exact 
spot where is placed a rock, where once, if not yet, stood a 
flower, a bush, a tree, and around which objects gather asso- 
ciations which length of time can never efface nor chano-e 
ever drown. We never put our feet into this State without 
feeling that " it is Connecticut, our own," without saying of 
her sons, with Halleck : 

" They love their land because it is their own, 

And scorn to give out other reasons why, 
Would shake hands with a king upon his throne, 

And think it kindness to his majesty. 
A stubborn race, fearing and flattering none, 

Such are they nurtured, such they live and die, 
All but a few apostates, who are meddling 

With merchandise, pounds, shillings, pence and — peddling, 

" Or wandering through the Southern countries, teaching 
The A, B, C, from ' Webster's Spelling Book.' 
Gallant and godly, making love and preaching." 

By the way, the mention of " Webster's Spelling Book" 
brings to our mind a little circumstance which occurred in 



a recent visit to our friends in this very State. Observing 
in the hands of a youthful niece a spelling book, we had the 
curiosity to examine it. The result was, we found the same 
old institution, "the spelling book" we were accustomed to 
make " dog's ears" in nearly fifty years ago, still in use. 
After this, who will deny that Connecticut is not legiti- 
mately entitled to the designation, " a land of steady 
habits?" 

Setting out to tell our readers something about the craft 
" down East," we find we have deviated from our original 
design, carried away by that affection of the heart which 
our gifted poetess, " Lua Delinn," tells us makes 

" his native home the desert, even to the beast of prey." 



Well, arrived in the city of Bridgeport, our first business 
was to call on our friends, Messrs. Smith and Barlows, of the 
Bending Works, who, we doubt not, are ready to bend for 
" all the world and the rest of mankind," not omitting our 
friends in " the Jarseys." En passant, should any of our 
friends want a first-rate article of " bent-stuff," they cannot 
do better than to leave their orders with this firm. We 
have tried them some years, and find them " about right." 
We next called, successively, upon the Spring Perch Com- 
pany, our friend Mr. Boston, of the Lace Company, and 
others, whose advertisements will be found in our columns. 
At the manufactory of " the Tomlinson Light Carriage 
Company" we found our worthy friend Mr. Cooper, the fore- 
man, under whose guidance we were shown through their 
establishment, and found — as heretofore they have done — 
they were still making the finest kind of work. Mr. Cooper 
having previously sent us in a large club of subscribers, 
with the cash, increased our indebtedness to him by his 
assurance of continued exertion in behalf of the Magazine. 

Dropping in upon our friends of " the Tomlinson Spring 
and Axle Company," we found its worthy Treasurer, Mr. 
Ferguson, as usual, " busyas a bee," and as smiling as " a 
basket of chips." May his shadow never be less ! Under 
his pilotage we had an opportunity of examining one of the 
most perfect workshops of the kind it has been our fortune 
to see. It will be in the recollection of many of our readers 
that this firm was last winter burnt out, but, Phoenix-like, 
from the ashes of their former establishment has arisen the 
fine building now standing on its former site, extending 
three hundred feet, fronting on Pacific street, and nearly as 
far in depth. With an engine of fifty-five horse-power, 
manufactured by the Pacific Company, of the same city, 
with numerous large and heavy shears, for cutting up the 
steel into suitable lengths, improved drills for expediting 
labor, and punches which ignore drills altogether, and 
ovens, cf the most approved construction, in which to soften 
steel for working, and which is imported directly from 
England by the Company, and, above all, the ingeniously 
ventilated roof, which, as if by magic, is opened or closed 
at the pulling of a cord, letting out all offensive gases 



136 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



De 



CEMBER. 



detrimental to the health of the artisan, and from fifty to 
ninety hands employed, we will venture to say they can 
spoil more steel bars, and make more good springs, than any 
other establishment that does not make more than they do. 
In this same establishment is made— don't forget how 
modest we are — the only " real, genuine, original," and 
authorized Stratton's Improved Mail Patent Axle ! Our 
friends, who are ambitious to get the best Coach-Maker's 
Magazine which three dollars will command, will not fail 
to order the genuine " Stratton's Improved" from this 
manufactory, for, in so doing, they will be lending " mate- 
rial aid" (as we receive a percentage on ad made here) 
towards putting down "humbugs," of every kind, and get- 
ting for themselves more than their money is worth. 
Ahem ! Will this do, Mr. Ferguson ? 

Having consumed the day in calls that might by enu- 
meration only weary the reader, in the evening we, in 
company with a friend, paid a social visit to our worthy 
contributor, Mr. Irving and family, which passed away in 
pleasant chat. In the April issue of our " cidevant asso- 
ciate," out AVest, " now caved in," great stress was laid 
upon the valuable services of " our assistant, Mr. Irving." 
We learned from the lips of that gentleman that his valua- 
ble services of some thirty drafts, etc., were," left on the 
square," without his ever getting the first "red." The 
reader will, no doubt, be surprised to learn that the great 
splutter, in the shape of letters, purporting to be com- 
municated from Bridgeport and some other places, libeling 
" the traitors," were sheer fabrications — a humbug — like 
everything else emanating from the same source. We have 
felt ourself compelled thus to notice " the thing" who, to 
reach his own ends, manufactured an " Extra," of bad gram- 
mar, and worse rhetoric, and crammed it with more manu- 
factured falsehoods than are necessary to make the thing a 
curiosity for the next edition of D'Israeli. The reader will 
forgive us for alluding to this thing in this connection, but 
justice to our own character demands that our libeler should 
be placed before the world in his naked deformity. Those 
of our readers who wish to see the English of the editor 
alluded to, and which we have in pickle in our office, are 
invited to give us a call. They will find that his xvhole- 
cloth falsehoods were engendered by our refusal to " adopt" 
his, at the time, still-born progeny, or have anything to do, 
more than circumstances obliged us to have, with its unnatu- 
ral parent. 

In our next we shall notice our visit to New Haven and 
elsewhere. 



THE SOCIETY AGITATION. 

On page 132 will be found an article from an enthusiastic 
painter, who would appear to confine his ambition to the 
formation of " a society of carriage-painters, or, indeed, all 
painters ;" and, from the tenor of his letter, we infer he 



would not exclude the bosses. In this respect he may 
be termed liberal. As to that laboratory and his "compe- 
tent chemist," we are not sanguine of ever seeing that 
established, nor do we expect to see any great improve- 
ment as the consequences of one's puzzling his cranium in 
order to test " a new method of procedure in striping," etc. 
In this connection we also give another letter from a gentle- 
man in a different branch of the business, who appears to 
take another view of matters, and goes in for a society, 
which, if not entirely antagonistical to the bosses, yet, 
would seem to exclude them from its deliberations. He is 
particularly severe on the getters-up of cheap work, and 
probably would include among them that class which our 
Gallic cotemporary, the redacteur-en-chef of the Mereure 
Universel, denominates " adventurous negotiants," who, he 
says, having tried their speculations in Europe, and failed, 
have gone and carried mercantilism " to the oriental banks 
of the Mississippi ;" or, in other words, those who, although 
not practical mechanics, are yet fpuud in the business. 
But hear our correspondent. 

Bridgeport, Conn., Nov. 2d, 1858. 

Me. Editor — Dear Sir : In your August Number was 
published an article on the United Kingdom Society of 
Coach-makers, and I certainly was expecting to see more 
about it in the next issue, in the shape of a proposition, 
from some of your intelligent readers, to have such a 
society started here for the protection of employer and 
employed ; but it seems as if the American mechanics did 
not appreciate such a thing, or it may be they know so 
little about the working of such an institution that thev 
have not seriously considered the matter. I believe there 
is only one trade in the United States that can say (ivith 
credit to themselves) that they have a society fully estab- 
lished, and that is the hatters' society. I think it is a 
great slur on the mechanics here, and shows a great want 
of intelligence ; for there is no man, that will give it a 
mature consideration, but would pronounce it a benefit to 
the craft, and be hailed with pleasure by all well-meaning 
and honest employers. What I mean by that is, an em- 
ployer that is inclined to give a fair price for labor, and 
employ none but those entitled to employment in the 
trade, and none but those that can do their work in a 
workmanlike manner. This would benefit the honest 
employer, by fixing a standard price for labor. I tell you, 
sir, it would be the means of destroying the ruinous com- 
petition that at present exists in the trade. A man that is 
inclined to get up a good class of work, and pay a fair 
price for labor, is not allowed to do so, by the competition 
of his neighbor, who hires the cheapest and greenest kind 
of help, and uses the poorest kind of stock, for the sake of 
selling cheap, and glutting the market with an inferior 
article, taking the place of work that should have the 
preference, and giving the consumers the benefit of the 
sweat and labor of the poor workingman, who, indeed, is 
needlessly trampled on in a great many instances. 

It is time for something to be done, when those incon- 
siderate manufacturers of cheap work are beginning to dic- 
tate how a man is to live, what he must eat and drink, 
and how he must prepare for hard times, by leaving a por- 
tion of his weekly earnings in their hands. Now, is there 



Dec 



EMBER. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



137 



one that cannot see the drift of such petty tyranny ? 
"Woeful times, indeed, that an intelligent mechanic is not 
able to take care of his family, and, when his hard day's 
work is done, he cannot go home and enjoy the comforts 
of life and the best of the land, if he chooses, and for whom 
it was intended by our Heavenly Father, and not for 
knaves and idlers. 

I hope to see some intelligent man," that wants to immor- 
talize his name, and confer a lasting benefit on all con- 
cerned in the carriage-trade, start a plan for working a 
society, at which there has been an attempt made once be- 
fore, but which proved lamentably abortive, on account of 
depression in trade, which caused the leaders to disperse, 
to find employment elsewhere ; but we hope to see it started 
again. More fortunate efforts to better our condition 
will be made by cooperative measures on the part of our 
intelligent mechanics ; for it is an incontrovertible fact, 
that w T orking men everywhere, these last few years, have 
made great advances in knowledge, and they are rapidly 
arriving at a position in which they can and will demand 
their rights in a body, under the banner of one brotherhood, 
and, by its power to crush the fell tyrant, competition (or 
the striving of one man against his fellow-man for his daily 
bread) will cease to be regarded as a natural law. The 
society movement appeals to some of the best instincts of 
our nature, when it urges the need of more mutual help, 
and less antagonism between man and man, encouraging 
the morals of Christianity, and the best aspirations of 
human nature. J. I. 

We have admitted both these articles, as being leading, 
in a spirit of liberality which, we think, ought ever to 
characterize the conductor of a public journal, in the hope 
that, by an interchange of opinions, some good may come 
of it. Audi alteram partem being a part of our creed, and, 
in the same spirit, our columns are open to the other side 
of the question. At the same time, we reserve the right 
to ourself of tempering such articles as may offer, which 
would appear too personal, with an expunging pen. We 
make this offer with no sanguine expectations that much good 
will be accomplished, or the evils complained of remedied ; 
but, perhaps, it may serve as a good medium through 
which to discharge the pent-up gases which are apt to 
gather in the heads of some individuals, and which are not 
likely to injure any one when set free. 

With all deference to the opinions of our respected cor- 
respondents, we would suggest, that any organization, 
which aims to advance the interests of the employed to 
the neglect of the employer, must, in its very nature, 
prove a failure. The interests of both parties are so indis- 
solubly united, that a divorce, on any grounds, must ter- 
minate disastrously. Such an organization can never thrive 
in this country, nor, indeed, in any other. We have seen 
the experiment tried in this city, and a few months sufficed 
to dissolve its unnatural tendencies. We allude to " the 
Painters' Society" started some ten years since, with a pre- 
sident, then a journeyman, now " a boss" himself, and who, 
as a self-arrogated dictator, set up to dictate to the shops 
the precise number of apprentices one must take (if any), 



and just how many journeymen they must be seasoned 
with, or none of " the society men" would be permitted 
to work therein, with other equally crude and absurd tyran- 
nical notions, which were offensive to any high-minded 
republican, and which no man in his senses, who is worthy 
of the name, could, in justice to his personal liberty, sub- 
mit to. 

If any society of American coach-makers is ever formed, 
with expectations that it will prosper, it must be done in 
a spirit of mutual concessions, and with a proper regard to 
the laws of meum and tuum, or, in other words, it must be 
founded upon principles that look to the interests of both 
bosses and journeymen — which admit that the interests of 
one party are identical with those of the other — divested 
of all those petty jealousies which have heretofore marked 
the society proceeding, and proved its annihilation. 

The United Kingdom Society, in England, to which a 
former correspondent alluded in this volume (see on page 
59), is based upon the very principles which we advocate, 
and, in union and harmony, labors to promote the interests 
of the entire craft. We are not particularly certain of the 
fact, but we are inclined to believe that it has accomplished 
its design, in maintaining remunerative prices to the employ- 
er and the employe, and contributed, in a great measure, 
to promote the " social" affections in the hearts of its bro- 
therhood — an element which is strikingly deficient among 
us in this country. 

To maintain its efficiency, its organization should be 
genera], which, we fear, with our diversified opinions and 
diversified nationalities, could never be effected. Unless it 
were so, matters would continue as now, when, often, a 
respectable manufactory has to contend with the competi- 
tion of some " wood butcher," who has squatted down in 
its vicinity, and is ready to put a spoke into a wheel for 
fifteen cents, or do any other repairing at the same starva- 
tion prices. It may be very true that this class do not 
actually starve (perhaps it would be well if they only did), 
and why ? Because they are content to put up with a small 
show of civilization, and are satisfied to live on the coarsest 
kind of " fodder," with expenses to match. It is really dis- 
couraging to a respectable mechanic to find himself com- 
pelled to compete with this class, who are constantly glut- 
ting the market with manufactures only made to -sell, and 
whose customers are that class of fools who, if they, when 
they ride in their apologies for a carriage, should, on the 
first trial, break their limbs, yet would be no great loss to 
the world. Having thus given vent to our feelings with 
these remarks, we, for the present, await the issues of our 
correspondents' agitations. 



THE GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE ARCHITECTURE. 

The article which for two months has appeared under 
the above head, having been loudly called for bv our 



138 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



December. 



patrons, will be continued regularly until its completion. 
The gentleman who has furnished it is a workman in 
whom our readers may place the utmost confidence, and 
they may rest assured that, whatever interested body- 
makers may say to the contrary, the rule is correctly 
given. Anticipating misrepresentation and other unfair 
measures from those who are after the thirty pieces of 
silver, the author sends us the following caution, which, 
but for an oversight on the part of the compositor, would 
have appeared at the end of the article, on page 126 : 

Mr. Editor : — It is to be hoped that this will appear 
intelligible to the class it is intended for, and that they 
will not be deceived by designing pedants, who will abuse, 
criticise, and censure a work like this, for the sake of 
lining their own pockets out of the small earnings of the 
uninitiated. It is all well enough to pay for information 
legitimately given, but I protest against paying for im- 
position. 

An illustration of my sentiment will not be amiss in this 
case, which took place under my own observation. A 
young man was working in a shop under instructions, for 
which lie had to build work at much reduced prices, where 
the foreman (one of the class above-mentioned), although 
paid a good salary for his services by the proprietor, 
undertook to teach this young man, in working hours, the 
so-called French Rule, for which he charged him the price 
of the job he gave instructions on — about sixty dollars — 
and had it placed to his own account. Now, I want to 
know if vou don't agree with me in condemning such an 
imposition on the employer and the employed. I am 
glad to say such a thing did not happen in Connecticut. 



EYES RIGHT! 

Some military wag — probably a member of the 8th 
Regiment — who feels that his military pride has been 
wounded by the superior neatness and order with which 
Col. Vosburgh, of the 7 1st, has arranged his camp for the 
" Staten Island war," gets off the following humorous 
order :— 

MILITARY NOTICE. 

Camp Washington, Oct. 9, 185S. 

Order No. 2,341, for the Tear 1858. 
Grand Army of Occupation, Attention ! 
The Camp is now arranged according to Army Encampments ; 
heretofore the back was towards the North, when it should be 
towards the South. When it was first pitched, Scott was used as 
authority, but such trashy books as Scott do not suit us. It is now 
in perfect order, and so are we. We therefore GIVE NOTICE that 

" He who dares this Camp misplace, 
Must meet Bombastes face to face." 

By Order of 

BREVET-GENERAL BOM\ 



To Our Subscribers. — The paper, in a portion of our 
November number, was not as good as our contract with 
our printers demanded. No one can regret this more than 
the publisher, as he pays for his work as soon as it is per- 
formed. We shall, therefore, not allow our kind patrons 
to be imposed upon, in this respect, again. It is our inten- 
tion to furnish the public with a book, such as has never, 
heretofore, been presented to a mechanical body, either in 
this, or any other section of country. 



TO OUR FRIENDS IN THE COUNTRY. 
There are, doubtless, many of our patrons who, when 
they order circulars, showbills, &c, of their business 
printed, see the importance of having something appropri- 
ate with which to ornament the heads thereof, in order to 
make them attract the attention of the public. To such, 
we have concluded to furnish an electrotype of any draft 
we have already, or may hereafter publish in this Maga- 
zine, and from which they may select — the buggies for 
$2.00, the carriages for $2.50 — the money to be forwarded 
with the order. We can fill such orders at two days' notice, 
and the cut will be serviceable for years, and cost you but 
a trifle compared with the expense we were at, in getting 
them up, originally. To such as prefer our printing their 
orders here, terms will be made known on application, 
and sendino- us the details of what is needed. In this latter 
case we make no extra charge for the use of the cuts. All 
expense of transmission by Express is to be borne by those 
ordering- cuts or printing, on its delivery to them. 



Look Out. — There is a fellow who, for more than a 
year, has been practicing the confidence game in this city, 
especially among carriage manufacturers, whom he has 
swindled by buying on time, and giving his note for a few 
days. The fellow "came it" over us about a year ago, 
since which time we have heard of his operations very fre- 
quently. Two of " the Smith family " have left their cards 
with us, which can be seen at our office by any person cu- 
rious enough to look at the beauties. They may interest 
those who contemplate selling on time, and profit those 
who take a look at the cards before they do sell. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

SCALE DRAFTING AS APPLICABLE 
CARRIAGES. 



TO 



BY JOSEPH IRVING, OF BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



(Continued from page 1 18. J 

LESSON THIRD. 

In drafting a carriage of the kind described, com- 
mence by drawing the top horizontal line, H, and the top 
back-line, K, at right angles with it ; then from line H, 
which is the outside top of lines, mark 3 ft. 9^- inches, and 
draw your seat-line, T; from the seat-line mark 11 inches, and 
draw your bottom-line, S; now from line K mark a parallel 
line, B, 3 inches from it, and 1 8 inches high from the seat. 
This is the back body-line. Line K is the extremity of the 
back bow, which overhangs the back-line 3 inches. Next 
mark from line B, on the seat, 2 ft. 4 in., which is the 
depth from the back-line to the front of the seat. This is 
more depth than is necessary for ordinary buggies, but, for 
this style of carriage there is a good deal of space required, 
to give it an easy and graceful sweep, and, when trimmed 
with a good full back, there is none too much room for 
comfort. From the front of the seat mark off 19 inches 



December. 



THE NEAV YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



139 




A New Harness is de- 
scribed by the New Bruns- 
wick (New Jersey) papers 
by which invention the ordi- 
nary saddle is dispensed with; 
also, the whipple-tree and 
breeching. The wagon is 
controlled by two friction 
rollers fastened at the end of 
the shaft-bars. The shafts 
are held and controlled by 
two terrets at the hames. 
The horse can be detached 
from the carriage in a mo- 
ment, bymeans of two spring 
hooks, arranged at the for- 
ward end of the trace, which 
is convenient at all times, 
and more especially in case 
the horse becomes frightened 
and runs away. 



back, which is the depth of the seat. From the front of 
the seat, and on a straight line, mark 24 inches to the dash 
or bracket-front, which you let run about 8 inches higher 
than the seat-line. Now you can commence and trace 
out the form of the body within the prescribed limits. 
About the centre of the quarter, let it be about 1 inches 
deep, taking out of that \\ inch for the rocker. The 
length of the top requires to be about 3 ft. 6 inches. In 
forming the top curve, mark from the straight line, H, in 
front, 5 inches, and on the back, 6 inches, which leaves the 
curve at the back bow an inch lower than the front. When 
the body is traced out you can calculate for the remaining 
gear in the following manner : draw a perpendicular line 
2 ft. 5 inches from the front of the seat, for the centre of 
the hind wheel. Next draw a straight loop from the body 
behind till it intersects the perpendicular line ; then calcu- 
late \\ inch for the spring-bar (12 inches deep for the 
spring, and 3 inches deep for the axle-bed), with \ inch for 
the half of the axle, making in all 17 inches from the hind 
loop to the centre of the wheel, from which point you de- 
scribe a four-foot circle. Now you can draw the ground or 
base line, from which you calculate for the front. You 
will have to use a deep axle-bed in front, in order to get a 
reasonable depth of spring. The diagram demonstrates the 
utility of Haussknecht's patent horizontal, or fifth wheel — 
it is to enable the front wheel to lock back of the front seat- 
line, giving more depth for the wheel to turn under the 
body. There is no particular rule for drawing the shape 
of the reach, only to follow the bottom curves of the body 
as much as practicable, retaining an easy-appearing sweep. 
It is fully as bad in appearance, as it is detrimental to the 
carriage, to have a reach too crooked. This top is sup- 
ported by a stay, forming a pivot-iron to receive the slats. 
The same pivot also receives the arm, which terminates in 
a handle to the side of the body. The pivot should be 
about 9 inches high from the seat. 



INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

October 26. — Bridles to Prevent Horses from Kicking or 
Running Away. — John M. Lanier, of Eufaula, Ala. : I do not 
claim the employment of two bits operating upon one jaw of 
the horse. Nor do I claim operating one bit by means of 
two sets of reins. 

But I claim the employment of two bits, so arranged with two 
sets of reins that one bit will operate upon the lower jaw, while 
the other operates upon the roof of the mouth and upper jaw, 
the same being combined and operated in the manner and for 
the purpose specified. 

November 2. — Tool for Chamfering Leather Straps. — 
James Bridger, of Richland, Iowa : I claim the tool described 
for chamfering and channeling leather straps, as described. 

Machine for Creasing and Blacking Leather for Har- 
ness. — Adolph Stempel, of Oquaroka, 111. : I do not claim broadly 
the employment or use of creasing and embossing rollers, in con- 
nection with a pressure roller, for ornamenting and creasing 
leather, for such device has been previously used. 

But I claim the pressure roller, F, and the creasing and em- 
bossing rollers, in combination with the color fountains, K L, 
and felt rolls, M M, the whole being arranged to operate as and 
for the purpose set forth. 

Axle Boxes. — Henry Howson (Assignor t» Isaac B. Wen- 
dall and Jacob L. Wendall), of Philadelphia, Pa. : I claim the 
combination of the box with the bearings, B and B, and retain- 
ing keys, C and C ; when the interior of the box is arched on 
the top, when the said arch terminates on each side of the re- 
cesses, gg, formed in the sides of the box ; when the keys are 
adapted to fit into the recesses and against the edges of the 
bearings, and when the several parts are arranged in respect to 
each other, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. 

Machine for Filing Saws. — C. Tabor and R. D. Tabor, of 
Ischua, N. Y. : We claim the use of the file carrier and pressure 
frame, as set forth, in connection with the carriage, clamping 
jaws, and revolving platform,constructedand operated as specified. 



140 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



December. 




LIFE SKETCHES. 



SCENE FIRST. 



It is very generally admitted, that variety is the spice of 
life. When abroad visiting our fellow-craftsmen, we find a 
great deal of humor among them, and, thinking that some- 
thing of the caricature character would not fail to please, we 
arc induced to commence a series of original sketches in 
the present Number, which, if acceptable, will be followed 
by others of a characteristic kind. 

For the present, we shall introduce to your notice Mr. 
Bill Brazen, the fast young man depicted by our artist in 
the accompanying illustration, who is supposed to repre- 
sent " one of a class" that may be seen, on almost any daj^ 
in the week, standing around the doors of the rum-shops 
in the vicinity of the Bowery Theatre, staring in the face 
the passing hoops with consummate impudence. He is " the 
confidence man," who would make some of our country 
friends believe (when in town) that he owned " all out 
doors," but, when in the country, his character is generally 
taken, by the old rustics, for about what it is worth, as will 
be seen in the sequel. 

For a few years past, when in town, his indulgence in 
lager bier, whisky-slings, brandy-smashes, and gin-cock- 
tails have so seriously operated upon the financial depart- 
ment of Master Billy's pocket, that his pocket-book is very 
much in the state of an exhausted balloon — collapsed. In 
this condition the dog-days of the past season found our 
hero " out of town," for his health, visiting his uncle. But 
"blood will tell." The sight of "a boss" has stirred up 
in his mind the recollection of the time when, with the 
"old man's" team and somebody else's "tin," he raced it 



on the Bloomingdale road, kicking up a dust and astonish- 
ing the natives who have squatted down along the wayside 
of that celebrated thoroughfare. The low state of his 
finances would seem to forbid his indulgence in his old 
sports, " but where there is a will (as Mrs. Partington would 
say) there is a way ;" so, making a virtue of necessity, and 
being bound to shine, and (as tick is, for " bloods," in the 
country, below par,) having provided himself with an old 
axle-tree and a pair of wheels, and found a nag already 
under mortgage to the crows, he is seen " going it " on the 
cheap plan. His legs would seem to be doing him more 
service than they ever performed before, except on an occa- 
sion of giving leg-bail for their owner in a " confidence 
transaction." This scene shows the manner in which he 
" went out." Our next will show how his wits availed him 
in " coming in." 



Dr. Franklin used to say, that rich widows were the 
only pieces of second-hand goods that sold at prime cost. 

The following " notice" is said to be posted up in the 
news-room of a country tavern : "Gentlemen learning to 
spell are requested to use yesterday's paper." 

Pretty Good. — An old lady, living on one of the tele- 
graph lines leading from Louisville, observed some work- 
men digging a hole near her door. She inquired what it 
was for. " To put a post in for the telegraph," was the 
answer. Wild with fury and affright, she incontinently 
seized her bonnet and ran to her next-door neighbor with 
the news. " What do you think," she exclaimed, in breath- 
less haste, " they're setting up that paragraph right agin 
my door ; and now, I reckon, a body can't spank a child, 
or scold a hand, or chat with a neighbor, but the plaguey 
thing '11 be a blabbin' it all over creation ! I won't stand it ! 
I'll move right away, where there ain't none of them onna- 
tcral fixins." 



PLATE 27. 



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PLATE 29. 



Vol 1. 




STITCHING PLATE C, FOR JANUARY. 





DEVOTED TOTHE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1859. 



No. 8. 



ftisteUaittons ^Fitmtto. 

For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE THREE-FOLD NATURE OF MAN. 



BY CHARLES C. KEYS. 



No. IV. 

There is a purpose for everything, and " a time to every 
purpose under the heaven."* Knowledge is but of little 
account if it have not its practical uses, and it is only in 
view of these, its uses, that such universal currency has 
been given to the adage — "Knowledge is power." We 
have been contemplating man as an organized being, 
possessing a three-fold nature, and richly endowed by his 
Creator in all the departments of his being. And now, 
supposing* that we know ourselves in these respects, it be- 
comes an important question — to what practical purposes 
may this knowledge be made to contribute, or what per- 
sonal improvement or profit may be realized therefrom ? 
Admitting that we are acquainted with our physical struc- 
ture, and also with our mental and moral nature, it will 
not be difficult to show that there are imperative and 
important duties which we owe to ourselves, founded upon 
these distinct departments of our existence. 

And, first, we inquire, what is demanded of us, in view 
of our physical nature? Our bodies are exceedingly frail, 
always exposed to danger, and even liable to be injured 
by the unfriendly influences which surround us in the 
present life. This is a truth so patent to the most careless 
observer as to be without novelty, and to have lost its 
interest, except to serious minds. And yet there are good 
and valid reasons why we should pause in this discussion 
for a sufficient time to look this truth in the face. 

" Dangers stand thick through all the ground, 
To push us to the tomb ; 
And fierce diseases wait around 
To hurry mortals home." 

How is it, we inquire, that we hold on to life by so un- 
certain a tenure? that the diseases which afflict our 
humanity are so numerous? and that the average duration 
of life is so short ? Our acquaintance with this subject 

* Prov. 8, 1. 



must have informed us that the preservation of health, and 
the prolongation of life, and the promotion and mainte- 
nance of physical comfort in general, are not matters 
altogether arbitrary in their causes and dependencies, that 
they do not result from blind chance, or fickle fortune ; 
but that there are fixed laws and definite arrangements, 
instituted by the all-wise and infinite Architect of our 
mortal structure, which control these important interests of 
life. The same divine hand that whirls the spheres, that 
directs the sun and moon in their courses, that "binds the 
sweet influences of Pleiades, and looses the bands of Orion," 
gives to the human constitution its laws, and clearly indi- 
cates in this manner the treatment which it should receive. 
The laws of life and health, though not quite so obvious 
as those which God has enacted of a moral nature, may, 
nevertheless, bo determined by a tithe of that care and 
attention which we bestow upon itifcrior and less im- 
portant interests, and may not be violated with impunity, 
any more than those fundamental and primary rules of 
human conduct which are contained in the decalogue. 
" Be sure your sin will find you out" is true in the one 
case as it is in the other. This world, making all due 
allowances for the effects of sin, would be comparatively 
an Eden, and its inhabitants enjoy, in a great degree, an 
immunity from suffering and disease, were it not for the 
almost total disregard of nature's laws which is prevalent. 
It is only, then, by an observance of these laws that we can 
fulfill, in the highest degree, the purposes of our existence; 
that we can enjoy health, prolong life to its maximum 
period, and be gathered to our fathers in a ripe and golden 
old age, when life is well ended and the work of life is 
done. To obtain these ends, the proper means must be 
employed, and it is a duty we owe to ourselves, to use 
these means for the accomplishment of these ends. The 
dirt'erent organs of the system cannot perform their func- 
tions without a constant expenditure of vital power, the 
movement of the machinery, on which life depends, involv- 
ing more or less the wear and tear, and this necessitating 
a supply of nutritious aliment by which this waste can be 
compensated. The laws of life and health require that 
this nutriment be of suitable quality and in proper degree, 
neither deficient nor superabundant. And if these laws be 
ignored, not only ill health, but premature decay and death 
must be the inevitable result. We are also so constituted 



142 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



January. 



as to require a constant and abundant supply of fresh air 
for respiration, a poisonous atmosphere being equally dele- 
terious to the system with noxious food ; so that, if we 
habitually confine ourselves to close dwellings and heated 
rooms, that have not been properly ventilated, we must 
expect to pay the penalty in colds, influenzas, consumption, 
or other forms of disease. We may pursue a correspond- 
ing line of remark in reference to cleanliness, clothing, 
exercise, etc., all these requiring attention and care to be 
constantly and judiciously practiced, in order to maintain 
either the health and integrity of the body, or the vigor 
and efficiency of the mind. Such are the conditions of our 
being, that we are in duty bound to inquire (although 
such inquiries should not engross our attention), "What 
shall I eat, and what shall I drink, and wherewithal shall 
I be clothed ?" The body demands our attention, and it 
must be cared for. Although an inferior part of our 
nature, yet it is a very important part, and will not brook 
or excuse our neglect. Some literary men have affected 
to neglect the body, and some religious men have affected 
to despise it. But both are to be regarded as in egregious 
error. While we are not to sink ourselves to the low 
level of brutes, and delight to wallow in pure sensualism, 
at the same time a proper share of attention to the wants 
of our physical nature is imperatively demanded by the 
laws of our being, and by the circumstances in which we 
are placed. " Thou shalt not kill," and " Do thyself no 
harm," are commands obligatory upon us all in reference 
to whatever may injure health, or destroy life. "In the 
sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," and " Six days 
shalt thou labor and do all thy work," with equal clearness 
indicate the great law of physical exercise, upon the ob- 
servance of which is dependent our enjoyment of life and 
health. But we have not room on our sheet to pursue 
the subject further. It remains for the reader to consider, 
either with or without our aid, the duties which he owes 
to himself as an intellectual and moral being. We may 
possibly (although we are not now in circumstances to 
pledge ourselves) return to the subject in a future number. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

NED LOWRIE'S COURTSHIP. 



BY JAMES SQOTT. 



Six or eight of us were seated around the stove in my 
bachelor quarters one evening, and, for lack of better 
amusement, each told some story of personal experience or 
adventure. Some of the yarns were rich, and, for the bene- 
fit of those of the "craft" who relish a bit of fun, I have 
reduced one of them to paper. 

" I never was really in love but once !" said Ned Lowrie, 
sentimentally. " At the time I was overtaken by this dread- 
ful calamity, a small town in the interior of Alabama had 
the honor of containing my corporeal corporosity ; but, as 
you fellers don't understand anatomical terms, I mean to 
say that I was staying 'thar.' The establishment in which 
I was employed stood on the outskirts of the corporation, 
and was surrounded by neat suburban cottages. The pret- 
tiest of them was on the lot adjoining the shop, and in it 
dwelt the object of my heart's adoration. How shall I 
describe her ! The term handsome is too tame. Pretty 
wouldn't begin to express half the enchanting beauty — the 
bewitching loveliness — the peace-destroying charms of my 
Rebecca Ann ! 



" Our acquaintance commenced at the pump. (What the 
mischief are you laughing at?) We of the shop had the 
right of way to the aforesaid pump, which pump belonged 
to the mansion above mentioned, and was located on the 
grounds thereof — excuse the legal phrases, you know I 
studied law once for two weeks. Well, I went to the pump 
for a bucket of water. Rebecca Ann arrived simultaneously 
on a similar errand. 

" ' Allow me, miss, to pump for you,' said, I with an 
elaborate attempt at French airs. 

" ' Thank you, sir,' says she, smiling murderously. I say 
murderously, because the effect was killing. 

" I operated on the water-drawing machine in the most 
graceful manner, handed the bucket to her with a bow 
which gave me a pain in the spinal column for a month 
afterwards, and again she thanked me in tones of ravishing 
sweetness. From that moment I loved — loved with the 
overflowing, obstacle-surmounting intensity of a heart that 
never loved before. My passion was reciprocated, and the 
increased frequency of her visits to the place where first we 
met proved it. And, oh! how my heart palpitated, and 
hopes of future bliss danced o'er my heated imagination, 
when, going for water, I met her. You needn't snicker, I 
didn't intend a pun. 

" For once the course of true love ran smooth. I was 
invited to call, and I called. By the ghostly light of the 
pale moon I told her all my hopes and fears — told her that 
my future weal or woe was in her hands, and in piteous 
accents implored favor for my suit. Oh ! what ecstatic bliss 
was mine, when, hiding her blushing face under my coat- 
collar, she murmured, in tones rivaling the poetic lute in 
softness, 'Ask my pa!' 

"The discordant notes of a male shanghai warned us 
that it was time to part. Our lips met in love's first soul- 
breathing kiss. The door closed upon her fair form, and I 
left. Gates were useless — I sailed over the fence, floated 
home, and was wafted up three flights of stairs, and into 
bed, by troops of Cupid's fairy attendants. The Ethiopian 
youth, who blacked my boots, awoke me to consciousness 
in the morning, by reminding me that there was a balance 
of two bits due him for services rendered. Breakfast was 
swallowed with a total disregard to the culinary skill dis- 
played in its preparation. Never before had I hastened to 
the shop so eagerly — never with such joyous anticipations. 
I would see her — would breathe the same atmosphere, and 
manipulate the same pump-handle. Who on earth could 
ask for more ? 

" I feel like inflicting upon you a philosophical disquisi- 
tion on the uncertainty of human happiness, but I for- 
bear. The maxim, 'There is many a slip 'twixt the 
cup and the lip,' will answer the purpose full as well, and 
save breath. 

"Two hours of the morning — they seemed centuries — 
had passed, and my eyes had not yet been gladdened by a 
glimpse of her dear form. A large supply of water must 
have been laid in the night previous; for the morning dew 
yet lay undisturbed on the horizontal lever constituting the 
motive power of the hydraulic machine from whence was 
derived the daily supply of aqueous fluid. (What do I 
mean! Why, the pump-handle, of course.) Something 
dreadful must have happened. She was prostrated on a 
bed of sickness — severe cold — Ayer's pectoral — Bran- 
dreth's pills — Snooks' syrup, and so forth. The thought 
was madness, and the fell demon of despair was already 
clutching at my heart-strings, when, oh, joy ! she appeared 



January. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



143 



on the front porch. Strangers were with her — strangers of 
the feminine gender. Country cousins, perhaps. The morn- 
ing was warm, the porch shady, and a sable maiden of Af- 
rican descent produced chairs, which promptly disappeared 
'neath descending avalanches of calico and other dry goods. 
"There were six of them, but my eyes beheld but one, 
and she, sweet girl, was to be mine. Had not her own lips 
said so ? ay, and sealed it, too. I wondered if she was 
telling them about me. Of course she was. Their eager 
glances from her to the shop said so, and the new-born 
feeling within me confirmed it. I must show myself. My 
plan was soon arranged. There was a body to paint in 
the shop below. I would descend by the platform stairs, 
and afford them a sight of the handsome affiancee of their 
friend. Rushing to a stray fragment of looking-glass tacked 
to the wall, I adjusted my spotted Marsellaise collar — ran 
my fingers through my hair — pulled off my apron (it didn't 
look genteel) — seized a keg full of lead color, and sallied 
forth. With dainty steps 1 picked my way across the plat- 
form, and down the stairs, which terminated in the yard 
within ten feet of the bevy of femininity. The pro- 
gramme was all arranged ere I started, and, in conformity 
therewith, when near the bottom of the stairs, I raised my 
eyes, and, for the first time, beheld the ladies. I stopped 
— elevated my hat a la mode — said something, I forget 
what — started again, and — well, the first thing I remember, 
my head came in forcible contact with terra firma — ditto 
the keg. Something went all over my face, and into my 
eyes. I gathered myself up — heard a perfect scream of 
laughter from the porch — rushed frantically into the 'wood- 
shop' — was greeted with a similar burst of heartless merri- 
ment — wiped my eyes on my shirt-sleeve — shot up stairs 
to the paint-shop — reached the aforementioned piece of glass, 
and — found I had painted my own countenance instead of 
the buggy-body. Lead color predominated from the roots 
of my hair down to my boots. I left that town at an hour 
when graves are supposed to yawn, and sheeted ghosts to 
perambulate around the abodes of men — have never seen 
Rebecca Ann since, and sincerely hope I never may ! 
Boys, let's go to bed ; it's getting late." 



COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The mailed horseB and scythe-chariots of an early age— The revolution 
effected by Cyrus in the construction of chariots — The four-perch chariot of 
Abradatus, and the golden corslet of Panthea— An eight-perch chariot drawn 
by oxen— The success ofthe scythe-chariots, at first, wins for them a world- 
wide renown— Subsequently, the Bomans treated them with contempt and 
derision, the improvements in military tactics rendering them ineffectual. 

Quod tempore antiquum videtur, id incongruitate est 
maxime novum. 

Previous to the introduction of cavalry, in Homer's 
time, some of the horses harnessed to the chariot, when 
going to battle, were partially mailed, and sometimes these 
horses were two, sometimes four, and even as high as six 
among some nations. The two inside only were employed 
in drawing the car, the two outside serving for the purpose 
merely of increasing the force of an onset. Some of these 
chariots had a sharp spike projecting from the end of the 
pole, and two sharp and curved scythes set in the axle, 
where the car was mounted on two wheels. As in the case in 
our illustration, where the vehicle was four-wheeled, these 
horrid and formidable instruments of death were doubled. 



They received the name of scythe-chariots. These battle- 
cars were mostly with only two wheels, four being more 
rarely employed. In his conquest of India, Alexander 
employed elephants and camels to draw his chariots. 
Probably the greatest revolution ever made in the con- 




an ancient scythe-chariot. — From a Rare Print. 

struction and use of chariots, was that effected by Cyrus, 
the Persian, at the very moment of his contemplated expedi- 
tion against the city of Sardis, a dependency of the Assy- 
rian empire.* Many of these, which we are about to describe 
in detail, were fitted up from the old chariots which had 
been captured in his previous battles, and others were con- 
structed out of such material as he could lay his hands 
upon. Xenophon, to whom we are indebted for the most 
of what follows, and who writes from personal knowledge, 
tells us that the Trojan method of using chariots, as for- 
merly practiced, and as still used by the Cyrenians, Medes, 
Syrians, Arabians, and other Asiatic nations, he utterly 
abolished. His opinion was that, formerly, the very best of 
the men — those which probably constituted the chief 
strength of the army — mounted in the chariots, had, in 
fact, only acted the part of skirmishers at a distance, and 
had contributed but very little to the obtaining of a victory. 
He argued that three hundred chariots would require three 
hundred combatants, requiring twelve hundred horses, 
demanding a driver for each chariot, whose skill was entirely 
lost in guiding the chariot, without contributing in the least 
towards obtaining a victory over an enemy. 

The chariots invented by the Persian king were provided 
with wheels of great strength, so as not to be easily broken, 
and with axletrees that were very long, because, if made 
very broad, they would not so easily be overturned. The 
box for the driver he had made like a turret, and with 
strong pieces of timber ; and the highest of these boxes 
reached up to the elbows of the drivers, that, reaching 

* Although, in conformity with this account of Xenophon, the general voice 
of the world has accorded the scythe-chariots mentioned to Cyrus, yet we 
think it proper to state that Diodorus Siculus, quoting from Ctesias, says that 
Ninus had a great number of them in use in his expedition against the 
Bactrians, at a much earlier period. They were certainly, however, not 
used at the siege of Troy, — Ed. 



144 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



January. 



over these boxes, they could drive the horses. These 
drivers were covered, all but their eyes, with armor. To 
the axletrees, at the ends, he attached steel scythes atout 
two feet and a half long ; and below, under the axletrees, 
he fixed others, pointing to the ground, intending with these 
chariots to break in on the enemy. 

Abradatus, king of the Susians, who had revolted from 
the Assyrian government and joined his fortunes with those 
of Cyrus, observing his leader engaged in his newly-invented 
chariots, followed suit, with one hundred for his own ser- 
vice, mounted on one of which he intended to lead the van. 
This intended for his own personal use he framed with four 
perches, and with eight horses, in this distancing our three- 
perch cotemporaries several centuries. Panthea, his wife, 
having provided him with a golden corslet, head and arm 
pieces, and his horses with brass defenses, no doubt, he 
looked upon himself as invincible ; although, as the sequel 
showed, a fall from this chariot proved his death. 

Seeing Abradatus's four-perch chariot, Cyrus considered 
that it might be advantageous to make one with eight, so 
as to draw the lower frame of his machine with eight yoke 
of oxen. This engine of war, together with its wheels, was 
upwards of fifteen feet from the ground. On these frames 
he made open spaces to move about in, and strong defenses, 
and on each of these turrets he mounted twenty men. 
When he had completed these turrets, and tested their 
draught by experiment with eight yoke of oxen, with the 
twenty men thereon mounted, he found it could be drawn 
with more ease than a single yoke had formerly drawn the 
common baggage weight ; for the weight of baggage was 
about five and twenty talents (about 1,425 pounds) to each 
yoke, but the draught of a turret, whose wooden frame was 
as broad as a tragic . stage, together with twenty men and 
their arms, amounted but to fifteen talents (855 pounds) to 
each yoke. Some of these chariots were made so high, 
that when Abradatus was about to get into his, he mounted 
"by the door of the driver's seat, and after he had got up, 
when the driver shut the door of the seat, Panthea, who 
had no other way to salute him, kissed the seat of the 
chariot." 

Afterwards, these scythe-chariots were tried in an 
encounter with the Egyptian chariots, in the army of Croe- 
sus. By the rapid movements of the horses, the Egyptian 
vehicles were overturned, and, being cut to pieces, both men, 
arms, horses and wheels, and whatever these scythes came 
in contact with, was destroyed, throwing everything into 
inexpressible confusion. But poor Abradatus, being exces- 
sively jolted, in passing over the heaps of all kinds, which 
his bravery had caused, fell, with others of his party, and- 
were cut down and killed by his own instruments, in the 
confusion which followed. This battle, although Cyrus lost 
his faithful ally therein, yet gained for his scythe-chariots 
such a world-wide fame that they were used by his suc- 
cessors for many years. 

Subsequently, these scythe-chariots were looked upon as 
being comparatively of very little use. Artaxerxes found 
them so at the battle of Cunaxa. At the battle of Arbela, 
Darius having placed one hundred of these chariots, armed 
with scythes, before the left wing of his army, soon found 
them to be of very little effect, his opponent, Alexander, 
who was upon the right of his own army, and consquently 
opposite to these chariots, having ordered his men to divide 
when they saw them coming. Acting upon his orders, 
they were, by this manoeuvre, rendered ineffectual. After- 
wards, at the battle of Thurium, where Sylla defeated 



Archelaus, one of the generals of Mithridatesj the soldiers 
in the Roman army treated these scythe-chariots with such 
great contempt that, after the first which were sent against 
them had passed without doing them any injury, as though 
they had but merely been spectators in a chariot race, they 
treated these scythe-chariots with derision, and loudly cried 
out for the enemy to send on more. 

The fine illustration which accompanies this article is 
taken from a very rare and costly work, which has never 
been published in this country. We take very great plea- 
sure in being the first to introduce it to our readers, and, 
although at a heavy expense, we trust it will be appreciated, 
and prove instructive. S. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

STRAIGHTENING CROOKED TIMBER. 

" Now, let the bow-bent forms relax their bows ; 
Uneven corners range in even rows ; 
The sprung and crooked be made straight and true ; 
The warped and winding take their forms anew." — Edwaeds. 

Timber often becomes crooked from various causes; 
one of the most common of which is, its inclination to spring, 
when it is split or sawed out from the log. On this subject, I 
penned a few thoughts on page 124 of this volume, which 
should be read in connection with this article. Another 
way in which timber becomes crooked is, by warping when 
it is being seasoned, or drying after having been wet. 

The value of almost all kinds of timber is, almost always, 
more or less, enhanced by its straightness, and diminished 
in proportion to its crookedness. A stick of timber may 
be of the very first quality and, at the same time, of very 
little value, except for certain purposes, on account of its 
crookedness, from warping or springing. It frequently 
occurs, that boards and plank are so warped and sprung 
that they are almost worthless ; but, if they were straight, 
their value would be increased, for certain purposes, many- 
fold. To straighten some pieces of timber, is looked upon, 
by many, as almost an impossibility. There may be a 
wide oak plank, for instance, nearly as hard and tough as 
horn, so badly warped that it is unfit for most purposes. 
How came it to warp to such an extent? Why, in season- 
ing, one side contracted more than the other. But, it can 
be made as straight as it was when first sawed from the 
log. How ? How do we give a circular form to one piece 
of straight timber and a warped form to another straight 
piece, and a twisted or spiral form to another piece ? Sim- 
ply, by filling the pores of the wood with hot water or 
steam, sufficient to weaken the elasticity and solidity, while 
we put the timber in the shape desired. If, now, we steam 
a crooked piece of timber, and hold it in a straight position, 
until it becomes dry, it will remain so. If we wish to 
straighten a plank or a board, for instance, after it has been 
seasoned, sometimes it may be done, by exposing it to the 
rays of the sun, for a day or two, with the convex side 
up. Sometimes, it is necessary to wet the concave side a 
little, before it can be straightened. But, in order to 
straighten it, when it may be warped and sprung — and 
twisting too — the neatest and most expeditious way would 
be, to steam it a little, and then, while it is yet soft, 
fasten it in a straight position until it is thoroughly dry. 
This may be done by laying the plank on a level surface — 
on the floor, for instance, and then, by setting a few shores 
on it, which extend to the timbers above, and are driven 
under firmly. Short pieces of plank and boards may be 



January. 



THE NEW YOEK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



145 



straightened at the stove, by heating the convex side, and> 
if necessary, by wetting the concave side a little. Some- 
times, by laying a plank or board on the wet ground, with 
the concave side down, and allowing the sun to shine upon 
it during the day, it will become straight ; and, if put 
under shelter, immediately, it will usually remain straight. 
A slab-board, or plank, and a heart-board, or plank, are, 
almost always, stubborn things to keep straight, unless 
worked or dressed true. When a log is sawed directly 
through the heart, the board or plank next to the heart, 
on each side of it, will be warped, more or less, after 
seasoning ; and the heart-side will be convex, even when 
seasoned under shelter, unless it is held straight while 
seasoning. And, even then, such boards are apt to warp, 
after they have been dressed out straight and worked up, 
if they are at all exposed to the influences of the weather, 
which affects the expansion and contraction of timber. 

When one has a lot of plank-boards, scantling, wagon 
tongues, or such like, which are seasoned, and are sprung and 
warped, should it be necessary to straighten them, they may 
be laid in water for a few days, or until they are thoroughly 
saturated, when many of them will have assumed a straight 
form, and all of them will be so flexible, that if they are 
piled up straight, with sticks between each piece and some 
heavy body placed on the pile, they will remain straight 
after they have become thoroughly dry. When scantling or 
wagon tongues are treated in this manner, they must be 
stuck up straight, sideways, as well as up and down. This 
may be done by making a sort of crib, formed by driving 
stakes into the ground, or by boring two-inch holes in 
sticks of timber, and inserting stakes made of hard wood 
for the side stakes. For scantling, twelve feet in length, 
there should be, at least, four tiers of sticks between them, 
and as many stakes on each side. Now, after the founda- 
tion or bed sticks are laid, with their surfaces in a straight 
line, lay on a tier of scantling, with their bowing side down- 
wards, and put sticks of a uniform thickness between them, 
sideways, and see that they are all straight one way. After 
one tier is completed, lay on this tier narrow -strips of boards, 
about two feet apart, and then put on another tier of scant- 
ling, with their bows upwards, driving sticks between them 
to keep them apart, sideways. Now some more strips of 
boards between the tiers, and then another tier, with the 
concave side down, and the next tier with it up. After 
the pile is completed, lay on timber or stones, or anything 
that will bring the several tiers down straight. It will 
require no more superincumbent pressure to straighten a 
half a dozen tiers than it will to straighten one. 

In this way, timber for building, which has sprung and 
warped very much, may be made entirely straight. Joists 
and scantling for rafters, and such like, if so crooked that 
they cannot be used, may be laid in water for a few days, 
and straightened under pressure, when they will subserve 
as good a purpose as if they had never been allowed to 
become crooked. 

'Valuable timber should never be allowed to season while 
it is in a crooked form. As soon as it is sawed out, if it is 
inclined, it will immediately commence springing, and 
warping and twisting, unless held in a straight position. 
The most firm, tenacious and elastic timber is, usually, the 
most liable to spring. Such is the timber generally sawed 
into carriage stuff, or into stuff for some kinds of farming 
implements, and he, who knows and appreciates the value 
of straight timber, will attend to sticking it up as soon as 
it is sawed. The neatest and most expeditious manner of 



sticking up a log, that has been sawed into plank, is to haul 
it from the mill to the place where it is to be stuck up, 
without splitting them apart at the " stubshot" end, and 
driving sticks between each plank, the thickness of the saw- 
kerf. Plank can be seasoned more straight in thi» manner 
and with less labor than in any other way. When a log 
is sawed into sticks for axle-trees, or into tongues, or any- 
thing else, if the outside tiers are sprung ever so much, let 
them not be separated at the stubshot, but stuck up and 
seasoned, when lying just as they were sawed out. It will 
be found much more convenient and practicable to stick 
up and straighten a lot of timber, without separating the 
pieces at the stubshot, than it would to split them apart 
and then to stick them up. 

This subject is of no little practical importance to young 
carriage-makers ; and, if they have a lot of good logs at 
the mill, they will, most assuredly, find it for their interest 
to be on hand when those logs are sawed out, and to stick 
up the stuff straight, before it is half seasoned. Straight 
timber of any kind is always more valuable than crooked 
timber, because there is less waste in dressing it out, and 
because it does not require half the time and labor to dress 
it. 

. Who likes the task of straightening a piece of white 
oak or other hard plank, with the plane, after it has warped 
and sprung as much as it can ? He who neglects to stick 
up his timber properly when it is green ! 

S. Edwards Todd. 

Lake Ridge, Tompkins Co., N. Y. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE ARCHITECTURE. 



BY A PRACTICAL COACH-MAKER. 



PART SECOND.— BODY-MAKING. 

The annexed diagram represents the body of a caleche, 
with the so-called concave front. In this instance, the kant- 
board is placed underneath the body. You see it don't 
alter the application of the rule, whether above, below, or 
half the width of the body from the base-line, unless in a 
contracted body. As I have mentioned in a previous arti- 
cle, it is preferable to have it placed half the width of the 
body from the base-line. The next diagram will give an 
opportunity of discussing the above remarks. 

As I have explained in my last the manner of getting the 
sweeps of the different segments, it would be superfluous 
here to repeat them, only in this case you have no top-rail 
to keep your side-swell true and correct. You must be very 
exact in framing your seat-rails into the pillars, and getting 
them the proper length. For this job, we want 3 ft. 6 in. 
on the seat-line, A, between pillars, which you mark on the 
top of the rail; then mark on the pillar where the top of 
the seat-rail comes; then lay your pillar across the seat-rail, 
keeping your marks to meet each other ; then apply your 
square, and keep the foot of the pillar at right angles with 
the seat-rail, and mark the level of the shoulder on the lat- 
ter. 

The length of the back bottom-bar, D, can be obtained 
in the following manner: In the first place, continue the 
straight line, B, till it intersects the seat-line, A, and take 
the distance between line B and the pillar on your dividers 
(which is, in this case, 1 inch), which you add to the space 



146 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



January. 




a 

PS 

■< 
o 



S5 

< 

W 

Q 
55 
<1 



The next thing under consideration is the 
construction of the rocker which forms the con- 
cave front. This piece of timber requires to be 
3-^- in. thick. For our present calculation, the 
concave, as described, is 2 in., sometimes it is 
made an inch more, and over. That altogether 
depends on how narrow you require the front 
of the body. Our present calculation gives a 
front 33 in. wide, which is about the medium. 
To obtain the sweep: After you have the splice 
fitted, lay your piece intended for the concave 
on your draft-board in its place, and mark it at 
the top and bottom where the lines from the 
kant-board intersect it; then set your dividers 
from line E — the face of the rocker — to the 
concave line, and prick off the rocker top and 
bottom, at each respective mark. From No; 1 
mark you can gauge the front-rocker to the 
bracket. When the outside is marked off, you 
can take away the surplus timber on the inside, 
to level it as much as possible for the edge- 
plates. 

[We are very sorry to find that, notwith- 
standing all our pains, the compositor mistook 
the word " bevel" for " leveV twice, in the twelfth 
line from the top of the first column at page 
126 ; once in the twenty -fifth, and again in 
tbe twenty-eighth line. It arose, no doubt, 
from the fact, that our printer knows well the 
difference between an I and a b in MS., and a 
great deal more about spelling than " Carriage 
Architecture." — Ed.] . 



between line c (which is the face of the bottom-side) and the pillar 
mortice on the kant-board, which will make it 2£ inches on each side 
(in all 5 inches), which you deduct from the length of the seat-rail, 
leaving a balance of 3ft. 1 in., which is the length of the back bot- 
tom-bar from shoulder to shoulder. 



Egyptian Manuscripts. — M. De Sauley, a 
member of the Institute, who has passed some 
time in Egypt, and is very conversant with the 
archaeology of that country, states, in the 
Courrier de Paris, that an important discovery 
has lately been made in one of the tombs of 
Memphis, of a whole library of hieratic papy- 
ruses. This precious collection would most 
probably have been torn into bits by the finders, 
and sold to the curiosity-hunters who frequent 
that country, had not an Arab, an agent of the 
British Museum, bought up the whole lot. Mr. 
Birch, of the Institution just named, has as yet 
only deciphered one of these curious manu- 
scripts, which turns out to be neither more nor 
less than a complete history of the royal dynas- 
ties which are registered under the numbers 
eighteen and nineteen in Manetho's Chrono- 
logical Canon. It is to one of those dynasties 
that the celebrated Sesostris belongs, and the 
same period comprises the history of the occupa- 
tion of Egypt by the Hyksos, or shepherds, who 
kept the Egyptian races under their sway for 
ages. Modern Archaeologists had already fixed 
the place of the King Raskennen, whose name 
is so frequently found on monuments, and in 
hieroglyphic texts, as belonging to a period an- 
terior to the eighteenth dynasty. The papyrus 
mentioned confirms this opinion. 



January. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



149 



girl who had no handkerchief, and no knowledge of the use 
of that article, is, we submit, a trial of no mean magnitude. 
Yet we have been there, and have been obliged to " sit up 
close," with big Rachel, laughing and blushing, till we 
came to hate her name. We wonder where the over- 
grown, frowzy creature is now, and what the condition of 
her head is ? 

THE FIRST LONG-TAILED COAT. 

We do not believe that any boy ever put on his long- 
tailed coat without a sense of shame. He first twists his 
back half off, looking at it in the glass, and then, when he 
steps out of doors, it seems to him as if all creation was in 
a broad grin. The sun laughs in the sky ; the cows turn 
to look at him ; there are faces at every window ; his very 
shadow mocks him. When he walks bv the cottag-e where 
Jane lives, he dares not look up, for his life. The very boards 
creak with consciousness of the strange spectacle, and the 
old pair of pants that stop a light in the garret window 
nod with derision. If he is obliged to pass a group of men 
and boys, the trial assumes its most terrific stage. His 
legs get all mixed up with embarrassment, and the flap of 
the dangling appendage is felt upon them, moved by the 
wind of his own agitation ; he could not feel worse were it 
a dishcloth, worn as a badge of disgrace. It is a happy 
time for him when he gets to the church, and sits down 
with his coat tails under him ; but he is still apprehensive 
with thinking of the Sunday School, and wonders if any of 
the children will ask him to " swing his long-tailed blue." 

GOING HOME WITH THE GIRLS. 

The entrance into society may be said to take place 
after boyhood has passed away, yet a multitude take the 
initiative before their beards are presentable. It is a great 
trial, either to a tender or a tough age. For an overgrown 
boy to go to a door, and to knock or ring with absolute 
certainty that in two minutes all their eyes will be upon 
him, is a severe test of courage. To go before these girls, 
and make a satisfactory tour of the room without stepping 
on their toes, and then to sit down and dispose of one's 
hands, without putting them into one's pockets, is an 
achievement which few boys can boast. If a boy can get 
so far as to measure off ten yards of tape with one of these 
girls, and cut it short at each end, he may stand a chance 
to pass a pleasant evening, but let him not flatter himself 
that all the trials of the evening are over. Then comes, 
at last, the breaking up. The dear girls don their hoods, 
and put on their shawls, and look so saucy, and mischievous, 
and unimpressible, as if they did not wish any one to go 
home with them. Then comes the pinch, and the boy 
that has the most pluck makes up to the prettiest girl, his 
heart in his throat, and his tongue clinging to the roof of 
his mouth, and, crooking his elbows, stammers out the 
words, " Shall I see you home ?" She touches her fingers 
to his arm, and they walk home about a foot apart, feeling 
as awkward as a couple of goslings. As soon as she is safe 
inside her own doors, he struts home, and thinks he has 
really been and gone and done it. Sleep comes to him at 
last, with dreams of Caroline and calico, and he awakes in 
the morning and finds the door of life open to him, and 
the pigs squealing for breakfast. 

CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS. 

We have passed over churning, and learning the cate- 
chism, because we are fearful of making this article too 
long, although we might have talked of butter that would 



not be persuaded to come, and perplexities of a literary 
turn of mind, and a head that measured seveu and a 
quarter when asked what the chief end of man was. Boy- 
hood is a green passage in man's experience, in more senses 
than one. It is a pleasant thing to think over and laugh 
about now, though it was serious enough then. Many of 
our present trials are as ridiculous as those which now 
touch the risibles in the recollection; and when we get to 
the other world and look upon this, and upon the infancy 
of the soul through which we passed here, we have no 
doubt that we shall grin over the trials which we ex- 
perienced when we lost our fortunes, when our mills were 
swept away or burned, and when we didn't get elected to 
the Legislature. Men are but boys of larger growth. 



§ tn Illustrations d t|e Drafts 



For the New York Cnach-maker'a Magazine. 
» SIX-SEAT ROCKAWAY. 

Illustrated on Plate XXVII. 

Bridgeport, Conn., Dec. 6th, 1S5S. 

Mr. Stratton : 

Dear Sir : — As I have been asked, by two different 
parties, for a Six-seat Rockaway, I have concluded to send 
you the accompanying draft, thinking it may be accept- 
able to a few more of your patrons. It makes a very 
desirable family carriage, especially where a gentleman 
wishes to drive without being separated from his family. 
It can be supplied with a movable glass-front, so as to 
shut off the proximity of the driver, which (as a refined 
young lady once said) "is vastly obnoxious." I have 
mounted it on platform springs, which makes it look more 
stylish. It can be hung on a perch carriage, with less cost, 
and will admit of any width of track required, as there is 
ample room for the front wheel to turn under. I also send 
a diagram, representing the manner of lowering the front 
carriage part, by dropping the beds. The body is made 
in the usual manner of coaches, with straight rocker. It 
will require rocker-irons 2% X |- of an inch. 




This draft represents the front transverse beds, suitable 
for the Six-seat Rockaway, or any carriage hung equally 
low. The bottom transom terminates in almost a wedge 
shape at the spring, leaving the iron alone for support, 
shaped in the usual manner, in the form of a T, about f- of 
an inch thick. 

J. Irving. 



150 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



January. 



MESSRS. GOOLD & CO. S BRETT. 

Illustrated on Plate XXVIII. 

We are under obligations to the respectable firm of 
Messrs. Jas. Goold & Co., of Albany, New York, for this 
fine contribution to this plate. It is, we believe, drawn 
by Mr. Wm. H. Perry, and was originally designed by 
Mr. Walter R. Bush, a member of the firm. We need not 
tell our readers that it makes a fine carriage — this can be 
seen in the draft. The article we saw, on a late visit to 
Albany, standing in their repository, had a stationary opera 
board, although such an appendage does not appear in our 
drawing. The painting being a dark green, with mould- 
ings painted black, and trimmed with green cloth and 
laces of the same color, imparted a fine contrast to the 
general ensemble of the carriage, exhibiting good taste in 
the getting up, which is characteristic of this establish- 
ment. 



TROTTING AND BUSINESS SULKIES. 

Illustrated on Plate XXIX. 
We present our readers, this month, with two drafts of 
the sulky, both on the same plate. We do not offer them 
as showing any new feature, unless it may be in the forma- 
tion of the boot of the business sulky. They will, how- 
ever, answer the purpose for which they are intended — 
that of exhibiting to a customer when such makes a call, 
and does not exactly know himself what he wants. 

%arks from tlje ^itfril 

TO CASE-HARDEN IRON. 
First, make a paste of prussiate of potash, moistened with 
a little water, and apply to the surface of the article to be 
case-hardened, and, after giving it time to dry, put it in a 
clean fire until it assumes a low red color, after which it 
should be taken out and immersed in cold pure water. It 
is now what is termed steel converted, and, if designed to 
be bright, may be finished with the burnisher. 



TO ENAMEL IRON. 

The enameling or coating iron with glass may prove use- 
ful to our readers, and, consequently, we are induced to 
present them with the following process, which is said to 
be effective for this purpose, and to be the most simple and 
cheap of any yet discovered : 

First, scour your iron with dilute acid and sand, after 
which wash and dry it. The surface of the iron must 
afterwards be covered with a thin coating of gum-arabic, 
put on with a fine brush, over which sift the enameled pow- 
der intended as a glaze, until the surface is covered suffi- 
ciently thick to give it the desired glaze or color. The 



article, at this stage, must be put into an oven heated to 
212°, until the glaze is completely dried, and afterwards 
put into a furnace and raised to a red heat sufficient to melt 
the powder, which, being accomplished, constitutes the 
glazed surface. After putting the article in some place 
where it will cool slowly, the annealing process com- 
pletes the operation. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

PERCH WITH THE FITH WHEEL COUPLED ON 
THE TOP. 



CONTRIBUTED BY WM. GONTHER, OF OHIO. 




The above gearing is applicable to a round-body with a 
wooden dash, where it is not convenient, by reason of the 
shape of the body, to have the front end of the perch 
straight. The fifth wheel is coupled above the perch by a 
hook, bent to the flat iron running along the top of the 
perch. The t*o head-block stays are joined at the fifth 
wheel, over which the united plate passes, as seen in the 
engraving. The wing-stays are rather more fanciful than 
useful, but will suit some of our friends, no doubt. 



THE SMITH OF RAGENBACH. 

In the principality of Hohenlohe, Laugenburg, is a vil- 
lage called Ragenbach, where, about twenty years ago, the 
following heart-rending, but also heroic event took place. 
One afternoon, in the early spring or autumn — my kind 
informant did not exactly know which — in the tavern-room 
of Ragenbach, several men and women having assembled 
from the village, sat at their ease, none anticipating what 
would happen on that eventful day. The smith formed 
ene of the merry company — a strong, vigorous man, with 
a resolute countenance and daring mien, but also with such 
a good-natured smile upon his lips that every one who saw 
him admired him. Every evil-disposed person shunned 
him, for the valiant smith would allow nothing wrong in 
his presence, and it was not advisable to have anything to 
do with him except in a proper manner. His arms were 



January. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



151 



like bars of iron, and his fists like fore-hammers, so that 
few could equal his strength of body. 

The brave smith sat near the door chatting with one of 
his neighbors, I know not what. All at once the door 
sprang open, and a large dog came staggering into the 
room — a great, strong, powerful beast, with a ferocious, 
frightful aspect ; his head was hanging down, and his eyes 
bloodshot, his red-colored tongue hanging half way out of 
his mouth, and his tail dropped between his legs. Thus 
the ferocious beast entered the room, out of which there 
was no escape but by one door. Scarcely had the smith's 
neighbor, who was bath-keeper of the place, seen the ani- 
mal, when he became deathly pale, sprang up, and ex- 
claimed with a horrid voice, " Good Heaven, the dog is 
mad !" 

Then arose an outcry. The room was full of men and 
women, and the foaming beast stood before the only 
entrance ; no one could leave without passing him. He 
snapped savagely right and left, and no one could pass 
him without being bitten. This increased the horrible con- 
fusion. All sprang up, and shrank from the furious dog 
with agonizing countenances. Who shoidd deliver them 
from him ? The smith also stood among them, and as he 
saw the anguish of the people, it flashed across his mind 
how many of his happy and contented neighbors would be 
made miserable by a mad dog, and he formed a resolution 
the like of which is scarcely to be found in the history of 
the human race for high-mindedness and nobleness. Cer- 
tainly his brown cheek paled a little, but his eyes sparkled 
with Divine fire, and an elevated resolution shone from the 
smooth brow of the simple-minded man. 

" Back all," thundered he, with his deep, strong voice. 
" Let no one stir ; for no one can vanquish the brute but I. 
One victim must fall in order to save all, and I will be that 
victim ; I will hold the brute, and while I do so, make your 
escape." The smith had scarcely spoken these words 
when the dog started toward the shrieking people. But 
he went not far. " With God's help !" cried the smith, 
and he rushed upon the foaming beast, seized him with an 
iron grasp, and dashed him to the floor. 

O what a terrible struggle followed ! The dog bit furi- 
ously, on every side, in a most frightful manner. His 
long teeth tore the arms and thighs of the heroic smith, 
but he would not let him loose. Regardless alike of the 
excessive pain, and the horrible death which must ensue, 
he held down, with an iron grasp, the snapping, biting, 
howling brute, until all had escaped — till all were rescued 
and in safety. He then flung the half-strangled beast from 
him against the wall, and dripping with bleod and venom- 
ous foam, he left the room, locking the door after him. 
Some persons shot the dog through the windows. But, O ! 
merciful God, what will become of the brave, unfortunate 
smith ? 

Weeping and lamenting, the people surround him who 
had saved their lives at the expense of his own. "Be 
quiet, my friends ; do not weep for me, for I have only 
performed my duty. When I am dead think of me with 
love, and now pray for me, that God will not let me suffer 
long or too much. I will take care that no further mis- 
chief shall occur through me ; for I must certainly become 
mad." He went straight to his work-shop, and selected a 
long chain, the heaviest and firmest from his whole stock. 
He then, with his own hands, welded it upon his own limbs 
and round the anvil so firmly that no power on earth could 



break it. "There," said he, "it's clone," after silently and 
solemnly completing the work. "Now you are secure ; I 
am inoffensive. So long as I live bring me my food. The 
rest I leave to God : into his hands I commend my spirit." 
Nothing could save the brave smith ; neither tears, lamenta- 
tions, nor prayers. Madness seized him, and after nine 
days he died ; but truly he died only to awake to a more 
beautiful and glorious life at the right hand of God. He 
died, but his memory will live from generation to genera- 
tion, and will be venerated to the end of time. 

Search history through, and you will find no action more 
glorious and sublime than the deeds of this simple-minded 
man, the smith of Ragenbach. It is easy for noble minds 
to die like Winkelreid, or Martius Curtius, the high-spirited 
Roman youth ; but to go to the sacrifice with the certainty 
of death, and, moreover, being obliged to wait a death so 
awful, during long, fearful hours and days, that is to die 
not once, but a thousand times. And such a death was 
that of the smith of Ragenbach. Such a sacrifice the 
smith of Ragenbach made in order to save his neighbors. 
May his memory ever be sacred. 



ahtt %m\\. 



For the New York Coach-Maker's Magazine. 

DRY-COLOR ORNAMENTING. 

BY JAMES SCOTT. 



In many localities this process is coming into general 
favor among painters. For designs, composed of flowers 
or fruit, it is well adapted, and, indeed, some of the plainer 
styles of scroll work ; but for anything very elaborate or 
requiring high lights and deep shades, the system is, in my 
opinion, worthless. The very best specimens of work exe- 
cuted in dry-colors that I have yet seen, and in fact all of 
it, good, bad and indifferent, presents a peculiar flat ap- 
pearance, seldom seen in ornaments done in oil. The ad- 
vantages claimed for the process by its advocates are: First, 
the job can be varnished as soon as the ornament is fin- 
ished, no time being required for it to dry (a great advan- 
tage, certainly). Secondly, the most delicate colors, such as 
lake, carmine, marine blue, Naples yellow, etc., can be 
made to cover perfectly at once, no repetition of coatings is 
necessary as in oil coloring, and lastly: Tints which do not 
assimilate can be blended into each other most beautifully ; 
producing effects, particularly in flower painting, which it 
would be difficult to excel by any other method. In painting 
crests, dry colors may be employed very advantageously on 
some parts of the work ; on a shield, for instance, where you 
require a field of some rich tint, purple, claret or violet, 
you can produce in a few minutes what would take, at 
least, two coats of oil color and an hour's work. After 
acquiring a practical knowledge of the system, you will 
discover that in a great many cases it can be profitably 
employed in conjunction with the usual method. 

Now for the process ! Grind some white lead in varnish 
— English is best for this purpose, as it retains a " tack" 
longer than any other — add sufficient sugar-of-lead to dry it 
in a couple of hours, I do not mean to dry it hard but so 
that it will have a strong tack similar to sizing for gold- 
leaf or bronze, pounce your pattern on the panel and apply 
a coat of the mixture. Have all the colors you intend to 



152 



THE NEW YOKE COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



January. 



use finely pulverized, mix and arrange them on your pa- 
lette, and, as soon as the sizing is dry enough, apply them 
with camel-hair or sable pencils just as you would oil 
colors. Commence at the bottom of your design, so that 
the particles dropping from the pencil will not adhere where 
they are not wanted. A little practice will make you 
acquainted with all the details, such as the size of pencils, 
etc., which I have not thought it necessary to introduce 
here. 

The art, I have been informed, is a German one — it is 
practiced in that country in ornamenting clocks. 

METHOD OF FILLING CARRIAGE-PARTS. 

Sand-paper the work well; give it a coat of lead, and, 
when dry, putty up the holes ; give the putty time to 
harden, and your gearing is ready for the filling, which is 
nothing more or less than keg lead mixed with a little 
japan — not enough to thin it much. Put it on with a 
short, stiff brush, and smooth it oft' with your hand, or a 
piece of thick harness-leather, using the edge. In two 
days this mixture will dry, when it may be sanded off. It 
fills the work better than three coats applied in the ordi- 
nary way, and I have been informed, by those who have 
used it for years, that it will stand full as well as any other 
method — an assertion which I have no reason to doubt, as 
there is certainly oil enough in it to prevent it from peeling 
off or cracking, as is often the case with the old-fashioned 
shop-work filling, made with whiting and japan, and 
applied in the same manner. For my own part, I prefer 
the common way of filling up Avith successive coats of lead- 
color, but, in cases where work is hurried, it would be well 
enough to use this quick and effectual mode of filling. 

"the wrong can." 

A friend of mine, who is foreman of the paint-shop in a 
large establishment, tells the following good one : 

" Being pushed with work, and short of hands, he hired 
a tramping jour., who happened to come along in search of 
a job. It was not long ere he discovered that the new 
hand possessed talents Avhich fitted him for trundling a 
wheelbarrow on the railroad, better than for wielding a 
brush or drawing a stripe. Under ordinary circumstances 
his walking papers Avould have been tendered him forth- 
with, but the shop was full of repairing, which had to be 
done immediately, so the new-comer was introduced to 
several old rattle-traps of buggies, with orders to paint 
them black. At it he went, and in three or four days he 
had the bodies ready to varnish. With cup in hand he 
came to the foreman to inquire the kind of varnish he 
should use, and where it was kept. He was directed to 
that part of the shop where the oil, turpentine, japaD, and 
varnish cans stood, on a raised platform, and told the par- 
ticular can to draw from. In about an hour after he had 
commenced operations, the " boss " went into the varnish- 
room to see how he was progressing. Tbe jour, had, in 
stage parlance, " struck a position " in the middle of the 
floor, and stood staring at a body which he had evidently 
just finished. The expression of his countenance was one 
of stupified astonishment — and well it might be, for the job 
looked as if it had been dipped in a mud-hole, then tarred, 
and hog-bristles stuck on, at irregular intervals, by way of 
ornament. 

" What, in the name of common sense, have you been 
doing to that body?" cried the foreman, recovering from 
the speechless amazement into which the strange appear- 
ance of the varnish had thrown him. 



"I hardly know, myself," answered the man. " I thought 
that I was varnishing ; but if that 'ere aint the meanest, 
blackest, stickiest stuff to be called varnish I ever did see ! 
The hog never grunted that had bristles strong enough to 
spread it." 

" Which can did you draw it from ?" 

" The last but one from the end, as you told me." 

"Which end?" 

"The furthest end, of course." 

"Just as I thought. Why you must be a nice painter, 
not to know that you were using japan in place of var- 
nish." 

" Oh, that's it ! Well, considering that it's japan, I 
didn't get such a bad coat on it ; did I ? If it wasnt for the 
bristles, it would look first rate. What will I go at next?" 

It is needless to say that he went at his coat and hat 
next, and it is a wonder that a pegged boot didn't go at 
him. 

RED LEAD. 

A small quantity of red lead mixed with your rough stuff 
or filling will help to harden it, as the lead is a dryer of 
itself. Try it. 

BEAR-HAIR BRUSHES. 

For varnishing bodies these brushes are excellent. They 
can be bought for one-third of the cost of badger, and are 
full as good for general purposes, perhaps better for var- 
nishes which set quick, as the hair is stiffer, and yet per- 
fectly free from wiry harshness. They can be procured all 
widths, from one inch to four. In style they are similar to 
the flat camel-hair tools. I have learned that they are 
much used for coloring cars, and do the work smoothly and 
without leaving brush-marks. They are manufactured, I 
believe, by Dechaux, the celebrated color and brush-maker, 
of New York, and can be found in all the painters' depots 
in the principal cities. 

A HINT TO THOSE WHO NEED IT. 

It is next to impossible to put on a clean coat of var- 
nish when it is used out of a cup that is covered outside 
and in with dry gummy varnish. Every time you use 
it some of the old stuff will become detached, and mix with 
the varnish you are putting on, or get into your brushes. 
To prevent this, clean your cup every time you use it. 
Take an old brush, pour a little turpentine into the cup 
and brush the varnish off, then wipe it dry with a cloth. 
The trouble is nothing when we consider the benefit aris- 
ing from the operation. 



ENGLISH VARNISH. 

Very great complaint has latterly been brought against 
the varnish of Noble & Hoare's manufacture, that it does 
not dry as well as formerly, and that it soon becomes dull 
by standing in the repository. Becoming dissatisfied with 
tbe article ourself the past season, in the belief that such 
was the case, we felt disposed " to try" somebody else's var- 
nish, and so " posted off" to our friend Kohnstamm's, No. 
3 Tryon Row, City Hall Square, and bought a can of Blun- 
del, Spence & Co.'s English varnish, which is 25 cents per 
gallon cheaper, and far superior. Our painter, who is 
posted, says it is first rate. Try it, friends. 



January. 



THE NEW YOEK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



153 



<sr 



Qlnmmmj) gmm. 



A CHAPTER ON WHIP-SOCKETS. 
Perhaps, small as the matter appears at first sight, there 
is nothing more annoying to a carriage-maker, than to have 
a customer, who has, but a few days since, bought a new 
vehicle, pay him a visit, not in any very good humor, with 
a bottomless whip-socket in his hand. We say bottomless, 
by which we mean, with the bottom gone, and a " bottom- 
less " tale, about charging the damage to his account. Per- 
haps, in the vehemence of his passion, Mr. Findfault tells 
you he will bestow his patronage hereafter on Mr. Opposi- 
tion, across the street, accompanied with the not very 
agreeable intimation, that " you do not understand your 
business," not knowing, in his ignorance, that both pur- 
chase the ready-made article from the same " improved " 
manufacturer, and that it is recommended to look better, 
wear longer, and cost less, than any other in the world. 

We are accustomed to look back upon old things with a 
smile of contempt, and particularly when we recollect 
the old, "slimsy," cylindrically-formed leather-tubes, called 
whip-sockets, which ornamented the turn-outs of our an- 
cestors, and were continued down to a recent date, in all 
their beauty ! But change is written on all things here, 
and, from its laws, whip-sockets, among other things, were 
not exempt. Some genius, of the Yankee stripe, dreamed 
one day, that a stiffener of tin, placed inside,would consti- 
tute the article the ne plus ultra. But this, like Paddy's 
gin bottle, had its defects, the bottom would drop out and 
spill the contents. Well, this "improvement" must under- 
go another improvement, and so a change stuck a wooden 
plug in the lower end of the over-improved socket, which 
was even more faulty than its parent stock — more liable to 
fall out than even the tin bottom ! 

At this point we are disposed to wipe our pen, and lay 
it by, did we not think it to be our duty to 
present, before our readers, the latest im- 
provement in this very essential appendage 
to a carriage. We are not inclined to puff 
any article which may appear in our adver- 
tising columns, and would not here, as we 
get nothing extra for the notice, did we not 
believe that " the Improved India-Rubber 
Whip Socket," of our friend Munson, de- 
served it. Backed up by such names as 
Messrs. Wood Bros., Brewster & Co., Fred. 
Wood & Co., and G. & D. Cook, it would 
seem to require no further recommendation. 
The illustration shows that these sockets 
have a bottom of a piece with the stock of 
the socket, and that they make a neat and 
durable article, impervious to the weather, 
without the addition of such " gingles " as tin and plugs. 
Try them. S. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

HOW TO OBTAIN A PERFECT OVAL. 

As ovals are in constant use in the carriage business, it 
is well to know how to obtain a perfect one, as I claim 
ovals struck out by a compass are imperfect. 

As this rule will apply to any sized oval, get your board, 
and mark out an oblong square the size you want your 
oval, and divide it into four equal parts, by the lines E E 






' V .E \i 



v-ev 




and D D. On line E E set your compass, and divide it 
from the centre into, say, four equal parts, numbering 
them from each end ; then on the end lines, F F, divide 
them also into four equal parts, numbering them from the 
centre. This done, draw lines from the top and bottom 
points at D, to the numbered points at the side ; then from 
the same points at D draw lines across the numbered points 
on line E E, till you come in contact with the correspond- 
ing numbered line. From the end, from those points, trace 
your curve, and you have a perfect oval. The dimensions 
of a well-proportioned oval should be in breadth two-thirds 
its length. J. I. 

EXPLANATION OF STITCHING PLATE C. 

Mr. E. M. Stratton : The designs I send you are intend- 
ed for light road-wagons, and when properly put on, and 
nicely stitched, make a very fine finish. I have used the 
whole pattern myself; but many trimmers would object to 
it, on account of the work. Still, as your Magazine is for 
fashion and style, I send you the patterns as I used them 
on a wagon that was in the Palace, and there destroyed by 
fire. 

No. 1 is the half for the centre-pieces to sides, and back 
to boot. 

No. 5 furnishes the end-centre, having a silver ornament. 

No. 2 is the corner for the back of boot. 

No. 3 is for the bottom corner ends to sides. The top 
corners must be altered to suit shape of boot, not thinking 
it worth while to put them on the block, as they are the 
same, only placed more on the square. 

No. 4 is for the cushion facing and sides to seat-fall, by 
getting the required length, and making ends both alike. 

No. 6 is the centre ornament for a whip-socket. 

Respectfully yours, Chas. T. Lyon. 

New Yoek, Dec. 13th, 1858. 



Julius Caesar Hannibal, giving an account of his sea- 
voyage, says, " All de passengers was now heavin' ; and, as if 
dat wasn't enough, de captain giv orders for de ship to 
heave-to, and she did heave too." 



154 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



January. 



Cjf* Uefo §oti Cuarji-maftfr's lltajajftw. 

JANUARY 1, 1859. 

E. M. STRATTON", Editor. 

TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

" H. G. S. & Co., Miss." — We supply no orders of the descrip- 
tion you want, without the money in advance- The dog-cart you 
allude to is itself a correct working draft, and we should think 
any coach-maker with ordinary judgment might build one 
without difficulty. 

" J. W., New Haven." — Three months ago, when you left the 
club where you subscribed, you should have written us that you 
wished the direction of your magazine changed, and not have 
subjected yourself to the loss of three numbers, which we have 
already sent to your former address. 

"G. W. H. and F. II. M., of Ind."— We have none of "the 
guide" you inquire about. It was never anything else but ''a 
blind guide" to the public, and we are happy to say we never 
had anything to do with it. We regret we cannot say as much 
of its substitute and its swindling conductor. 

" F. L. W., of N. C." — You appear to have adopted a singu- 
lar mode of doing business ; written to some half a dozen indi- 
viduals for the same omnibus on the same day. Fair dealing 
would have dictated that you should have awaited our answer, 
before making us the expense and trouble for which we now get 
nothing. 

An inquisitive correspondent asks, "If that chap's legs 
(alluding to our Bill Brazen) were got up under Goodyear's 
patent ? " Whether the impertinent fellow is joking, or 
whether he may not be merely a spy in Horace H. Day's em- 
ploy, to trump up evidence against us, we are at a loss to 
determine. As a settler for the present, however, we must em- 
phatically declare, that they loere "go-tup" under our own patent. 

A gentleman, who takes a deep interest in the success of our 
magazine, inquires, "Do you think it would be doing the ma- 
gazine and the proprietor justice to give the shop that I am em- 
ployed in the privilege of using it in all the departments, espe- 
cially in the blacksmith's shop, where the hands are all 'nig- 
gers ;' or to lend it out to other shops where they only want to 
hole at it ?" Of course not. If the persons you complain of 
want the benefits to be derived from the perusal of the maga- 
zine, let them act from purer motives, by sending the publisher 
three dollars, so that, instead of their allowing the work to lan- 
guish for lack of support, they assist in promoting its success, 
and so contribute to their own advantage. We contend that, 
should any one of our subscribers only get one new idea out of 
our pages during an entire year (as coach-making is the busi- 
ness by which he lives), still it is valuable to him, and worth to 
him all he pays for the work. 

A NEW YEAR'S GREETING. 

To our kind patrons, one and all, a happy New Year ! 

A year since and the Crisis was upon us. Everything in 
the commercial world was in disorder and confusion. Even 
many who had on former occasions weathered the storm 
and tempest of business life for years — those whom the 
community looked upon as being wealthy, even beyond the 
dreams of Avarice — were, with many others more recently 
enlisted in business, overwhelmed in one common ruin. 
Despair, with an iron pen, seemed to have traced her mark 
on the countenances of all. Days of agitation and sleep- 
less nights threatened to have almost buried the masses in 
one common tomb. A winter of unlooked-for trials and 
hardships, from which the really wealthy were not exempt, 



threatened to overwhelm the whole community with the 
deepest gloom, and which was only mitigated by the hope 
that returning Spring would bring the needed relief — es- 
pecially to the Coach-maker, whose interests are ever imme- 
diately affected by sudden stagnations in the commercial 
world. This hope was the lever which kept him out of the 
slough of the lowest despair. It came, but no relief, com- 
mensurate with our fond expectations, presented itself. 
The balmy breath of Spring passed away, the gentle breezes 
pf Summer came and went, the promises of Autumn were 
not realized, although in a few localities some slight indica- 
tions of improvement in our business were perceptible. 

But let us take a retrospective view from our present 
standing-point. Have we not great reason to be happy, 
since the great Author of every blessing has preserved our 
precious lives and given us food and raiment, health, strength 
and the national blessing of a general peace with mankind 
of every nation? Have we not been favored with a fruitful 
year of agricultural prosperity, filling our land with joy 
and gladness? Are not our coffers full of the precious 
metals ? so full that silver and gold are a drug in our mar- 
kets, and even country bank notes are at a premium ! a 
state of affairs the most dreamy and speculative advocate 
for a " specie currency" never imagined. With the basis 
of a sound and healthy business already laid, are not the 
prospects of a good business season for the craft encourag- 
ing for the approaching time — 

"When the breezes of Spring shall re-visit our land?" 

We judge so ; and whilst we would extend a friendly 
hand to every fellow-craftsman — especially those who have 
sympathized with us, and lent their influence and support to 
our new enterprise — and wish him a happy new year ! 
from the deepest recesses of our heart, we would ,say, that 
we feel that we are warranted in predicting that the future 
is full of hope — is pregnant of many "happy new years" to 
come. Reader give us your hand, ^hile we again greet you 

With A HAPPY NEW YEAR ! 



OUR EASTERN VISIT, 

(continued). 
^Scarcely had the golden king of day tinged the east- 
ern horizon, in his ceaseless and onward progress, when, 
with " traps" in hand, we hurried to the Bridgeport station 
of the New York and New Haven Railroad, bound East. An 
early, refreshing, and pleasant ride of some forty-five min- 
utes, including stoppages at various places, among them 
Stratford and old Milford — the latter celebrated in the early 
history of the settlement of Connecticut — the former famous 
as being the place, standing on the right bank of the Hou- 
satonic river, which here empties itself into the Long Island 
Sound, from whence the Western section of the State ob- 
tains its supply of shad — both of which, in the language of 
Young America, may be denominated decidedly " old fogy" 
villages — brought us to New Haven. The citizens of 



Januart. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



155 



Connecticut are very fond of dignifying the towns border- 
ing upon the Sound with some name terminating in port. 
We, therefore, volunteer — being to the manor born — to 
suggest that old Stratford, ignoring Shakspeare's memory, 
be hereafter named Shadport. It would be quite as digni- 
fied, and far more appropriate than some of the places in 
New England, baptized with new names in the hope of 
increasing their prosperity, and elevating their dignity. 

Once in New Haven, we soon found ourself in the midst 
of friends, whose warm hearts and liberal hands have been 
extended in behalf of our enterprise ever since its being- 
undertaken. We hope that our gratitude may be commen- 
surate with the sympathy manifested in our behalf. Since 
our late associate has, in another part of this volume, no- 
ticed many of the principal manufactories in that city, we 
shall spare our readers the infliction, and ourself the pains 
of a detailed narrative here, simpljr remarking that we did 
ourself the honor of calling upon that veteran coach-maker, 
Mr. Jas. Brewster, whose fame, as a successful fellow-crafts- 
man and gentlemanly citizen, is known throughout the land. 
From him we gathered much valuable and interesting infor- 
mation respecting coach-makers and coach-making, not the 
least of which is the fact, that there is more wealth to be 
found, at the present time, among a given number of coach- 
makers in New Haven than among the same number of 
individuals in any other branch of business. Their wealth 
and respectability place them at once in the catalogue of 
those who exert a great influence in the affairs of the city 
government. Probably, in no section of our land does 
coach-making maintain a more dignified standing than in 
the city of New Haven. 

From New Haven we shaped our course, " due North," 
for Plantsville, via the New Haven Canal Railroad, which 
receives its name from the circumstance that a portion of 
the road leads along the bed where once flowed a canal 
more picturesque than profitable to the stockholders. In 
passing along this road, soon after leaving New Haven, the 
eye of the stranger is forcibly arrested by the singular ap- 
pearance of two reddish-colored elevations, known as the 
East and West Rocks — the one famous as being the hiding- 
place of Goff and Whaley, known as the regicides or judges 
of Charles I. of England, at an early period of our history 
— the other, in later years, as being the residence of one 
Turner, whose eccentricities won for him the name of 
" The Hermit." 

One is forcibly struck with the air of contentment which 
seems to pervade the almost universally white-painted 
houses that everywhere bestud a New England landscape. 
It may be seen at a glance that the people are industrious, 
and, consequently, happy, and we opine that were our Pil- 
grim ancestors to again revisit their former haunts, they 
would find no reason for disowning their later descendants. 

Plantsville, the point of our destination, is one of those 
manufacturing places recently sprung into existence, arising 



mainly from the enterprising spirit of the Messrs. A. P. & 
H. E. Plant, which was formerly called Southington. The 
Plantsville Manufacturing Co. is decidedly an " institution" 
of the country, around which centre the interest and hap- 
piness of many families of mechanics, some of whom have 
quite a property of real estate, the result of prudence and 
industry. The history of this Company is one of the won- 
ders peculiar to America, and has, in a great measure, 
grown out of the success attending the manufacture of such 
simple household utensils as the "Plants' Geared Coffee 
Mill." Underthe guidance of Mr. A. P. Plant, one of the firm, 
we were kindly conducted over the premises, and through 
the mazy labyrinth of work-shops, which afford employ- 
ment to three hundred hands in business times, but which, 
at present, employ about half that number. At this place 
300,000 dollars' worth of carriage and other bolts, nuts, 
washers, rivets, etc., has been manufactured from the bar, an- 
nually, and, notwithstanding the prevailing hard times, about 
15,000 dollars' worth is being made here monthly now. The 
manufactured nuts alone made here annually will weigh 
300 tons. We saw a girl at her work, cutting the thread 
on tire-bolts, 10,000 of which she finishes per day, at ten 
cents per thousand. The mystery, to our mind, is, what 
becomes of all the bolts, etc., made here. One would think 
the Company's facilities would glut the world's market with 
the article. We hope to find occasion to revert to this 
subject on a future occasion. In this place may also be 
found the celebrated establishment of the Messrs. Smith & 
Co., to which we have barely space here to allude. Upon 
the whole, our Eastern visit was one of satisfaction and 
pleasure to us, which we hope to repeat in the spring, 
when we intend to make a closer and fuller personal ac- 
quaintance with the craft. 

THE CHAFINGS OF THE CABLE. 

We hear but little about the Atlantic cable now-a-days 
— merely an allusion now and then — just enough to remind 
the asses, who made such fools of themselves and us, the 
other day, in running a muck up Broadway, to the tune 
of forty thousand dollars, and which, with the integrity 
peculiar to the present board of our city " daddies," with 
water-proof consciences, was taken deliberately out of the 
pocket of that over-nursed individual, " the dear public," 
for the especial benefit of his tax-paying family, that the 
celebration, in its honor, was premature. But we suppose 
they have accomplished their object — had a jolly blow-out 
at the Astor, as the pleasure of guzzling, at other people's 
expense, seems to be about the climax of virtue in a New 
York Alderman — when he is not engaged in helping some 
"contractor" to "prospect" in gougeing the commonwealth. 

We are apprehensive that, if the cable is not speedily 
fixed, like its parting, the fraternization of Uncle Bull and 
his aspiring nephew Jonathan will soon evaporate, and 
that they will again get at loggerheads, as heretofore, as to 



15G 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



January. 



who shall fish in, or be master of the " herring pond." 
Indeed, at this present writing, the steamer from Europe 
brings us " the Thunderer," wherein we find the editor is 
already poking fun at us. Read what follows : 

" Will our newly-made neighbors, on the other side of 
the Atlantic, now only just a cable's length off, pardon us 
if we apply this passing reflection to them ? Not that we 
would for a moment insinuate that they, in their body 
politic, are afflicted with gout or with toothache ; for our 
fiat-footed young friend strides with the tread of a juvenile 
giant, and his grinders are so hale that, having munched 
up half a new world, he is rather suspected of indulging 
gastronomic designs upon other portions of it. In fact, if 
he has a fault in respect of his teeth, it consists in just a 
little too much fondness for showing them. But there is 
something rather wrong about our friend's skin. The oil 
of human kindness, in which he was dipped, was a little 
too hot, and has scalded off the outer cuticle. His sensa- 
tions seem to be rather akin to those of the ancient invad- 
ers of England, morsels of whose skin are still under the 
nail-heads of our old church doors ; or to those of that ill- 
used saint who stands in — we forget which continental 
cathedral — draped in his own fiayed-off hide. He quivers 
to every touch ; and, but that his muscles are large and 
his strength and temper are dangerous to any one volun- 
teering the friendly operation, a good healthy tar-and- 
feathering would do him a world of good. It is our own 
fate always to be in a difficulty with our sturdy friend. 
We can never be quick enough to meet his hot fits of 
affection, or to get out of the way when the boot-jack and 
the gout-stool are flying across the room. We are always 
doing something to congeal his gushing sympathies, or to 
heighten his ill-temper. 

" The New York Morning Courier takes us to task for 
this, our misconduct, in a spirit of courteous admonition, 
which, as it is not very common on the other side of the 
Atlantic, may not be passed over without the courtesy of 
a reply. Our Transatlantic remonstrant, after a general 
charge of ancient grievances, which, as they are not speci- 
fied, cannot be refuted, does us the justice to admit that 
the Times, when speaking of ' our country and its institu- 
tions, has usually done so in a fair spirit.' Well, that is 
something. We have not been false to the fundamentals 
of friendship. We may have thought it a matter of duty 
to tell hirn we thought he was rather sharp in foreclosing 
the mortgage on that Mexican's estate, or that he must not 
disgrace himself in the eyes of his country by stealing that 
Spaniard's tobacco-box, or that he ought to keep his sons 
from riding over his poor neighbors, or that we should be 
obliged to him not to poach more than he could help in our 
fish-ponds, and we have even gone so far as gently and 
meekly to hint a complaint to him of the nuisance arising 
from the cries of that black servant whom he is always 
thrashing. We have never, it is true, done any of these 
things without putting him into a terrific passion, but we 
cannot, in our conscience, think we were in fault; for even 
the indictment against us admits that he and his family 
have always been treated with due respect, and that even 
our friendly remonstrances have been made in a fair spirit. 
Our new crime is, however, we can feel, almost unpardon- 
able. We have made a mistake about that Transatlantic 
telegraph. Cousin Jonathan intended to be sublime, and 
we, in our error, fancied he intended to be ridiculous. 
We unhappily mistook his pathos for bathos. He enter- 



tained us with a performance which he intended to be 
most affecting, and we had the misfortune to think it was 
a farce which he meant us to laugh at. So we poked our 
little bit of fun at him in return, and with due promptitude 
the gout-stools and the boot-jacks came flying about our 
ears ; next morning came the more formal and courteous 
epistle to which we are now replying. Now, our New 
York cotemporary is much mistaken if he supposes that 
the people of England were not quite as much pleased at 
the apparent accomplishment of an instantaneous com- 
munication between the two nations as the people of 
America were. There was some promptitude in the royal 
message ; a confidence which could only be inspired by 
strong interest, and a strong hope was manifested by the 
buyers, who ran the shares up to par on the Liverpool 
Exchange ; and we cannot think that we ourselves were 
wanting to the occasion. We took the best means in our 
power to secure a clever and graphic history of the opera- 
tion, and if our English ship-of-war had foundered in the 
tempest, we should have had our own special cause for 
mourning ; we celebrated the success with as much glorifi- 
cation as we soberly could, and it is not much more than a 
month since we quoted from the New York papers ac- 
knowledgments to the Timesfor being the only paper which, 
on the day of the arrival of the news, had devoted a leader 
to the subject. How far we may be entitled to that dis- 
tinguishing praise we do not know ; it was given us, and we 
quote it, therefore, against the donors. But we did laugh. 
The fact is not to be denied. But how could we do other- 
wise ? If New York had piped to London any rational tune, 
London might have danced to it ; but " Yankee Doodle" 
was played so fast and loud that no English feet could 
keep time to it. 

" The outward methods of expression of great joy were 
strange to our island humor. The ' Young Men's Demo- 
cratic Union Club,' accompanied by a choric band, sere- 
nading Mr. Field, was an oddity in our eyes. Some of us 
have seen real serenades at our opera houses, but when the 
idea is suggested of a middle-aged gentleman roused from 
his sleep, and struggling into his clothes, in order to 
appear upon a balcony to be played to by votive male ad- 
mirers, equipped with fiddles and mouth-organs, our Eng- 
lish gravity is overtaxed, and will explode. Then, when the 
last scene came, and the illusion ended with the combustion 
of the City Hall, and when we were entertained with the 
appearance of the Mayor of New York at the end of the 
performance, facetiously announcing that the Lord Mayor 
of London had, in a higher strain of joyous frenzy, ordered 
the London Mansion-House and the Palace of Westminster 
to be lit up as a responsive bonfire, no one could have ima- 
gined that we were expected to keep countenance under 
pain of being accused of 'laughing at American enthusiasm.' " 

We already begin to tremble lest a long period inter- 
venes before the important news will reach us before break- 
fast the next morning, as to what kind of a night-cap " her 
Majesty" wore the night previous, or what was the color 
of the Prince's night-shirt. We are also fearful lest that 
statue to Cyrus, which was to be, will never present any 
other show than that of a slab, and that " cable" stock 
will fall to the value of " Harlaem Canal" — in fact, lest the 
whole thing turn out to be the greatest humbug (always 
excepting " our old friend" of the "Pioneer") since Adam 
was a baby. What is the present value of cable stock ? 



January. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



157 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FUTURE. 

We feel much pleasure in announcing to our readers 
that, through the agency of a friend, we have made en- 
gagements with Mr. Jos. Neuss, of Berlin, and Mr. Otho 
Naegele, of Stutgardt, for one or more drafts each, monthly, 
of anything new that may present itself in the line of 
carriages in those cities. Being both practical mechanics, 
and extensively engaged in the business of manufacturing 
(the first named gentleman having two draftsmen constantly 
employed), we hope to be able to present a variety in our 
plate department, very soon, that will give our friends 
satisfaction. 

The arrangements we have made for the Parisian fashions, 
combined with those above, and at home, we trust, will 
convince the skeptical and give the fullest evidence to our 
friends, that we are in earnest and intend to prosecute our 
new enterprise with renewed energy. Although Mr.Brosi's 
engagements abroad have entailed some expense on us, yet 
we feel that the continued favor of our friends fully justifies 
us in the step we have taken, and encourages us in the 
belief that we shall be amply repaid for all our outlay. 

Our next portrait will be that of Mr. W. D. Rogers, of 
Philadelphia, a gentleman who has a world-wide renown 
for being one of the best mechanics in the craft, and as a 
gentleman of ability, well informed on the subject, has 
consented to furnish the literary portion for our columns, 
we are satisfied that our readers and patrons may confi- 
dently expect a treat not met with every day. 

We might promise much more, but since we set out to 
deviate a little from the example set us by our old associate 
" out West," and perform instead of promising, we shall 
leave our friends to find out our intentions, by actual 
accomplishment. 



FAMILIAR LETTERS FROM THE CRAFT. 

Raleigh, N. 0, Nov. 2Tth, 1853. 

Friend Stratton : It is with feelings of pleasure that 
I catch my pen to redeem my promise to you in regard to 
coach-making in the South ; but I will try and confine my- 
self to North Carolina in this letter. In the first place, as 
for the size of the shops. There is but one in the State 
that I could call a coach-maker's establishment ; that is 
situated in Fayetteville, about sixty miles from Raleigh. 
The worse curse we have is, there are so many negroes or 
slaves in the business. Nine-tenths of the blacksmiths are 
slaves, and there are a great many of them in other branch- 
es of the business. The shop that I worked in last June — 
before I came to this place — run three fires in the black- 
smith-shop, and the hands were all negroes (slaves), with 
four wood-workmen. After I left the place, they honored 
my bench by putting a black nigger to work upon it, and 
the niggers here take up the idea that they can do a job 
as well as a white man ; and I must say, if I speak against 
the South, that I have found one or two that would puzzle 
a Southern man to badly beat. I had one tackle me since 
I have been in this place. He undertook to work with me 
on a buggy carriage-part; but I only beat him about 



twelve hours — I made mine in six, and he in eighteen. 
Since then he has not troubled me for a race. The most 
of the work that is put up in this State is buggies of the 
most common kind and in the cheapest style, and some 
solid-side rockaways. I have worked in and around North 
Carolina for the last two years, and have only built one 
six-passenger job, and one four-passenger — both of them 
being solid-side jobs. One of them was taken from the 
Western trash, in the April Number, called the Taylor 
Rockaway, and it was a tailor indeed. 

The most of the rockaways built here are those small 
solid-side jobs, with folding or, rather, turn-over front seats, 
which have to be turned over to allow a person to get into 
the back seat. The body is about four inches longer than a 
buggy, and the inhabitants of this place will not have them 
if they are not coupled as close as a buggy. They preach 
up the doctrine, that they run too hard for a horse. The 
coach-makers get a very good price for work here. For a 
buggy got up, as we, Northern men, would say, plain, they 
get from $150 to $175, without a top. There is a great 
deal of varnished work got up in the State. Talking about 
varnished work — you ought to step down to Augusta, Ga., 
and see the niggers in Mr. Luther Robb's establishment get 
up varnished work. He is a man that works all slaves, 
having 3 wood-workers, 4 blacksmiths, 3 painters, 2 trim- 
mers, and 3 harness-makers. They can varnish and trim 
a buggy a week ; and there is another man within ten 
miles of that place, by the name of * * * * *, who also 
carries on the business in a small way. He hires, or, rather, 
gives Northern men a job if they should happen to call upon 
him, and hardly ever pays his hands off. I have seen 
many of his buggies sold for $60. You can buy the best 

buggy put up in Mr. 's establishment for $100, 

and then you would not get much of a bargain. But I 
fear I shall mar your most excellent patience with this 
trash ; so, if you can glean anything from this, you are 
welcome to it, and, believe me, I am youis in trying to for- 
ward our cause, B. H. Huestis. 



Tbiunb, Tknn., Nov. 29th, 1858. 

Friend E. M. Stratton : Having received six numbers 
of your Magazine, and being personally acquainted with 
you for many years, and "one of the craft," of which I feel 
a degree of pride, since we, as a body, display as much lite- 
rary talent and mechanical ability as any other class of 
men. Where we are deficient in one point we make up 
for the defect in others. 

I should be gratified to read a short communication in 
our Magazine every month from each sister State. I do 
not ask you, Friend S., to publish this letter, for I have not 
the time to do your readers j ustice, even were I competent ; 
but having extended to us a broad invitation, I therefore 
feel at liberty to address you, leaving you to make such a 
disposition of my letter as you see fit. 

I hail the Magazine as a welcome messenger, and am 
procuring you some subscribers, and have no doubt but 
that, ere long, it will be received into every shop. I like 
the design of your Magazine. It is calculated to elevate 
the trade in the estimation of other tradesmen, and it is the 
duty of us as coach-makers, from the employe to the em- 
ployer, to sustain our Magazine. It is published at the 
most central point of trade, and has better facilities for giv- 
ing, early and reliable information to the craft than it could 
published anywhere else. Let the craft, then, assist in ele- 
vating its social tastes and literary interests, which will 



158 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



January. 



tend to make our position second-best to none. Let us, by 
our patronage, hold up the hands of our worthy Editor, 
and fill his pocket with the dimes. Would that we were 
bound in closer bonds. Do we not need a coach-makers' 
society at New York, with branches in all our large places 
of manufacture, that we might be protected from base 
loafers who often impose upon our charity as impostors, 
and who have never completed the first job in good style ? 
Having a Magazine in full blast, let us have a regularly- 
organized society to protect and encourage the worth}'', and 
send adrift the dronish and degraded. I need not name 
the advantages the Magazine has brought to the wheeler, 
finisher, and others. 

Carriage-making in Tennessee has improved fifty per 
cent, within eight years, not only in the styles, but in the 
demand for a first-class article. Light carriages and bug- 
gies are coining into general use. Some eight years since, 
in all our gathering-places a few miles from town, you 
would, perhaps, see one or two clumsy buggies — to such, 
now-a-days, we give the name of "horse-killers" — two or 
three barouches of the same stripe; six or eight C spring 
coaches, with yellow jackets on to protect the paint from 
mud, and hundreds of horses, about one-half with ladies' 
saddles on. Now custom has changed. Ladies prefer a 
seat in a buggy or carriage, especially when a sweet-heart 
is their gallant. Buggies are said to be very nice for mak- 
ing speeches in to the fair sex, and are becoming in gene- 
ralise among young men who are in search of a better half. 
Ladies' saddles have nearly disappeared. Buggies ! bug- 
gies ! is the cry, although many possess a first-class coach. 
Tennessee, a few years since, was dependent on Nashville 
for her fine carriages, unless manufactured North. Now 
and then you might find a shop in the back counties, where 
they manufactured " horse-killers," as we termed them. 
Now our State nearly averages a carriage-shop of some 
respectability in every county. 

Our State can boast of as good workmanship, perhaps, 
as any other of her sister States, yet our Yankee neighbors 
have one advantage — they have a better quality of timber, 
which is a very important item. Yours, fraternallv, 

L. W. True. 

[The foregoing letter is from a gentleman who was em- 
ployed in our manufactory some fifteen years since as a 
jour. We are extremely happy to hear from him, and 
hope that our readers will derive some instruction from its 
perusal. — Ed.] 

Columbia, N. C, November 29th, 1858. 

Mr. Stratton, — Dear Sir : — * * * * There is 
some difference in opinion in relation to Avhich side of a 
spoke should be put in front in a wheel ; whether the sap 
or the heart side, some contending for the sap side, others 
for the heart. We want to know what you say, and know 
your reasons. It may be better for you to consult some of the 
most experienced of the craft, as on your decision depends 
a bet of 850. We gave our opinion, and, of course, the 
losing man claimed the highest authority, and, therefore, 
both decided to abide by your decision. 

Yours, respectfully, 

B. & C. 

[Answer. — We decide that the sap side of the spoke 
should, in all cases, be in front. When a piece of timber 
is split from a log, in consequence of the sap side being 



the softer, the stick invariably curves with the sap side 
concave, and, consequently, the heart side is convex. As 
we require all wheels to be made dishing in front to do good 
service, that advantage would probably be lost in the 
wheels dishing on the back side, if the sap side is put on 
the back. It is allowed, by most persons, that the heart 
side of a stick is tougher, in most woods, than the sap, and 
this circumstance is another reason why the spoke should 
have the heart side back, since the draft given to a wheel 
by the tire, when set, gives the most strain to the back side 
of the spoke, and, if that back side be the sap side, it 
would, undoubtedly, the sooner break in the middle on 
the back, from the strain and such additional weight as 
might be put on the vehicle in use. This may, to some, 
appear to be a small matter, but, small as it is, its disregard 
is, no doubt, the very reason why some apparently other- 
wise well made wheels so frequently are found " dishing 
back" so mysteriously. — Ed.] 



The Historical Magazine, published at 346 Broadway, by 
Mr. C. Benjamin Richardson, is, in our estimation, one of 
the most valuable monthly magazines ever issued from the 
press. It is, in form, similar to the London Notes and Que- 
ries, but is far more interesting to any American, in whose 
bosom burns the fire of patriotism, or in whose heart amor 
patria is found. Send and get it, if you would have solid 
as well as interesting reading for the winter's fireside. Yearly 
at $2. 

The Printer is the name of the neatest got up speciality 
to be found in America — perhaps in the world — and ought 
to be highly prized by the successors of Faust. We are 
glad to hear it meets with the success it so deservedly mer- 
its. Its editorials are written with great ability, and, on the 
whole, it is the ne plus ultra of the periodical press. Pub- 
lished by Henry & Huntington, at No. 1 Spruce street, at 
$1 a year. 

Frank Leslie sends us his New Family Magazine, which 
appears to have already won the affections of the juvenile 
portion of our family amazingly. " Carriole Traveling in 
Norway" and some minor articles in the December number 
are capital. How our cotemporary manages to give his 
readers so large and beautifully illustrated a work as his is, 
for $3, is one of the mysteries of the age. If you want 
more than your money's worth, send to the office, 14 Frank- 
fort street, N. Y., and get it at once. 

We find on our table Godeifs Lady's Boole for January, 
one of those publications which has won a world-wide 
popularity. It is edited by Mrs. Sarah J. Hale and Mr. L. 
A. Godcy, who, in some mysterious manner, possess the rare 
talent of successfully pleasing the female portion of the 
community. Its literary matter is very interesting, and 
the illustrations very fine, making " The Book" an orna- 
ment as well as a necessity on any refined lady's centre- 
table. Published by L. A. Godey, 323 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, at $3 per year. 



January. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



159 




For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

SCALE DRAFTING, AS APPLICABLE TO 
CARRIAGES. 



BY JOSEPH IRVING, OF BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



( Continued from page 139.) 

LESSON FOURTH. 

In the finishing process, I have to remark, that the 
•wheels and top points are the parts to he inked ; in starring 
the spokes in the centre of the wheels, as shown in the 
drawing (which, I think, makes a neat, light finish for 
light work), you can take your compass-pencil, and make 
a circle, the size of the star, for a guide, to have all your 
points an equal distance from the hub. In shading the 
top, and all such, a little practice, with judgment, will 
suffice to perfect you, after a little instruction. Commence 
shading very light just above the joint-props, and as the 
roof, or curve, recedes, shade deeper. In shading the fes- 
toons, and squabs in trimming, let the fullness be light, and 
shade deeper where gathered, tufted, etc. All rockers, and 
parts of the body that are sunk below the face of the panel, 
require shading, or, in other words, tinting. 



INVENTIONS APPERTAINING TO COACH-MAK- 
ING AT HOME. 



AMERICAN PATENTED INVENTIONS. 

November 9. Blacksmith's Tuyere. — Harvey S. Berry, of 
Rutland, Vt. : I claim a tuyere, revolving in a wind box, sup- 
plied with wind in any ordinary way, with apertures through 
it, so arranged as to bring more or less of them, at pleasure, to 
bear upon the fire, and thereby diminish the fire, and circum- 
scribe the space affected by the blast, or enlarge the space and 
increase the fire. 

Nov. 23. Devices for Clamping and Feeding the Bolt in 
Felly-Sawing Machines. — Derwin E. Butler, of Chesterfield, 
Ohio : I claim, first, the bed, G, arranged with the rods, D L, 



arms, E, E, E", E", connected by the bar, 
H, and the spring, H, for the purpose of 
readily operating the bolt, L, for feeding 
and removing the same from the saws, as 
described. 

Second. The jaw, I, formed on the bend 
bar, K, attached to the bed, G, and spring 
J, so that the jaw may be operated to 
grasp the bolt, and the bolt relieved there- 
from by the movement of the bed, G, 
substantially as set forth. 

Machine for Splitting Leather. — 
Henry E. Chapman, of Albany, N. Y. : I 
claim the arrangement of the dished cir- 
cular knife, C, the series of split springs, 
G, G, G, G, and the sliding bed, D, in 
their relation to each other, as described. 
Blacksmith's Tuyere. — Benjamin E. 
Dixon, of Marshall, Mich. : I do not claim 
the mode of protecting a tuyere by the 
introduction of water, for that has long 
been known and used. 

But having my improvement, and 
shown its applicability to water tuyeres, 
I claim the mode of regulating the length 
of the discharging orifice in a water 
tuyere, by means of the oblong tapered 
wind chamber, A, with grooves, or other 
equivalent device in its casing, in com- 
bination with one or more of the tapered 
plugs, P P, rods, R R, and the detachable 
cover, D, to be used for the purposes and in the manner sub- 
stantially as described and set forth. 

Nov. 30. Arrangement of Cutters for Turning Hubs. — 
George Cooper, of Berlin, Wis. : — I claim the arrangement in 
the same machine of the adjustable preparatory and main cutter 
stocks, D E, furnished with suitable cutters, in combination 
with any ordinary turning lathe or revolving centering shaft, 
substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

Machine for Cutting Curvilinear Surfaces on Angular 
Pieces of Wood — George Muller, of Sacramento, Cal. : I 
claim a convex plane bit, with edges beveling inward toward 
the centre, for cutting smooth chamfers, of any shape, on the 
edges of railing for express wagons, or on other pieces of wood, 
and the stand or rest 'connected therewith in thcsame machine, 
by means of jaws movable in the frame ; the rest or stand 
may be secured in any desired angle toward the plane to obtain 
a chamfer of any desired depth and bevel, and also of different 
shapes. 

« m * m > 

Traveling in the Danubian Principalities — The 
Araba. — A late traveler gives us a little insight into the 
state of " the art" in a certain part of Europe, which will 
doubtless interest our readers. Hear him : 

"On Monday I began preparations for continuing my 
journey to Shumla. It had been raining for nearly ten 
days, and the roads were very muddy, so that a journey of 
but eighteen post hours required nearly three days. The 
travel and transportation of goods in this province are per- 
formed mostly in arabas. 'Araba' is a general term, implying 
any kind of a vehicle. There is a variety of styles, but the 
best of them are low, rude wagons, without seats or springs, 
and generally without any iron tires to their wheels. The 
heavy ones are drawn by buffaloes or oxen, and the lighter 
ones by horses, hitched frequently four abreast, like the Wal- 
lachian diligence. After considerable search I engaged a 
large black covered wagon, or araba, with five very indif- 
ferent-looking little horses, to convey myself and wife, with 
our trunks and bedding, to Shumla, for four hundred pias- 
tres, about $16, and our goods we left to be forwarded. By 
advice of the British Consul we were furnished with an arm- 
ed man from the pasha, who accompanied us as a guard." 



160 



THE NEW YOEK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



January. 




LIFE SKETCHES. 

SCENE SECOND. 

In our last number, Master Billy Brazen's countenance 
wore an air of assurance and security which his uncomfortable 
position, as here depicted, did not seem to warrant. His fallen 
condition ought to serve as a proper warning to every fast 
young man to take heed how he carries himself. Poor fel- 
low ! We fear that the injury done to his seat of honor 
will be irremediable ; and that the damage to his nether 
garment will, in repairing, exceed that of our friend Mar- 
cy's, on a certain occasion, some years ago. Here we have 
a perfect picture of what recklessness is sure to bring a 
youth to in the end, and it besides will serve " to point a 
moral" as well as " to adorn a tale." Stop ! whoa ! 
whoa! 



An editor out west, whose pet kitten, the "solace and 
delight of two little children," had been killed by " some 
unprincipled wretch," thus gives vent to his feelings : " We 
pour the bitterest curses upon the marauder. May his 
face be constantly scratched by angry felines; may the 
cats of the neighborhood celebrate their nocturnal orgies 
under his window for ever and ever ; should he ever ' keep 
house,' may ' that cat again' smash every bit of crockery 
and glass in the household, and when he eats sausages, 
may he always find a cat's claw or a bunch of suspicious- 
looking fur in the last piece of the last sausage. May he 
be scratched by cats, eat cats, dream of cats, and be dis- 
turbed by cats in secula seculorum. 

A man in Kentucky killed a cow, a few days since, in 
whose stomach were found a large brass ring, a hair-pin, 
and a quantity of hooks and eyes. If there had also been 
a hoop, we might reasonably suppose that " Brindle" had 
swallowed the milkmaid. 

It is anounced, for the benefit of those persons who did 
not get a sight of the comet, that it will again appear before 
the public, for a. few nights only, in the Autumn of 2147. 



r ATEfiS.&C° 



" Why don't you wheel that barrow of coals, Ned?" said 
a learned miner to one of his sons. " It is not a very hard 
job ; there is an inclined plane to relieve you." "Ah," re- 
plied Ned, who had more relish for wit than work, " the 
plane may be inclined, but hang me if I am." 

"What did you give for that horse, neighbor?" "My 
note." " Well, that was cheap enough." 

A citizen down East was dubbed " the little rascal." 
A friend once volunteered to ask him why he was called 
the " little rascal !" " To distinguish me from my neigh- 
bors," said he, " who are all great rascals !" 

Mrs. Partington said she was once son-struck, but she 
has no fear of it occurring again, as she gave Ike what will 
do him for the rest of his life for it. 

Mrs. Jenkins complained, in the evening, that the 
turkey she had eaten at Thanksgiving did not set well. 
" Probably," said Jenkins, " it was not a hen turkey." He 
got a glass of water in his face. 

The oldest piece of furniture is the multiplication table. 
It was constructed more than two thousand years ago, and 
is yet as good as new. 

"When are you going to commence the pork business?" 
asked a person of another, who had a sty in his eye. 
"Explain," said the afflicted one. " Why, I see you have 
your sty ready." " True," was the reply, " and I have got 
one hog in my eye now." 

" I know I am a perfect bear in my manners," said 
a fine young farmer to his sweetheart. " No, indeed, you 
are not, John ; you have never hugged me yet. You are 
more sheep than bear." 

A countryman was dragging a calf by a rope in a cruel 
manner. An Irishman asked him if that was the way " he 
thrated a fellow craythur ?" 

A gentleman calling on a sailor on a rainy evening, 
complained that his shoes, which were thin, had admitted 
the water. " I am surprised, sir," said the other, " that 
your shoes should be leaky, when you had both pumps 



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Vol. 1. 




No. 1. 




No. 2. 



No. 8. 



ORIGINAL ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

Engraved expressly for the New York Coach- Maker's Magazine— Explained on page 17.' 




DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY, 1859. 



No. 9. 



i&ttllaiMttiS SRtmrtra* 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF A TRAMPING 

JOUR. 

BY JAMES SCOTT. 



On Board Steamer Belle (bound for New Orleans), 

Eight o'clock, A. M., Sept. 5, 1858. 

It is with feelings akin to those one might experience 
while contemplating the awful duty of writing his " Last 
Will and Testament," previous to committing suicide, that 
I sit down to make this entry in my diary. It may be the 
last. Who knows ? These boat-men have as little regard 
for human life as Sylvanus Cobb, jr., displays in the battle 
scenes of his New York Ledger romances. I venture the 
assertion, boldly, that they are among the most liberal 
patrons which Col. Colt possesses ; perhaps it is because 
it is found convenient, in order to preserve their equili- 
brium, to carry one of his revolvers on the right side, to 
balance the bowie-knife invariably " toted" on the left ; 
but the subject is too grave for discussion here. Would 
that I could discuss it elsewhere. 

What am I to do ? How extricate myself from this 
dreadful dilemma ? My name is registered as a first-class 
passenger on a steam-boat ! I have partaken liberally of 
the sumptuous fare spread upon her table, and am even 
now the unhappy occupant of one of her state-rooms ! 
Nor is that all ! I have, with head erect and hands in my 
breeches pockets, strutted through her cabin with as much 
outward nonchalance as if I were master of thousands, 
when, in fact, I positively have not one solitary dollar in 
my possession. Yes ! I positively appear calm enough 
outwardly, but within all is misery. I flatter myself that 
I possess some nerve ; " brass," however, or, more properly 
speaking, down-right impudence, I am deficient in. No- 
thing short of arriving within a fraction of actual starvation 
would induce me to beg for bread, and I entertain a horror 
of soliciting pecuniary assistance, yet, here I am, without 
money, in a position which renders me liable, at any 
moment, to be called on to pay the sum of fifteen dollars, 
or else — yes ! or else ; what ? I dare not conjecture. 
Thoughts of being ignominiously shoved ashore — jeers of 



passengers — scouted as an impostor — pistoled or knifed by 
indignant clerk — " booted" by angry captain — ducked by 
deck-hands — and prophetic visions of divers other calami- 
ties drive me frantic. What, in the name of all that is 
wretched, is to be done! Oh ! for one idea — one expedient, 
invested with a ray of hope, to assist me in extricating my- 
self, honorably, from this terrible scrape. Alas ! there is 
no chance save one. I will tell the captain the story of 

the strange mishaps that befell me in M . How I 

was driven, ay ! positively driven, by an unfortunate com- 
bination of circumstances, to seek shelter on board hi* 
boat ; how, in my eagerness to fly from the mysterious 
influence — the demoniacal workings of some malignant 
emissary of fate — I forgot that I was short of the funds 
necessary to pay my fare. I will appeal to his humanity, 
and, if I fail, my watch shall be offered as collateral security 
for the amount due him. True, my manner of speaking is 
by no means impressive ; natural eloquence is not one of 
my gifts ; and I may fail for lack of " gab." A thought 
strikes me. Here in my diary will I write the history of 
my trials — the story of my wrongs. He shall read it, and, 
if his heart is not of adamant, he will pity me and forgive 
the rash step I have taken. Here it is : 

As the steamer on which I took passage at Louisville, 

for M , neared the latter city, my spirits became 

buoyant, and the listless ennui engendered by four days of 
boating vanished. I am a carriage-maker by occupation, 
and as there are several factories there I anticipated little 
trouble in securing employment. The bow of the boat 
grated on the levee, the gang-plank was shoved on shore, 
and was instantly crowded with those leaving and fresh 
detachments coming on board. Slipping a quarter to the 
porter, I pointed to my baggage, which he shouldered and 
followed me as I left the boat. It required some display 
of activity and resolution to penetrate the dense crowd 
which thronged the plank, and I was considerably shocked 
to see that, in the hurry and confusion, the lady passengers 
failed to receive that attention to their safety which the 
proverbial gallantry of American gentlemen so seldom 
neglects to render them, and, while noticing this remission 
in others, I determined to set them an example of good 
breeding. 

" Allow me to assist you !" said I, politely, to a fright- 
ened fair one who, I thought, was in imminent danger of 



162 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE. 



February. 



being precipitated into the river. She eagerly extended 
her hand to accept the proffered aid — her fingers were 
within an inch of mine, when the corner of a trunk, on the 
shoulder of a negro, struck me on the back of the head ; 
I lost my balance and down I fell — spread-eagle fashion — 
into the dirty, muddy river. Stunned, bewildered and 
boiling with rage, I arose to the surface and floundered 
ashore. Now, I do not pretend to say that my descent 
into and ascent out of the water were executed in a man- 
ner to excite either awe or solemnity, but, what that 
crowd of heartless men, women and niggers could see in 
the accident to laugh at, is beyond my comprehension. I 
believe that I told them so in language not particularly 
choice, but the only effect produced was, to increase the 
loudness and duration of their stupid " guffaws." So, 
securing a hack, I jumped in and left them in disgust. 
On alighting at the hotel I soon had good reason to wish 
I had never seen the luckless vehicle, for, the driver coolly 
demanded five dollars extra for the damage sustained by 
the cushions from my dripping garments. I refused point 
blank — he threatened to resort to law — I waxed warm 
and used strong language — he retorted in the same strain, 
and talked of " busting" my head — a crowd collected, and, 
as I do hate to be gazed at, I was, at last, compelled to 
"cash up" to his outrageous demand. As one's opinion of 
a place is immediately based on the treatment one receives 
at the hands of its people, it is not surprising that I already 

entertained towards M and the inhabitants thereof 

feelings far from favorable. I had been laughed at under 
circumstances that would have excited commiseration in 
the minds of a band of Poliwog Indians, and an insolent 
hack-driver had taken advantage of my misfortune to bully 
me out of my money, for, in reality, the trimmings of his 
old, worn-out coach sustained no damage, as they were 
thread-bare, and partly covered with slip-lining. It was 
only after much reasoning with myself, that I abandoned 
the idea of leaving again on the first downward boat ; but, I 
thought it best to give the place a fair trial, so, donning a 
dry suit of clothes, I sallied forth in the search of a job. 

Making inquiry at my hotel, I ascertained the where- 
abouts of the various carriage shops, one of which I soon 
found. I entered the wood-shop and inquired for the 
foreman. He was pointed out to me, and I approached his 
bench, asking politely if he wished to employ a body- 
maker. As he raised his eves from his work, I thought, bv 
their red and glassy appearance and the disagreeable odor 
of his breath, that he was partially intoxicated. Eying 
me sulkily for a few seconds, he growlingly replied : 

" Nary body-maker !" 

" Can you tell me," I continued, " if any of the shops in 
town need one ?" 

" Don't know," he said, leaning on his bench ; " what 
kind of bodies can you build ? You look too young to 
know much about the business. Run-away 'prentice, I 
reckon, by your looks." 

" No, sir !" I answered, indignantly, " I am not a run- 
away apprentice, and I can build both light and standing- 
top work as well as the majority of men." The three hands 
who were engaged in the shop had stopped by this time, 
and were listening and regarding us lazily. 

" Oh !" resumed the " boss," winking at his men, " you 
can put up standing-top work, can you ? Well, in that case, 
I can give you a job. I want a standing-top wheel-barrow 
built, do you think you can do it ?" 



"Yes, I think I can," I said, bitterly, "and I will make 
a nice job of it, for I suppose you mean to use it yourself; 
as, judging from the skill displayed on that thine/ you are 
working on, trundling the wheel-barrow on the railroad 
would suit your talents much better than body-making." 

A shout of laughter, from his " satellites," greeted this 
caustic retort, but the foreman, with a terrible oath, seized 
a heavy mallet and rushed at me furiously. I am opposed 
to fighting, whenever it can be avoided, so I made for 
the door with the speed of a locomotive. Just as I 
was making a flying leap over two trestles and the chop- 
ping block, the mallet whizzed past me and struck full in 
the stomach of an unfortunate darkey who happened to be 
entering at the moment. With a terrific howl he bent 
over like a half-shut jack-knife, when, as if to put the 
finishing stroke to the catastrophe, my leap unhappily ter- 
minated just between his shoulders ; completing the bend- 
ing operation — bringing his head in violent collision with 
the floor — extracting another howl louder and longer than 
the first, and sending me plowing head first through the 
dust and shavings. It was but the work of a moment to 
gain my legs and reach the street, down which I exhibit- 
ed a very creditable specimen of fast pedestrianism, which 
was, however, interrupted in rather a summary manner by a 
couple of gents in blue coats and glazed caps, who march- 
ed me back to the carriage shop, where I witnessed, with 
diabolical satisfaction, the arrest of the whole party, nigger 
and all. .We were taken before the Recorder, tried for 
riot, and indiscriminately fined ten dollars apiece. There 
was even-handed justice for you ! Riot indeed ! what had 
I done that could, by the utmost stretch of gutta percha 
imagination, be called riotous? True, I had resented a 
gross, nnmitigated insult; but is that a finable offense? I 
contend that in civilized communities it is not : on the 
contrary, it is a commendable exhibition of spirit. And 
then, to think that the miserable drunken brute, who was 
the real criminal, should be let off with a single fine ; and 
that fine the same amount as mine, who was innocent of 
all offense. Oh ! justice, hide thy blushing face in shame 
at such mockery. Oh ! what bitterness was in my heart — 
what dire yearnings for vengeance were mine, as I strode 
with rapid steps toward my hotel. My mind was fixed now 
— unalterably fixed. I would leave the accursed place where 
I had been insulted, swindled, and maltreated — not another 
hour would I remain — but how was it to be done ? The 
hack-driver and his compeer the Recorder had reduced 
my cash in hand to two dollars and a half; yes ! two pal- 
try dollars and fifty cents was the extent of my pile. The 
thought nearly crazed me. Then there was my hotel bill ; 
but that couldn't be much, as I had only occupied a 
room long enough to change my clothing. I would go and 
settle that before it amounted to any more. Entering the 
office, I inquired the amount of my indebtedness. 

" Two dollars" said the bewhiskered and bejeweled 
clerk, politely. 

I fairly staggered. The shock was positively stunning, 
and I nearly fainted. Was this a regular conspiracy to 
rob me ? Yes, yes, I thought, it is but too apparent. Re- 
covering by an immense effort, I ventured to suggest the 
possibility of his being mistaken. I had only occupied the 
room half an hour, and had had no meals. 

" Can't help that, sir. When a gentleman registers his 
name, and engages a room, we charge, whether he eats or 
sleeps, until he departs. Your bill is in strict accordance 
with our rules." 



February. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



1G3 



Frantically, I dashed my two-dollar bill on the counter, 
and, in a voice quivering with excitement, ordered my bag- 
gage to be brought down from my room. Rushing madly 
to the street, I yelled for the nearest hack-driver. My 
trunk was placed on the dicky-seat, and I sprang inside. 

" Drive to the Levee !" I thundered, " as if your life 
depended on it." 

" Quarter, sir, if you please," said the porter, 
through the window. 

This was too much. I was too far gone to 
speak, but I made a pass at him with my fist, 
which caused the withdrawal of his head as in- 
stantaneously as if a rattlesnake had made a 
dash at him. 

I will not attempt to describe my feelings 
during that ride. 'Tis enough that the strongest 
was a feverish desire to escape from my fiendish 
persecutors. On reaching the landing, I inquired 
for the first boat that would leave, and, penniless 
as I was, rushed on board, fearing no worse 
treatment than I had been subjected to 

Thus far had I progressed with my sad narra- 
tive, Avhen the door of my state-room opened, and 
— could I believe my eyes ? — there stood an old 
and valued shopmate ; one whom I had not seen 
for several years. He greeted me heartily, and 
I in turn was delighted to look once more on 
a friendly face. He had got on the boat at some town we 
had stopped at, while I was in my state-room writing — had 
seen my name on the passenger list, sought me in my 
berth, and was, as he warmly expressed it, " mighty glad 
to see me." My unhappy adventures were rehearsed to 
him, at which he actually laughed ! No laughing matter, 
I thought. He was flush, he said, and would lend me fifty 
dollars, on my individual note. Tears rolled down my 
cheeks, as I wrung his hand, and the bell was rung for 
dinner. 



Of all the games celebrated in ancient Greece during her 
palmiest days, none have excelled, or even approached in 
renown, those of the Olympian. They occupied the first 
place — instituted as they had been by Hercules, the first of 
heroes, in honor of Jupiter, the greatest of gods — in their ■ 
pantheon. In these games, the chariot-races were the 




COACH-MAKING HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED 
AND INCIDENTALLY ILLUSTRATED. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Chariots at the Olympian Games, the race with which was the most import- 
ant—The victory second in honor only to that of a conqueror in battle — 
Cypselus, Democratus, Cimon, and Alcibiades, all successful victors in these 
races — The starting— The Circensian Games at Rome described— Skill, the 
result of much practice, necessary to success in the race — The philosopher 
and the expert chariot-driver — Sophocles' poetical description and the fatal 
result of Orestes' contest. 

Nonne vides ? prcecipiti ccrtamine campum 
Corripere, ruuntque effusi carcere currus, 
Quum spes arrcectce juvenum exultantiaque haurit 
Corda pavor pulsans : Mi instant verbere tor to, 
Et proni dant lora ; volat vi fervidus axis ;* etc. 
Virgil's Geor., lib. iii., c. 103 — 112. 

At the present time, when there is a disposition shown 
among the descendants of ancient Greece for reviving the 
Olympian Games, it may not be unacceptable to a portion 
of our readers if, in the present article, we incidentally 
revert to that interesting subject. 



* Hast thou beheld, when from the goal they start, 
The youthful charioteers, with heaving heart, 
Rush to the race ; and, panting, scarcely bear 
The extremes of fev'rish hope and chilling fear 



SITE OF THE ANCIENT CnARIOT-RACES. 

most distinguished, and, consequently, occupied the atten- 
tion of the most noble and ambitious of the age. Among 
the Greeks nothing was considered comparable to a victory 
in these races, since it was looked upon as the perfection 
of human glory, and has been declared by a Roman poet 
to constitute the victor something more than human. 
They were no longer men, but gods. 

Palmaque nobilis 
Terrarum dwninoa evehit ad Deos. 

Hor., Od. I., lib. i. 

The honor transmitted to this species of amusement un- 
doubtedly was derived, in a great measure, from the ancient 
custom of fighting from chariots, as we have already shown 
in these pages, and from the fact, that none other than 
kings, distinguished heroes, and great men were allowed to 
contend in the chariot-races for victory and a crown of 
laurel. We are told that kings, in person, eagerly con- 
tended for these high honors, under the impression that 
the title of victor in these races was scarcely inferior to 
that of a conqueror in a battle, and that the victor's wreath, 
composed as it was of olive, pine, and parsley, would give 
additional dignity to the splendors of a throne. Pindar, 
one of the sweetest of Grecian poets, in one of his Odes, 
teaches us that Gelon and Hiero, kings of Syracuse, held 
this opinion, of which we find numerous other examples in 
classical authors. Cypselus, the usurper of the govern- 
ment of Corinth, maintained a stud of horses expressly for 
the chariot-races. His son Miltiades, on one occasion, won 
the prize at the chariot-race, which served to place his 
family in the highest respectability. Democratus, king of 
Lacedsemon, was renowned for the honor he had conferred 
on his native city by a victory, in one of these games, with 

Stoop to the reins, and lash with all their force : 

The flying chariot kindles in the course ; 

And now alow, and now aloft they fly. 

As borne through air, and seem to touch the sky. 

No stop, no stay, but clouds of sand arise, 

Spurned and cast backward on the followers' eyes. 

Dbtdes. 



104 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



February. 



a four-horse chariot, he being the only one in Sparta ever 
so successful. Cimon, who had been banished from Athens 
by Pisistratus, during his exile at Marathon had the good 
fortune to obtain the prize in the four-horse chariot-race, 
and, having gained this victory, he transferred the honor to 
Miltiades, his brother, and, afterwards, in the next Olym- 
piad, having obtained a second victory with the same mares, 
he permitted Pisistratus to be proclaimed victor, by which 
generosity he returned home under certain terms. After- 
wards he gained a third victory with the same mares. 

Alcibiades was noted for the great number of chariots 
which he kept, and for the superior breed of his horses. 
He sent seven chariots at one time to the Olympic Games, 
a thing never done by any other, whether king or private 
person. The first, the second, and the fourth prizes, accord- 
ing to Thucydides, he bore away at once, which exceeded 
everything performed by the most ambitious in that line. 
These he won in person. Afterwards he won two other 
victories in these games by proxy. On one occasion his 
passion for these sports appears to have got him into trou- 
ble. It seems there was at Athens one Diomedes, a man of 
good character, and a friend of Alcibiades, who had a strong 
desire of winning a prize in the Olympic races, and, being 
told that there "was a chariot to be sold which belonged to 
the city of Argos, where Alcibiades had a strong interest, 
he persuaded him to purchase it for him — from which cir- 
cumstance we infer chariots were scarce in that market. 
Alcibiades did buy it, and ungenerously kept it for his own 
use, leaving Diomedes to vent his rage in calling gods and 
men to bear witness of the injustice done him. There 
seems to have been a suit brought against the great sports- 
man by the disappointed amateur, an account of which 
may be found in an oration by Isocrates, wherein a defense 
is made in favor of Alcibiades, then a youth. The expense 
Alcibiades was at in sacrifices to Jupiter and in feasting his 
friends, who had assisted him on the occason of his person- 
al contest in the games, was very great, from which we 
infer his joy was unbounded. 

On the day Alexander was born, Philip, his father, king 
of Macedon, obtained a victory in the chariot-races, of 
which he was so proud that he afterwards had the event 
recorded in an impression on his coins. This passion, how- 
ever, does not appear to have been inherited by his son ; 
for, when asked by the people around him whether he 
would not run in the Olympic race, he simply answered : 
" Yes, if I had kings for my antagonists." 

Chariots were usually drawn by two, or four horses 
abreast, but, in some instances, that number of mules were 
substituted. These chariots at a given signal all started 
off together from the carceres — a Latin term for " start- 
ing place" — the position of each chariot having pre- 
viously been determined by lot, and the individual fortu- 
nate enough to obtain a position at the left hand station, 
was supposed to have gained something towards a victory, 
as in turning around the boundary — providing he did not 
get too far behind before turning it — the inner chariot had 
less distance to run than those on the right and nearer the 
outer side of the circus. Running twelve times around, 
he, whose chariot came in first on the last round, was 
proclaimed victor. 

With no intention of violating chronology, we may here 
remark that among the Romans, subsequently, at the Cir- 
censian games, celebrated in the Circus Maximus at differ- 
ent periods of the year, the usual number of chariots in 
each race was four. The charioteers were divided into 



four factions or companies, each distinguished by four colors, 
representing the four seasons ; green for the Spring, red 
for the Summer, azure for the Autumn, and white for the 
Winter. Originally, in these races, but two chariots were 
allowed, but Domitian afterward increased the number to 
six, appointing two new factions, the golden and the pur- 
ple, although the usual number was four. These chariots 
being in position side-by-side, with a white line in front 
held up by men appointed for this office, this line at a given 
signal was thrown down, when all started, running seven 
times around the course. The Roman charioteer drove 
his horses with the reins thrown around his neck, so as to 
be prepared to check them, by throwing his full weight 
upon the reins at full speed. This, however, was a danger- 
ous practice, and proved the death of Hypolitas. To pre- 
vent such an occurrence happening again, each charioteer 
afterwards carried a hooked knife at his waist, so that in 
an emergency he might cut the reins. 

Returning again to the Olympic chariot races, from 
which we have digressed in noticing the Circensian, we 
remark that much skill was required in those who follow- 
ed the profession of charioteers or drivers, which could 
only be attained by constant practice ; consequently the 
choice of persons to that office was not a matter of small 
moment. We learn from history that drivers were cho- 
sen, necessarily, from the highest ranks in society, as the 
position was one of the greatest responsibility. It required 
no small ingenuity, in combination with constant practice, 
to qualify the driver so as to expertly manage his horses, 
so that in turning the boundary his lack of skill might 
not terminate in a loss of the prize, and likewise in a loss 
of life, scarcely less valuable. This skill displayed by some 
individuals was truly astonishing. Plato mentions one 
Annicerus, a native of Africa, who had acquired great dex- 
terity in guiding a chariot. This African was desirous of 
giving the celebrated philosopher a proof of his skill, and 
in presence of a great multitude he drove several times 
around the Academy with so steady a rein as to have left 
but one print of his chariot wheels. With a poetical 
description of the chariot-race by Orestes, taken from the 
Electra of Sophocles, we will close this article. 

" Rang out the brazen trump ! Away they bound, 
Cheer the hot steeds and shake the slackened reins; 
As with a body, the large space is filled 
With the huge clangor of the rattling cars ; 
High whirl aloft the dust clouds; — blent together, 
Each presses each — and the lash rings— and loud 
Snort the wild steeds, and from their fiery breath, 
Along their manes, and down the circling wheels, 
Scatter the flaking foam. Orestes still, 
Aye, as he swept around the perilous pillar, 
Last in the course, wheel'd in the rushing axle ; 
The left rein curbed, — that on the dexter hand 
Flung loose — so on erect the chariot rolled ! 
Sudden the OJnian's fierce and headlong steeds 
Broke from the bit— and, as the seventh time now 
The course was circled, on the Lybian car 
Dash'd with wild fronts: — then order changed to ruin: 
Car crushed on car — the wide Crissaean plain 
Was, sea-like, strewn with wrecks; the Athenian saw, 
Slackened his speed, and, wheeling round the marge, 
Unscathed and skillful, in the midmost space, 
Left the wild tumult of that tossing storm. 
Behind Orestes, hitherto the last. 
Had yet kept back his coursers for the close; 
Now one sole rival left— on, on he flew, 
And the sharp sound of the impelling scourge 
Rang in the keen ears of the flying steeds, — 
He nears, — he reaches — ihey are side by side ; 
Now one — now th' other— by a length the victor. 
The courses all are past — the wheels erect — 
All snfe — when, ns the hurrying coursers round 
The fatal pillars dash'd the wretched boy 
Slnckened the left rein: — on the column's edge 
Creak'd the frail axle — headlong from the car, 
Caught and meshed within the reins, he fell; 
And, masterless, the mad steeds raged along!" 

s. 



February. 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



165 



For the N. Y. Coach-maker's Magazine. 

GEOMETRY OF CARRIAGE ARCHI- 
TECTURE. 



BY A PRACTICAL COACH-MAKEIt. 



PART SECOND.— BODY-MAKING. 

• Continued from page 146. 

As I promised in my last to produce a 
contracted body for our next considera- 
tion, I shall give a round front, and swell- 
back crane-neck caleche coach, contracted 
in the body from the back-bottom bar to 
the round front 4£ inches, giving a body 
3 feet 8 inches on the hind seat, and 2 
feet 6 inches wide on the front of the 
body. A man that can build this job 
correctly may be called a crack body- 
maker, it being one of the most difficult 
jobs to encounter, as far as lines are con- 
cerned. 

When your draft is on the board, all 
correct, commence and lay off your kant- 
board by drawing a base-line, then find 
out how wide you want your seat between 
pillars, the width of your brakes, and the 
width of the front — which varies to a 
man's notion — but look out, and see that 
you don't get too wide a body for a nar- 
row track. When you have your widths 
laid down on your kant-board, from the 
base-line — that being the centre line of 
the body — you can proceed and calculate 
for the swell of the body, in the same 
manner as in the preceding article, and 
when you want the length of any particu- 
lar bar, draw a perpendicular line from 
your point of study, on the body, across 
the kant-board. In forming the round- 
front you must bring it into the side- 
swell, without any sudden angle. From 
the round-front to the neck there must 
be judgment used as well as lines, but in 
this instance you must chiefly depend on 
the former. The best method of forming 
the round on the neck would be to get a 
piece of well-seasoned white-wood, and 
fit it on the top of the ash to the shape 
you require your front, and rabbeted for 
your top panel, from the panel to the 
side moulding to be rounded in accord- 
ance with the front of the body. The 
swell-back, also, requires more judgment 
than lines. Our present calculation is for 
a 2-inch swell. On the back of the top 
rail it gradually diminishes until it reach- 
es the back-bottom bar, when it termin- 
ates, from which point to the B belt-rail 
you will have to put in about six good 
and stiff strainers, to keep the panel in 
its place, as there is a very great pur- 
chase caused by the double swell. In 
trying up your bottom-sides you will have 
to bevel them to match the contraction, 




which can be obtained by setting your bevel from the rocker-line, A, to 
any of the perpendicular lines ; then, by using the horizontal square, you 
can shave off to the bevel at each end of the bottom-side, and bv shifting 
the pattern, and marking off the outside beveling with the inside, you 



166 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE, 



February. 



will have your bottom-side beveled all through. In prick- 
ing off for the swell, you will have to use your bevel 
instead of a square for cross-lining your bottom-sides, &c. 
The most correct way to frame in the back-pillar is, to 
square it with the base-line ; and it is the most simple and 
easy way. The manner of procuring its exact position on 
the bottom-side is, by drawing a perpendicular line from 
the foot of the pillar across the kant-board, and another 
from the extreme end of the bottom-side. At this point 
mark f of an inch from the face of the bottom-side, and 
draw line B, which is the face of the back-pillar ; then 
with your dividers you can find the difference, at the foot 
of the pillar, betwen line B and the contraction line of the 
bottom-side, and mark it on the latter. To have your 
standing pillars stand square with one another, you must 
bevel the foot with the rocker-line, and the perpendicular 
lines ; and for the outside, or back, you will set your bevel 
by line and the swell-line. Thei'e are two ways of fram- 
ing the round-front corners. Some frame in two pillars — 
one where the round commences at the side, and the other 
where it terminates at the front — about 8 inches apart, and 
paneled up. Another way is, to frame in a solid piece of 
well-seasoned timber, the full size of the corner, and hol- 
low it on the inside. I would be in favor of the latter, if I 
could get the right kind of timber. The irregular dotted 
line on the kant-board is the outside line of the bottom- 
side, according to the rule ; but, I like to shave off the bot- 
tom-side a little more, between the front-corner pillar and 
front door, otherwise there will appear a hump iu that 
locality. This diagram will be easier understood, if the pre- 
vious articles on the square-rule were studied correctly, as 
I mean to repeat as little as possible. 



For the New York Coach-maker's Magazine. 

THE CANVASSER'S JOURNAL. 



BY E. W. S. 



Mr. Editor — Dear Sir : — Writing for a Magazine is not 
a very easy task, especially for one like myself, who has 
never before attempted to write an article for the Press, in 
his life ; but, as I promised you, when I left your office on 
the morning of the first of November, that I would give 
you a history of my travels, I must try and do so. 

Taking the steamer Elizabeth City at Pier 3 N. R., on 
passing down the Bay, along the shores of that most beau- 
tiful of islands, Staten Island, the traveler's eye rests on 
some of the most beautiful and picturesque landscape 
scenery he has ever beheld. After stopping to land pas- 
sengers at Manshollow and Bergen-point, both of which 
places have a romantic look, we finally reached Elizabeth- 
port, where, taking the cars on the N. J. Central R. R., I 
was whirled along at lightning speed, stopping occasionally 
at several places along the route, where, notwithstanding 
the. hard times, and the prospects of a still harder winter 
before them, the craft, to their honor be it said, subscribed 
pretty liberally. In my route I visited Belvidere, where I 
succeeded in taking a few subscribers ; and, by the advice 
of numerous friends, I went out of my intended route to 
the, although but small, yet thriving towns of Allentown 
and Bethlehem, at both which places, considering their 
size, I added to the list of patrons to our Magazine. After- 
wards I returned to Easton, and from thence to Philadel- 
phia, stopping at Flemington and Lancaster on the way. 



On my arrival in Philadelphia, I started immediately for 
the Post-office, where I found letters from you, directing 
me to call on Mr. Wm. D. Rogers. I did as directed, 
introduced myself, and was as cordially received by Mr. R. 
as though I had been an old acquaintance. Having 
requested the privilege of canvassing his factory, he readily 
gave his consent — at the same time remarking, that as 
an agent had previously canvassed the same thoroughly, 
and could not even get one subscriber, he did not think I 
could do anything, but still I was welcome to try. I did 
so, and, notwithstanding my predecessor's unsuccessful trial, 
succeeded in taking quite a large club. 

The general opinion among those who had formerly 
subscribed by letter (of which I found a considerable 
number) was, that the Magazine had been of great benefit 
to them. I am happy to state that, after a hard trial, Mr. 
Rogers, of Philadelphia, consented to give us his portrait 
for the January or February number. I also solicited his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Joseph Iredell, whom I found a very 
pleasant as well as an intelligent gentleman, to write his 
biography, to which he consented. 

After spending five or six days in the city, and taking 
subscribers far exceeding the number I expected to, I 
finally left Philadelphia on the 16th of November for Wil- 
mington and Baltimore, at both of which places I did 
quite as well, and so on to York. Finishing up my busi- 
ness there, I started for the Depot, intending to take the 
10 o'clock train and so on to Hanover junction, and meet 
the next train for Hanover, and would have succeeded, had 
it not been for the unexpected detention of the down train, 
which did not arrive until an hour after it was due, and 
then having to wait half an hour for the up train, there 
being but a single track, which I must confess is a great 
inconvenience to travelers, and, what is more, a great 
nuisance, for when we arrived at the junction the cars had 
been gone one hour, and, as the next train did not leave 
until half-past four, we were compelled to wait the agree- 
able length of four hours and a half time, after which, 
jumping on the cars, we started, and how long would you 
think it took us to travel thirteen miles? Methinks I 
hear you answer, about forty-five minutes ; but you are 
far from right, it having taken us but one hour and three- 
quarters. There was one jovial fellow with us who 
reckoned that a roach could have started at the same time, 
and have reached Hanover an hour before we did, and I 
guess he was not far out of the way. The same wag pro- 
posed that we get out and help the "Black-horse" along 
by pushing on the rear car ; but, as most of us had taken 
the cushions off the seats either in front or back of us, 
and so made (considering the circumstances) quite a com- 
fortable bed, expecting to reach Hanover about ten the 
next morning, the proposition was not generally taken up. 

We stopped only six times on the route, once for the 
purpose of taking in wood, another to take in water, and 
the other four times I did not think it worth while to take 
the trouble to go on the platform and ascertain, but I pre- 
sume it was to place some of the rails in their places. 
However, at last the train stopped for the seventh time, 
and to the great joy of the passengers. The conductor 
put his head in at the door, and sleepily sang out Hano. 
(meaning Hanover), to which a fellow passenger echoed, 
" Friends! you need not be in a hurry, and as the cars will 
probably stop half an hour or so, I guess I might as well 
run up and see a friend of mine who lives about five miles 
distant, and have a short conversation with him in the way 



February. 



THE NEW YORK COACH- MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



16? 



of business, and then run on and catch the cars before they 
get half way to Gettysburg, which will be better than to 
wait here for the train to go on.'' 

Finishing up my business at Hanover, I started on Mon- 
day morning for Gettysburg, at which place I understood 
there were a number of shops, and on arriving there I 
found that about a year ago there was a great deal done 
in the carriage business, but not much of late, owing, 
partly, to the hard times. From there I retraced my steps 
back to Hanover, and — but spare me the details of my 
journey — back by that road. Suffice it to say that I got 
back somehow, and, taking the cars on the Pennsylvania 
Central R. R., was whirled along at the rate of twenty-five 
miles an hour, across the Alleghany Mountains, and all 
went well until within eighty-two miles of Pittsburg, 
when we were awakened by a tremendous jar, and, upon 
coming to our senses, found that the train had run off the 
track, and such was the headway of the locomotive that 
it shot on like a wild demon, spitting fire and threatening 
destruction to all obstacles that impeded its progress, until 
it had run the distance of about four hundred rods, hav- 
ing drawn the train all of that distance, excepting about 
thirty yards, when fortunately it was brought to a stand- 
still by the combined efforts of the engineer and fireman, 
who stuck to their posts like brave fellows that they were; 
and notwithstanding the fact that the wheels were most of 
them torn from under the cars, and the latter considerably 
damaged, yet, strange as it may seem, not a soul was 
injured. Soon signals were sent off both ways, and in one 
hour and a quarter after the accident we had a new train 
on hand to carry us to our point of destination. At Pitts- 
burg, or, as some have more properly styled it, Smokey- 
town,I found business very dull; but, notwithstanding, I 
took a number of subscribers, and the following night 
started on my homeward journey, stopping at Harrisburg, 
Lancaster and a number of other small places too numerous 
to mention, and among the rest was Mount Joy, where I 
met with Mr. Landis, who is proprietor of the largest shop 
in the place, and one of the warmest friends of the Maga- 
zine, with whom I put up all night, and as I had some 
business to finish at Philadelphia I also stopped there. 
Leaving Philadelphia, and owing to the fact that I was 
taken sick, I passed over some of the places I had intended 
visiting, but stopped at Rahway, where I found business 
very brisk, and called on some of our old friends, among 
whom were Mr. Abram Terrill, and Mr. Duxbury, foreman 
of Mr. Mooney's shop. Mr. Duxbury promised me that 
he would try and send you something new, in the way of 
Carriage drafts. Finishing up my business there, I took 
the half-past three o'clock, P. M., train for home. 



SOMETHING ABOUT WHEELS— THEORETICAL 
AND PRACTICAL. 



(third article.) 

Although wheel-making is not an invention of yester- 
day, but has had the experience of centuries, and the study 
of intelligent men of some of the most enlightened nations 
of the world, still, at this late day, one can scarcely find 
any two persons who will agree in their theories. This de- 
claration will undoubtedly strike the minds of some, outside 
of the craft, as being very singular, yet, with all this singu- 
larity, it is nevertheless a fact, that can very easily be prov- 
ed hj conversation with any two workmen. There are 



several reasons for this diversity in opinion ; the qualities 
of the timber employed in the construction ; the effects of 
the roads in the different localities where used ; much is 
also due to the degrees of ability employed in the manu- 
facture, but full as much to those using the carriage. 

CI -11 • • ° 

borne men will wear a carnage out in one or two years, 
while a neighbor would make the same vehicle, with the 
same wheels, last six or eight, or even ten. 

Formerly, when the wheels of all vehicles were made 
very low and heavy, compared with those of our time, 
twelve and fourteen spokes were employed as the standard 
number, but, after bent rims came into use, fourteen and six- 
teen were scarcely thought sufficient to prevent the "rim" 
from " caving in, and consequently some " genius " con- 
ceived the idea of " sticking in " twenty in ten mortises — 
two tenons in one mortise — which, on trial, has proved to 
be, in most instances, a failure, for we have found the work 
of some of the most strenuous advocates for this plan fall 
to pieces in a very short time, in using ; but since our hubs 
have " become smaller by degrees and beautifully less," at 
least in the eyes of customers, we cannot find room in a 
hub for many.* Probably, in making very light wheels, 
fourteen spokes, well put in a hub, will be found the most 
efficient. 

Having determined the number of our spokes in each 
wheel, we will in the next place proceed and lay out the 
mortises in the old-fashioned way, for the edification of our 
young readers, merely premising that, in order to exhibit 
the plan the more intelligibly, we have changed the 
rounded hub to a plain drawn-out surface. 




THE HUB "LAID OUT FOR MORTISING. 

Now, we will suppose that 1, 2, 3 and 4 are the four 
lines draw with the compasses around a hub. A, A, A, A, 
are the distances apart we wish the mortises to be, less the 
width of the mortise, or the ,one-fourteenth part of the cir- 
cumference of our hub, add to this one-half this distance, as 
at B, then set the compasses with one foot at the first A, 
the other at B, then, by placing the compasses thus set at 
each A, and "sweeping" alternately all around the hub, 
we obtain the sweeps at C, as shown in the diagram ; thus 
correctly insuring a mortise exactly parallel with the hub. 

A more simple manner of laying out hubs is, after " step- 
ping off " the distances, as at A, A, A, A, to place the hub 
endwise on a level bench, and then, with the " try-square " 
and " marking-awl," mark the places for the mortises. Prob- 
ably the hand-workman will not only find this the most sim- 

> It has long since been a conviction in our mind that a mortise and tenon 
in the dove-tail form, for carriage hubs, was preferable to all others. This, 
we believe, is still employed by wheelwrights in Eng'and. and was in this 
country, to a certain extent, until a very recent date, and has always been 
found to contribute to securing the spoke permanently in the hub. We know 
not why it was abandoned— probably because no machinery was yet invented 
by which it could be conveniently done. We are happy to find that this diffi- 
culty has been obviated, by the recently invented -'Dove-tail Mortising 
Machine." 



168 



THE NEW YORK COACH-MAKER'S MAGAZINE 



February. 



pie, but also the more correct way of " laying out a hub," 
since it evidently must insure his mortises parallel with the 
length of his hub. 

Presuming the workman knows enough to make his 
mortises, from what wc have previously written, having his 
hub banded, and his spokes well dried, cither by the fire 
or the sun, they are now ready for driving. Before we 
drive our spokes, we would remark, that driving through 
streets paved with cobble-stones gives a certain tremulous 
motion to spokes, by the wheels falling into the interstices, 
which operates on the hub spoke-tenons with such effect 
as to give them the appearance of premature working in 
the hub, where the mortises are all set straight, but when 
they are set in and out, this defect is not seen, since the 
front spoke and its neighbor, the back one, act as braces to 
each other. These remarks are intended to be applied 
more especially to light wheels. 

Is the wagon, for which the wheels are designed, to be 
exposed to the action of the weather, in business purposes, 
then drive the spokes in ground white-lead, thinned with a 
little spirits of turpentine — this will not so soon be affected 
by moisture as will glue ; if for pleasure or light work, as 
this is protected by paint, use the best Russian, or bone 
glue, as hot as possible. 

Having driven our spokes and "marked them off" for 
the " tangs " — which for the purpose of labor-saving are 
commonly made round — we are now ready for the fellies. 
We would remark here, that from actual experiment we 
are certain that a square tenon to the spoke, fitted into a 
square mortise in the felly, or rim, will insure a much 
more serviceable wheel than the common mode will, as the 
following diagram will show. 

Until invention furnishes us 
with some more convenient and 
expeditious " tool " for cutting- 
square " tangs," we have no 
doubt but that the round tenon 
will continue to be used ; but 
then, it requires 
chanical eye" to 
the advantages 

"tang." Just measure across the 

circle at A, A, then across the 

square, and tell me how much shorter it measures. The 

difference in wood will be preserved to the fellies outside 

of the " tangs." We are now ready for 

THE FELLIES. 

These, in the incipient state of manufacture, were the rud- 
est things imaginable, merely the branches of trees cut 
into segments of the required length, and hewn circular on 
the outer circumference, which, of course, left the rim weak- 
est at the joints. This weakness soon became manifest, and 
this circumstance, doubtless, first suggested the invention 
of "the strake-tire." In some of the South American 
States (Buenos Ayres, for instance), the native-made cart 
wheels are still made in this most primitive fashion, which, 
in the expressive language of a worthy sea-captain, a friend 
of ours, " are neither round, square, nor oval," showing that 
the degenerated brothers of the craft in that semi-civilized 
region are not experts. 

Much has been said on the subject of rimming wheels, in 
a publication recently defunct. We shall take this opportu- 
nity to give our own opinion, somewhat by way of criticism. 
We have no idea that short fellies, sawn from the plank, 




no very 
it a 
in the square 



me- 
see at a glance 



will ever be superseded by any other, entirely ; nor are we 
ready to say, with the author of English Pleasure Carriages, 
that fellies in two segments have no advantages. Some 
ancient carts and wagons had wheels made of a solid, cir- 
cle of wood ; such are still running in the south of Europe, 
at the present day. Anciently the felly, or wooden cir- 
cumference, was made of some elastic wood, such as the 
poplar, or wild fig. For business purposes we have found 
that the best white ash of New England growth has invari- 
ably done the best service, as short fellies, since by expo- 
sure to the sun and rain it does not check as badly as oak. 
For rims of light work we would use no other than hickory 
of the very best quality. 

We read in an old treatise on wheels,* " the fellies on 
which the rims (tires) are fixed should, in carriages, be 
three inches and a quarter deep, and in wagons four 
inches." What say you to this, ye modern customers who 
grumble because wheels made now do not stand thirty 
years ? Can you reasonably ask us to build wheels, with one- 
inch rims, to wear as long as those did with three and a half 
or four inches? Rimmed wheels